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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202265/association-between-chronic-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-mortality-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Barret Rush, Robert C McDermid, Leo Anthony Celi, Keith R Walley, James A Russell, John H Boyd
The impact of chronic exposure to air pollution and outcomes in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is unknown. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2011 was utilized for this analysis. The NIS is a national database that captures 20% of all US in-patient hospitalizations from 47 states. Patients with ARDS who underwent mechanical ventilation from the highest 15 ozone pollution cities were compared with the rest of the country. Secondary analyses assessed outcomes of ARDS patients for ozone pollution and particulate matter pollution on a continuous scale by county of residence...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196630/preterm-birth-associated-with-maternal-fine-particulate-matter-exposure-a-global-regional-and-national-assessment
#2
Christopher S Malley, Johan C I Kuylenstierna, Harry W Vallack, Daven K Henze, Hannah Blencowe, Mike R Ashmore
Reduction of preterm births (<37 completed weeks of gestation) would substantially reduce neonatal and infant mortality, and deleterious health effects in survivors. Maternal fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been identified as a possible risk factor contributing to preterm birth. The aim of this study was to produce the first estimates of ambient PM2.5-associated preterm births for 183 individual countries and globally. To do this, national, population-weighted, annual average ambient PM2.5 concentration, preterm birth rate and number of livebirths were combined to calculate the number of PM2...
February 10, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187788/assessing-the-short-term-impact-of-air-pollution-on-mortality-a-matching-approach
#3
Michela Baccini, Alessandra Mattei, Fabrizia Mealli, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Michele Carugno
BACKGROUND: The opportunity to assess short term impact of air pollution relies on the causal interpretation of the exposure-response association. However, up to now few studies explicitly faced this issue within a causal inference framework. In this paper, we reformulated the problem of assessing the short term impact of air pollution on health using the potential outcome approach to causal inference. We considered the impact of high daily levels of particulate matter ≤10 μm in diameter (PM10) on mortality within two days from the exposure in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy), during the period 2003-2006...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180125/relationship-between-air-pollution-weather-traffic-and-traffic-related-mortality
#4
Maryam Dastoorpoor, Esmaeil Idani, Narges Khanjani, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Abbas Bahrampour
BACKGROUND: Air pollution and weather are just two of many environmental factors contributing to traffic accidents (RTA). OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effects of these factors on traffic accidents and related mortalities in Ahvaz, Iran. METHODS: In this ecological study, data about RTA, traffic-related mortalities, air pollution (including NO, CO, NO2, NOx PM10, SO2, and O3 rates) and climate data from March 2008 until March 2015 was acquired from the Khuzestan State Police Force, the Environmental Protection Agency and the State Meteorological Department...
September 2016: Trauma Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169367/development-of-a-novel-simulation-reactor-for-chronic-exposure-to-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#5
Jianhuai Ye, Sepehr Salehi, Michelle L North, Anjelica M Portelli, Chung-Wai Chow, Arthur W H Chan
Epidemiological studies have shown that air pollution is associated with the morbidity and mortality from cardiopulmonary diseases. Currently, limited experimental models are available to evaluate the physiological and cellular pathways activated by chronic multi-pollutant exposures. This manuscript describes an atmospheric simulation reactor (ASR) that was developed to investigate the health effects of air pollutants by permitting controlled chronic in vivo exposure of mice to combined particulate and gaseous pollutants...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160532/air-pollution-and-potential-health-risk-in-ostrava-region-a-review
#6
Vítězslav Jiřík, Ondřej Machaczka, Hana Miturová, Ivan Tomášek, Hana Šlachtová, Jana Janoutová, Helena Velická, Vladimír Janout
AIM: The aim of this review was to collect all available data about air pollution in Ostrava, which is one of the most polluted area in central Europe and to make a concise assessment of health risks resulting from historical exposures of air pollutants since the beginning of the monitoring, i.e. since 1970 to the present time. METHODS: All available information sources (the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, the Institute of Public Health in Ostrava or publications) were used...
