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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778967/association-between-long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-diabetes-mortality-in-the-us
#1
Chris C Lim, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn, Yongzhao Shao, Debra T Silverman, Rena R Jones, Cynthia Garcia, George D Thurston
OBJECTIVE: Recent mechanistic and epidemiological evidence implicates air pollution as a potential risk factor for diabetes; however, mortality risks have not been evaluated in a large US cohort assessing exposures to multiple pollutants with detailed consideration of personal risk factors for diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effects of long-term ambient air pollution exposures on diabetes mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a cohort of approximately a half million subjects across the contiguous U...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761364/-low-emission-zones-in-germany-a-reliable-measure-for-keeping-current-air-quality-standards
#2
REVIEW
Josef Cyrys, H-Erich Wichmann, Regina Rückerl, Annette Peters
Low Emission Zones (LEZs) were implemented as a measure for improving the quality of ambient air. As of February 2018, 58 LEZs were in operation in Germany; however they differ significantly, especially regarding their size.The effectiveness of LEZs has been investigated by dispersion modelling as well as by analysis of PM10 (particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) measurement values. Recent studies show a clear trend...
May 14, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758896/evaluation-and-uncertainty-estimation-of-the-impact-of-air-quality-modelling-on-crop-yields-and-premature-deaths-using-a-multi-model-ensemble
#3
Efisio Solazzo, Angelo Riccio, Rita Van Dingenen, Luana Valentini, Stefano Galmarini
This study promotes the critical use of air pollution modelling results for health and agriculture impacts, with the primary goal of providing more reliable estimates to decision makers. To date, the accuracy of air quality (AQ) models and the effects of model-to-model result variability (which we will refer to as model uncertainty) on impact assessment studies have been often ignored, thus undermining the robustness of the information used in the decision making process and the confidence in the results obtained...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756316/fine-particulate-matter-associated-mortality-burden-of-lung-cancer-in-hebei-province-china
#4
Yutong He, Zhaoyu Gao, Tiantian Guo, Feng Qu, Di Liang, Daojuan Li, Jin Shi, Baoen Shan
BACKGROUND: The association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and lung cancer (LC) mortality in China is limited. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is infamous for serious air pollution. Seven of the top 10 cities with the worst air quality are located in Hebei Province. Thus, we explored the effect of 10 years of PM2.5 on the LC mortality rate in Hebei Province. METHODS: We quantified associations between LC mortality and PM2.5 and estimated the LC mortality burden attributed to PM2...
May 14, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734062/impacts-of-stove-use-patterns-and-outdoor-air-quality-on-household-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-southwestern-china
#5
Graydon Snider, Ellison Carter, Sierra Clark, Joy Tzu Wei Tseng, Xudong Yang, Majid Ezzati, James J Schauer, Christine Wiedinmyer, Jill Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: Decades of intervention programs that replaced traditional biomass stoves with cleaner-burning technologies have failed to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) interim indoor air quality target of 35-μg m-3 for PM2.5 . Many attribute these results to continued use of biomass stoves and poor outdoor air quality, though the relative impacts of these factors have not been empirically quantified. METHODS: We measured 496 days of real-time stove use concurrently with outdoor and indoor air pollution (PM2...
May 4, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730535/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-mortality-in-an-elderly-cohort-in-hong-kong
#6
Yang Yang, Robert Tang, Hong Qiu, Poh-Chin Lai, Paulina Wong, Thuan-Quoc Thach, Ryan Allen, Michael Brauer, Linwei Tian, Benjamin Barratt
BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported associations between long term exposure to air pollutants and cause-specific mortality. However, since the concentrations of air pollutants in Asia are much higher compared to those reported in North American and European cohort studies, cohort studies on long term effects of air pollutants in Asia are needed for disease burden assessment and to inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2...
May 3, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730534/short-term-effects-of-ambient-benzene-and-tex-toluene-ethylbenzene-and-xylene-combined-on-cardiorespiratory-mortality-in-hong-kong
#7
Jinjun Ran, Hong Qiu, Shengzhi Sun, Linwei Tian
BACKGROUND: Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental effects of the criteria air pollutants on population health, including particulate matters, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide. However, evidence on health effects of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX in short) is insufficient. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the exposure-lag-response relations of ambient BTEX components with cardiorespiratory mortality in Hong Kong population...
