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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905971/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#1
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
November 14, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#2
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892410/short-term-no2-exposure-is-associated-with-long-chain-fatty-acids-in-prospective-cohorts-from-augsburg-germany-results-from-an-analysis-of-138-metabolites-and-three-exposures
#3
Cavin K Ward-Caviness, Susanne Breitner, Kathrin Wolf, Josef Cyrys, Gabi Kastenmüller, Rui Wang-Sattler, Alexandra Schneider, Annette Peters
BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with morbidity and mortality. Metabolites are intermediaries in biochemical processes, and associations between air pollution and metabolites can yield unique mechanistic insights. METHODS: We used independent cross-sectional samples with targeted metabolomics (138 metabolites across five metabolite classes) from three cohort studies, each a part of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA)...
October 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891065/trends-causes-and-risk-factors-of-mortality-among-children-under-5-in-ethiopia-1990-2013-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013
#4
Amare Deribew, Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Kebede Deribe, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Yihunie Lakew, Azmeraw T Amare, Semaw F Abera, Mesoud Mohammed, Abiy Hiruye, Efrem Teklay, Awoke Misganaw, Nicholas Kassebaum
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing child mortality over the last two decades. However, the under-5 mortality rate in Ethiopia is still higher than the under-5 mortality rates of several low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). On the other hand, the patterns and causes of child mortality have not been well investigated in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to investigate the mortality trend, causes of death, and risk factors among children under 5 in Ethiopia during 1990-2013...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890987/a-search-for-covert-precipitating-clinical-parameters-in-frequent-exacerbators-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Ankit Bhatia, Ved Prakash, Surya Kant, Ajay Kumar Verma
INTRODUCTION: Acute exacerbations are a significant source of morbidity and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Some patients suffer an inordinate number of exacerbations while others remain relatively protected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially modifiable precipitating parameters of frequent severe exacerbations requiring hospital admission in COPD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients admitted with acute exacerbation of COPD for a period of one year in a tertiary care hospital were evaluated prospectively...
November 2016: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886791/environmental-exposures-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-challenge-for-health-and-development-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#6
REVIEW
Melissa S Burroughs Peña, Allman Rollins
Environmental exposures in low- and middle-income countries lie at the intersection of increased economic development and the rising public health burden of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence suggests an association of exposure to ambient air pollution, household air pollution from biomass fuel, lead, arsenic, and cadmium with multiple cardiovascular disease outcomes, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular mortality. Although populations in low- and middle-income countries are disproportionately exposed to environmental pollution, evidence linking these exposures to cardiovascular disease is derived from populations in high-income countries...
February 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886037/hospital-acquired-infection-in-public-hospital-buildings-in-the-philippines-is-the-type-of-ventilation-increasing-the-risk
#7
Godofreda Ruiz Vergeire-Dalmacion, Jill Rafols Itable, Emmanuel Saporna Baja
INTRODUCTION: Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. However, limited information is available about the risk of HAIs in naturally ventilated wards (NVWs) and mechanically ventilated intensive care units (MVICUs) of public hospitals in the Philippines. We aimed to assess the association between HAIs and type of ventilation in an urban tertiary care hospital in the Philippines. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional point-prevalence survey of infections was done in NVWs and MVICUs of a tertiary care hospital in December 2013...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879970/mortality-hospital-days-and-expenditures-attributable-to-ambient-air-pollution-from-particulate-matter-in-israel
#8
Gary M Ginsberg, Ehud Kaliner, Itamar Grotto
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, ambient air pollution accounts for around 3.7 million deaths annually. Measuring the burden of disease is important not just for advocacy but also is a first step towards carrying out a full cost-utility analysis in order to prioritise technological interventions that are available to reduce air pollution (and subsequent morbidity and mortality) from industrial, power generating and vehicular sources. METHODS: We calculated the average national exposure to particulate matter particles less than 2...