December 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159031/fine-airborne-particles-when-alarming-levels-are-the-standard
#7
M Carugno, C Lagazio, M Baccini, D Consonni, P A Bertazzi, A Biggeri
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the contribution of each individual month to the annual mortality burden attributable to particulate matter (PM) in 2015 in Milan, Italy, after authorities and media considered December 2015 as an outlying month carrying an exceptional population exposure to PM. STUDY DESIGN: We used routinely available daily time series of air pollution and mortality to perform an assessment of the impact of PM exposure on population health. METHODS: By combining daily death counts with daily PM levels, as well as the yearly average of the number of deaths with the yearly average of PM concentrations, impact estimates were calculated in terms of deaths attributable (AD) to levels of PM10 and PM2...
February 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153527/anemia-prevalence-and-hemoglobin-levels-are-associated-with-long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-in-an-older-population
#8
Trenton Honda, Vivian C Pun, Justin Manjourides, Helen Suh
BACKGROUND: Anemia, a highly prevalent disorder in elderly populations, is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased mortality, impaired functional status and cognitive disorders. Approximately two-thirds of anemia in American elderly is caused by chronic inflammation or is unexplained. A potential contributing factor may include air pollution exposures, which have been shown to increase systemic inflammation and affect erythropoiesis. Few studies, however, have investigated the associations of air pollution on hemoglobin levels and anemia...
January 30, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135613/impacts-on-air-pollution-and-health-by-changing-commuting-from-car-to-bicycle
#9
Christer Johansson, Boel Lövenheim, Peter Schantz, Lina Wahlgren, Peter Almström, Anders Markstedt, Magnus Strömgren, Bertil Forsberg, Johan Nilsson Sommar
Our study is based on individual data on people's home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30min bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in >111,000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation...
January 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129768/exposure-to-air-pollution-near-a-steel-plant-is-associated-with-reduced-heart-rate-variability-a-randomised-crossover-study
#10
Robin H Shutt, Lisa Marie Kauri, Scott Weichenthal, Premkumari Kumarathasan, Renaud Vincent, Errol M Thomson, Ling Liu, Mamun Mahmud, Sabit Cakmak, Robert Dales
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown that as ambient air pollution (AP) increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality also increases. The mechanisms of this effect may be linked to alterations in autonomic nervous system function. We wished to examine the effects of industrial AP on heart rate variability (HRV), a measure of subtle changes in heart rate and rhythm representing autonomic input to the heart. METHODS: Sixty healthy adults were randomized to spend five consecutive 8-h days outdoors in one of two locations: (1) adjacent to a steel plant in the Bayview neighbourhood in Sault Ste Marie Ontario or (2) at a College campus, several kilometers from the plant...
January 28, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117197/effect-of-social-deprivation-on-the-admission-rate-and-outcomes-of-adult-respiratory-emergency-admissions
#11
Seán Cournane, Declan Byrne, Richard Conway, Deirdre O'Riordan, Seamus Coveney, Bernard Silke
BACKGROUND: Patients with respiratory disorders constitute a major source of activity for Acute Medicine. We have examined the impact of Socio-Economic Status (SES) and weather factors on the outcomes (30-day in-hospital mortality) of emergency hospitalisations with a respiratory presentation. METHODS: All emergency respiratory admissions to St. James Hospital, Dublin, from 2002 to 2014 were evaluated. Patients were categorized by quintile of Deprivation Index, and evaluated against hospital admission rate (/1000 population) and 30-day in-hospital mortality...
January 17, 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110470/thermal-control-weather-and-aging
#12
REVIEW
Alexandra Schneider, Regina Rückerl, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the latest developments in the field of weather and health with a focus on the elderly. The current state of knowledge is summarized and open questions and emerging fields of research are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: It is expected that climate change will lead to higher global average surface temperatures and more extreme climatic conditions. Previous studies have shown that non-optimal temperatures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, specifically in elderly people...