May 2, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729505/impact-of-air-pollution-on-cause-specific-mortality-in-korea-results-from-bayesian-model-averaging-and-principle-component-regression-approaches
#8
Hien Tran, Jeongyeong Kim, Daeun Kim, Minyoung Choi, Minha Choi
Health effects related to air pollution are a major global concern. Related studies based on reliable exposure assessment methods would potentially enable policy makers to propose appropriate environmental management policies. In this study, integrated Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Principle Component Regression (PCR) were adopted to assess the severity of air pollution impacts on mortality related to circulatory, respiratory and skin diseases in 25 districts of Seoul, South Korea for the years 2005-2015...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728970/distribution-and-health-risks-of-aerosol-black-carbon-in-a-representative-city-of-the-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#9
Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Xiuyun Min, Zhenhua Zhang
Although aerosol black carbon (BC) exerts strong influences on human health, research on potential health risks of aerosol BC around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is very limited. This is the very first study to investigate the distribution of aerosol BC in a typical city of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the resulting health risks. The results showed that the maximal real-time (5-min monitoring interval) concentration of aerosol BC was 22.34 μg/m3 , much higher than day- and week-averaged concentrations which were in the range of 1...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723696/can-natural-gas-save-lives-evidence-from-the-deployment-of-a-fuel-delivery-system-in-a-developing-country
#10
Resul Cesur, Erdal Tekin, Aydogan Ulker
There has been a widespread displacement of coal by natural gas as space heating and cooking technology in Turkey in the last two decades, triggered by the deployment of natural gas networks. We examine the impact of this development on mortality among adults and the elderly by exploiting the variation in the timing of the deployment and the intensity of expansion of gas networks across provinces using data from 2001 to 2016. The results indicate that the expansion of natural gas has caused significant reductions in mortality among both adults and the elderly...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723390/green-spaces-and-mortality-due-to-cardiovascular-diseases-in-the-city-of-rio-de-janeiro
#11
Ismael Henrique da Silveira, Washington Leite Junger
OBJECTIVE Investigate the association between exposure to green spaces and mortality from ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases, and the role of socioeconomic status in this relationship, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS Ecological study, with the census tracts as unit of analysis. This study used data from deaths due to ischemic heart and cerebrovascular diseases among residents aged over 30 years, from 2010 to 2012. Exposure to green was estimated using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index based on satellite images...
2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715611/associations-between-short-term-exposure-to-ambient-sulfur-dioxide-and-increased-cause-specific-mortality-in-272-chinese-cities
#12
Lijun Wang, Cong Liu, Xia Meng, Yue Niu, Zhijing Lin, Yunning Liu, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Jinling You, Lap Ah Tse, Jianmin Chen, Maigeng Zhou, Renjie Chen, Peng Yin, Haidong Kan
BACKGROUND: Ambient sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) remains a major air pollutant in developing countries, but epidemiological evidence about its health effects was not abundant and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to SO2 and cause-specific mortality in China. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major Chinese cities (2013-2015). We used the over-dispersed generalized linear model together with the Bayesian hierarchical model to analyze the data...
April 28, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713111/estimating-environmental-co-benefits-of-u-s-low-carbon-pathways-using-an-integrated-assessment-model-with-state-level-resolution
#13
Yang Ou, Wenjing Shi, Steven J Smith, Catherine M Ledna, J Jason West, Christopher G Nolte, Daniel H Loughlin
There are many technological pathways that can lead to reduced carbon dioxide emissions. However, these pathways can have substantially different impacts on other environmental endpoints, such as air quality and energy-related water demand. This study uses an integrated assessment model with state-level resolution of the energy system to compare environmental impacts of alternative low-carbon pathways for the United States. One set of pathways emphasizes nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage, while another set emphasizes renewable energy, including wind, solar, geothermal power, and bioenergy...
April 15, 2018: Applied Energy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710784/evaluating-health-co-benefits-of-climate-change-mitigation-in-urban-mobility
#14
Brigitte Wolkinger, Willi Haas, Gabriel Bachner, Ulli Weisz, Karl Steininger, Hans-Peter Hutter, Jennifer Delcour, Robert Griebler, Bernhard Mittelbach, Philipp Maier, Raphael Reifeltshammer
There is growing recognition that implementation of low-carbon policies in urban passenger transport has near-term health co-benefits through increased physical activity and improved air quality. Nevertheless, co-benefits and related cost reductions are often not taken into account in decision processes, likely because they are not easy to capture. In an interdisciplinary multi-model approach we address this gap, investigating the co-benefits resulting from increased physical activity and improved air quality due to climate mitigation policies for three urban areas...