2016: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871798/the-association-of-air-pollution-and-greenness-with-mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-spain-a-small-area-study
#9
Carmen de Keijzer, David Agis, Albert Ambrós, Gustavo Arévalo, Jose M Baldasano, Stefano Bande, Jose Barrera-Gómez, Joan Benach, Marta Cirach, Payam Dadvand, Stefania Ghigo, Èrica Martinez-Solanas, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Ennio Cadum, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure has been associated with an increase in mortality rates, but few studies have focused on life expectancy, and most studies had restricted spatial coverage. A limited body of evidence is also suggestive for a beneficial association between residential exposure to greenness and mortality, but the evidence for such an association with life expectancy is still very scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of exposure to air pollution and greenness with mortality and life expectancy in Spain...
November 18, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867578/relationships-between-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-lung-cancer-biological-insights
#10
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro, Víctor Bustamante, Víctor Curull, Joaquim Gea, José Luis López-Campos, Xavier Muñoz
Lung cancer (LC) has become one of the leading causes of preventable death in the last few decades. Cigarette smoking (CS) stays as the main etiologic factor of LC despite that many other causes such as occupational exposures, air pollution, asbestos, or radiation have also been implicated. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, exhibit a significantly greater risk of LC. The study of the underlying biological mechanisms that may predispose patients with chronic respiratory diseases to a higher incidence of LC has also gained much attention in the last few years...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867428/a-class-of-non-linear-exposure-response-models-suitable-for-health-impact-assessment-applicable-to-large-cohort-studies-of-ambient-air-pollution
#11
Masoud M Nasari, Mieczysław Szyszkowicz, Hong Chen, Daniel Crouse, Michelle C Turner, Michael Jerrett, C Arden Pope, Bryan Hubbell, Neal Fann, Aaron Cohen, Susan M Gapstur, W Ryan Diver, David Stieb, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Sun-Young Kim, Casey Olives, Daniel Krewski, Richard T Burnett
The effectiveness of regulatory actions designed to improve air quality is often assessed by predicting changes in public health resulting from their implementation. Risk of premature mortality from long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is the single most important contributor to such assessments and is estimated from observational studies generally assuming a log-linear, no-threshold association between ambient concentrations and death. There has been only limited assessment of this assumption in part because of a lack of methods to estimate the shape of the exposure-response function in very large study populations...
2016: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866722/effectiveness-of-traffic-related-elements-in-tree-bark-and-pollen-abortion-rates-for-assessing-air-pollution-exposure-on-respiratory-mortality-rates
#12
Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira, Luís F Amato-Lourenço, Tiana C L Moreira, Douglas R Rocha Silva, Bruna D Vieira, Thais Mauad, Mitiko Saiki, Paulo H Nascimento Saldiva
The majority of epidemiological studies correlate the cardiorespiratory effects of air pollution exposure by considering the concentrations of pollutants measured from conventional monitoring networks. The conventional air quality monitoring methods are expensive, and their data are insufficient for providing good spatial resolution. We hypothesized that bioassays using plants could effectively determine pollutant gradients, thus helping to assess the risks associated with air pollution exposure. The study regions were determined from different prevalent respiratory death distributions in the Sao Paulo municipality...
November 17, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865893/sex-and-genetic-differences-in-the-effects-of-acute-diesel-exhaust-exposure-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-mouse-brain
#13
Toby B Cole, Jacki Coburn, Khoi Dao, Pam Roqué, Yu-Chi Chang, Vrinda Kalia, Tomas R Guilarte, Jennifer Dziedzic, Lucio G Costa
In addition to increased morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, air pollution may also contribute to central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Traffic-related air pollution is a major contributor to global air pollution, and diesel exhaust (DE) is its most important component. DE contains more than 40 toxic air pollutants and is a major constituent of ambient particulate matter (PM), particularly of ultrafine-PM. Limited information suggests that exposure to DE may cause oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the CNS...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853506/household-air-pollution-and-its-effects-on-health
#14
REVIEW
Komalkirti Apte, Sundeep Salvi
Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848989/population-exposure-to-hazardous-air-quality-due-to-the-2015-fires-in-equatorial-asia
#15
P Crippa, S Castruccio, S Archer-Nicholls, G B Lebron, M Kuwata, A Thota, S Sumin, E Butt, C Wiedinmyer, D V Spracklen
Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades...