January 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089581/accountability-studies-of-air-pollution-and-health-effects-lessons-learned-and-recommendations-for-future-natural-experiment-opportunities
#13
REVIEW
David Q Rich
To address limitations of observational epidemiology studies of air pollution and health effects, including residual confounding by temporal and spatial factors, several studies have taken advantage of 'natural experiments', where an environmental policy or air quality intervention has resulted in reductions in ambient air pollution concentrations. Researchers have examined whether the population impacted by these air quality improvements, also experienced improvements in various health indices (e.g. reduced morbidity/mortality)...
March 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087511/invited-commentary-ambient-environment-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#14
Sandie Ha, Pauline Mendola
Preterm birth is a common adverse birth outcome known to be associated with increased infant mortality, and it often results in a higher burden of offspring morbidity in both the short and long terms. The potential for environmental factors, particularly air pollution and meteorological parameters, to increase preterm birth risk has received significant attention worldwide, but the findings are generally inconsistent, with variations in study designs and methods across populations and geographic locations. In the current issue of the Journal, Giorgis-Allemand et al...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081369/randomized-controlled-ethanol-cookstove-intervention-and-blood-pressure-in-pregnant-nigerian-women
#15
Donee Alexander, Amanda Northcross, Nathaniel Wilson, Anindita Dutta, Rishi Pandya, Tope Ibigbami, Damilola Adu, John Olamijulo, Oludare Morhason-Bello, Theodore Karrison, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O Olopade
RATIONALE: Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) elevates blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVES: Investigate ability of clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to ethanol (n = 162) or control arms (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during 6 antenatal visits...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076547/-spatial-distribution-of-biomass-burning-and-mortality-among-the-elderly-in-a-brazilian-amazon-region-2001-2012
#16
Valdir Soares de Andrade, Paulo Eduardo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Cleber Nascimento do Carmo
The burning of biomass has a significant impact on the Amazon ecosystem in the dry season due to the emissions of air pollutants. The effects on the health of the population, especially in the region of the arc of deforestation, has been the subject of recent studies. The scope of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in the state of Rondônia in the period from 2001 to 2012. Mortality data were obtained through the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069303/attributable-risk-of-ambient-pm10-on-daily-mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-in-chengdu-china
#17
Fei Chen, Zibing Deng, Ying Deng, Zhijiao Qiao, Lan Lan, Qiong Meng, Bin Luo, Wei Zhang, Kui Ji, Xue Qiao, Zhiwei Fan, Meixia Zhang, Yan Cui, Xing Zhao, Xiaosong Li
Attributable risk is an important indicator for planning and evaluating public health interventions. However, most current measures of the attributable risk of air pollutants have not considered temporal relationships between exposure and risk. More importantly, limited information is available regarding the attributable risk due to ambient air pollutants in basin regions like the Sichuan Basin, China. To quantify the association between PM10 and deaths in the Basin region, we used a measure proposed recently within the framework of the distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the attributable risk in Chengdu, China...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067846/the-effects-of-age-period-and-cohort-on-mortality-from-ischemic-heart-disease-in-china
#18
Jie Chang, Boyang Li, Jingjing Li, Yang Sun
In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056271/-disease-burden-attributable-to-household-air-pollution-in-1990-and-2013-in-china
#19
P Yin, Y Cai, J M Liu, Y N Liu, J L Qi, L J Wang, J L You, M G Zhou
Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045070/carbon-monoxide-pollution-aggravates-ischemic-heart-failure-through-oxidative-stress-pathway
#20
Cyril Reboul, Julien Boissière, Lucas André, Gregory Meyer, Patrice Bideaux, Gilles Fouret, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Philippe Obert, Alain Lacampagne, Jérôme Thireau, Olivier Cazorla, Sylvain Richard
Risk of hospital readmission and cardiac mortality increases with atmospheric pollution for patients with heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Carbon monoxide (CO) a ubiquitous environmental pollutant could be involved. We explored the effect of daily exposure of CO relevant to urban pollution on post-myocardial infarcted animals. Rats with ischemic heart failure were exposed 4 weeks to daily peaks of CO mimicking urban exposure or to standard filtered air. CO exposure worsened cardiac contractile dysfunction evaluated by echocardiography and at the cardiomyocyte level...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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