April 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703847/evaluating-the-long-term-consequences-of-air-pollution-in-early-life-geographical-correlations-between-coal-consumption-in-1951-1952-and-current-mortality-in-england-and-wales
#15
David I W Phillips, Clive Osmond, Humphrey Southall, Paula Aucott, Alexander Jones, Stephen T Holgate
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between early life air pollution and subsequent mortality. DESIGN: Geographical study. SETTING: Local government districts within England and Wales. EXPOSURE: Routinely collected geographical data on the use of coal and related solid fuels in 1951-1952 were used as an index of air pollution. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated the relationship between these data and both all-cause and disease-specific mortality among men and women aged 35-74 years in local government districts between 1993 and 2012...
April 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703449/-air-pollution-cardiovascular-risk-and-hypertension
#16
N Soldevila Bacardit, E Vinyoles Bargalló, J Agudo Ugena, L Camps Vila
Air pollution is a worrying factor and has an impact on public health. Multiple studies relate exposure to air pollutants with an increase in cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality and mortality for all causes. A relationship has also been demonstrated between increased pollution and high blood pressure, as well as a higher prevalence of hypertension. Pollutants that play a more relevant role in this association are particulate matters, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. The objective of this review is to understand the mechanisms involved in this increase and to find the most recent publications that relate pollution, cardiovascular risk and hypertension...
April 24, 2018: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699457/a-review-of-epidemiological-research-on-stroke-and-dementia-and-exposure-to-air-pollution
#17
Yannick Béjot, Jacques Reis, Maurice Giroud, Valery Feigin
Background Outdoor air pollution is now a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality, and is increasingly being identified as a major risk factor for stroke. Methods A narrative literature review of the effects of short and long-term exposure to air pollution on stroke and dementia risk and cognitive functioning. Results Ten papers on stroke and 17 on dementia were selected. Air pollution, and in particular small particulate matter, contributes to about one-third of the global stroke burden and about one-fifth of the global burden of dementia...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698900/outdoor-air-pollution-and-mosaic-loss-of-chromosome-y-in-older-men-from-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#18
Jason Y Y Wong, Helene G Margolis, Mitchell Machiela, Weiyin Zhou, Michelle C Odden, Bruce M Psaty, John Robbins, Rena R Jones, Jerome I Rotter, Stephen J Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Jennifer S Lee
BACKGROUND: Mosaic loss of chromosome Y (mLOY) can occur in a fraction of cells as men age, which is potentially linked to increased mortality risk. Smoking is related to mLOY; however, the contribution of air pollution is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether exposure to outdoor air pollution, age, and smoking were associated with mLOY. METHODS: We analyzed baseline (1989-1993) blood samples from 933 men ≥65 years of age from the prospective Cardiovascular Health Study...
April 23, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698094/estimating-the-health-and-economic-impacts-of-changes-in-local-air-quality
#19
Martha L Carvour, Amy E Hughes, Neal Fann, Robert W Haley
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the benefits-mapping software Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE), which integrates local air quality data with previously published concentration-response and health-economic valuation functions to estimate the health effects of changes in air pollution levels and their economic consequences. METHODS: We illustrate a local health impact assessment of ozone changes in the 10-county nonattainment area of the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas, estimating the short-term effects on mortality predicted by 2 scenarios for 3 years (2008, 2011, and 2013): an incremental rollback of the daily 8-hour maximum ozone levels of all area monitors by 10 parts per billion and a rollback-to-a-standard ambient level of 65 parts per billion at only monitors above that level...
April 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689465/two-way-effect-modifications-of-air-pollution-and-air-temperature-on-total-natural-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-eight-european-urban-areas
#20
Kai Chen, Kathrin Wolf, Susanne Breitner, Antonio Gasparrini, Massimo Stafoggia, Evangelia Samoli, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Getahun Bero-Bedada, Tom Bellander, Frauke Hennig, Bénédicte Jacquemin, Juha Pekkanen, Regina Hampel, Josef Cyrys, Annette Peters, Alexandra Schneider
BACKGROUND: Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2...
April 21, 2018: Environment International
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