November 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845946/global-trends-in-suicide-epidemiology
#16
Mark Sinyor, Robyn Tse, Jane Pirkis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide. RECENT FINDINGS: The global financial crisis, natural disasters, air pollution and second-hand smoke have all been associated with increased suicide rates...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837472/exposure-to-pm10-no2-and-o3-and-impacts-on-human-health
#17
Yusef Omidi Khaniabadi, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Seyed Mohammad Daryanoosh, Alessandro Borgini, Andrea Tittarelli, Alessandra De Marco
Air pollution is emerging as a risk factor for human health like cancer and other health outcomes in developing countries, especially Iran where air pollutant concentrations are elevated. Additionally, some of the crucial environmental problems are caused by air pollution. Nevertheless, the data on health effects of air pollution are limited. The main objective of this study was to assess the health impacts attributed to particulate matter less than 10 μg/m(3) (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) in Kermanshah City (Iran)...
November 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836971/female-lung-cancer-mortality-and-long-term-exposure-to-particulate-matter-in-italy
#18
Raffaella Uccelli, Marina Mastrantonio, Pierluigi Altavista, Emanuela Caiaffa, Giorgio Cattani, Stefano Belli, Pietro Comba
BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution and particulate matter (PM) have recently been classified in Group 1 by IARC. In Italy there is no epidemiological study on the association between female lung cancer and PM as measured by the official monitoring stations. METHODS: We estimated the dose-response relationship between female lung cancer mortality and available long-term outdoor PM10 and/or PM2.5 concentrations for all the Italian province capital city municipalities (respectively, 64 and 32 municipalities)...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836956/an-association-of-particulate-air-pollution-and-traffic-exposure-with-mortality-after-lung-transplantation-in-europe
#19
David Ruttens, Stijn E Verleden, Esmée M Bijnens, Ellen Winckelmans, Jens Gottlieb, Gregor Warnecke, Federica Meloni, Monica Morosini, Wim Van Der Bij, Erik A Verschuuren, Urte Sommerwerck, Gerhard Weinreich, Markus Kamler, Antonio Roman, Susana Gomez-Olles, Cristina Berastegui, Christian Benden, Are Martin Holm, Martin Iversen, Hans Henrik Schultz, Bart Luijk, Erik-Jan Oudijk, Johanna M Kwakkel-van Erp, Peter Jaksch, Walter Klepetko, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Claus Neurohr, Paul Corris, Andrew J Fisher, James Lordan, Gerard Meachery, Davide Piloni, Elly Vandermeulen, Hannelore Bellon, Barbara Hoffmann, Danielle Vienneau, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Benoit Nemery, Geert M Verleden, Robin Vos, Tim S Nawrot, Bart M Vanaudenaerde
Air pollution from road traffic is a serious health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. Single-centre studies showed an association with chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and survival after lung transplantation, but there are no large studies.13 lung transplant centres in 10 European countries created a cohort of 5707 patients. For each patient, we quantified residential particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) by land use regression models, and the traffic exposure by quantifying total road length within buffer zones around the home addresses of patients and distance to a major road or freeway...
November 11, 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836898/dung-biomass-smoke-activates-inflammatory-signaling-pathways-in-human-small-airway-epithelial-cells
#20
Claire E McCarthy, Parker F Duffney, Robert Gelein, Thomas H Thatcher, Alison C P Elder, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime
Animal dung is a biomass fuel burned by vulnerable populations who cannot afford cleaner sources of energy, such as wood and gas, for cooking and heating their homes. Exposure to biomass smoke is the leading environmental risk for mortality, with over 4 million deaths each year worldwide attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass smoke. Biomass smoke inhalation is epidemiologically associated with pulmonary diseases, including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer, and respiratory infections, especially in low and middle-income countries...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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