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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089581/accountability-studies-of-air-pollution-and-health-effects-lessons-learned-and-recommendations-for-future-natural-experiment-opportunities
#1
REVIEW
David Q Rich
To address limitations of observational epidemiology studies of air pollution and health effects, including residual confounding by temporal and spatial factors, several studies have taken advantage of 'natural experiments', where an environmental policy or air quality intervention has resulted in reductions in ambient air pollution concentrations. Researchers have examined whether the population impacted by these air quality improvements, also experienced improvements in various health indices (e.g. reduced morbidity/mortality)...
January 12, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087511/invited-commentary-ambient-environment-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#2
Sandie Ha, Pauline Mendola
Preterm birth is a common adverse birth outcome known to be associated with increased infant mortality, and it often results in a higher burden of offspring morbidity in both the short and long terms. The potential for environmental factors, particularly air pollution and meteorological parameters, to increase preterm birth risk has received significant attention worldwide, but the findings are generally inconsistent, with variations in study designs and methods across populations and geographic locations. In the current issue of the Journal, Giorgis-Allemand et al...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081369/randomized-controlled-ethanol-cookstove-intervention-and-blood-pressure-in-pregnant-nigerian-women
#3
Donee Alexander, Amanda Northcross, Nathaniel Wilson, Anindita Dutta, Rishi Pandya, Tope Ibigbami, Damilola Adu, John Olamijulo, Oludare Morhason-Bello, Theodore Karrison, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O Olopade
RATIONALE: Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) elevates blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVES: Investigate ability of clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to ethanol (n = 162) or control arms (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during 6 antenatal visits...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076547/-spatial-distribution-of-biomass-burning-and-mortality-among-the-elderly-in-a-brazilian-amazon-region-2001-2012
#4
Valdir Soares de Andrade, Paulo Eduardo Artaxo, Sandra de Souza Hacon, Cleber Nascimento do Carmo
The burning of biomass has a significant impact on the Amazon ecosystem in the dry season due to the emissions of air pollutants. The effects on the health of the population, especially in the region of the arc of deforestation, has been the subject of recent studies. The scope of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in the state of Rondônia in the period from 2001 to 2012. Mortality data were obtained through the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health...
January 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069303/attributable-risk-of-ambient-pm10-on-daily-mortality-and-years-of-life-lost-in-chengdu-china
#5
Fei Chen, Zibing Deng, Ying Deng, Zhijiao Qiao, Lan Lan, Qiong Meng, Bin Luo, Wei Zhang, Kui Ji, Xue Qiao, Zhiwei Fan, Meixia Zhang, Yan Cui, Xing Zhao, Xiaosong Li
Attributable risk is an important indicator for planning and evaluating public health interventions. However, most current measures of the attributable risk of air pollutants have not considered temporal relationships between exposure and risk. More importantly, limited information is available regarding the attributable risk due to ambient air pollutants in basin regions like the Sichuan Basin, China. To quantify the association between PM10 and deaths in the Basin region, we used a measure proposed recently within the framework of the distributed lag non-linear model to estimate the attributable risk in Chengdu, China...
January 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067846/the-effects-of-age-period-and-cohort-on-mortality-from-ischemic-heart-disease-in-china
#6
Jie Chang, Boyang Li, Jingjing Li, Yang Sun
In contrast with most developed countries, mortality due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) continues to rise in China. We examined the effects of age, period, and cohort on IHD mortality in urban and rural populations from 1987 to 2013 to identify the drivers of this trend. Region-specific data on annual IHD mortality among adults aged 20 to 84 years and corresponding population statistics were collected. We then tested for age, period, and cohort effects using the Intrinsic Estimator approach. Our results indicated that IHD mortality in China increased significantly over the three decades studied...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056271/-disease-burden-attributable-to-household-air-pollution-in-1990-and-2013-in-china
#7
P Yin, Y Cai, J M Liu, Y N Liu, J L Qi, L J Wang, J L You, M G Zhou
Objective: To assess the disease burden attributable to household air pollution in 1990 and 2013 in China. Methods: Based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 in China (GBD 2013), we used population attributable fractions (PAF) to analyze the burden of different diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 2013 in China(not inclnding HongKang, Macao, Taiwan). We compared PAF, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) for diseases attributable to solid-fuel household pollution in 31 provinces in mainland China in 1990 and 2013, and stratified the burden by age group...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045070/carbon-monoxide-pollution-aggravates-ischemic-heart-failure-through-oxidative-stress-pathway
#8
Cyril Reboul, Julien Boissière, Lucas André, Gregory Meyer, Patrice Bideaux, Gilles Fouret, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Philippe Obert, Alain Lacampagne, Jérôme Thireau, Olivier Cazorla, Sylvain Richard
Risk of hospital readmission and cardiac mortality increases with atmospheric pollution for patients with heart failure. The underlying mechanisms are unclear. Carbon monoxide (CO) a ubiquitous environmental pollutant could be involved. We explored the effect of daily exposure of CO relevant to urban pollution on post-myocardial infarcted animals. Rats with ischemic heart failure were exposed 4 weeks to daily peaks of CO mimicking urban exposure or to standard filtered air. CO exposure worsened cardiac contractile dysfunction evaluated by echocardiography and at the cardiomyocyte level...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040377/current-approaches-used-in-epidemiologic-studies-to-examine-short-term-multipollutant-air-pollution-exposures
#9
REVIEW
Angel D Davalos, Thomas J Luben, Amy H Herring, Jason D Sacks
PURPOSE: Air pollution epidemiology traditionally focuses on the relationship between individual air pollutants and health outcomes (e.g., mortality). To account for potential copollutant confounding, individual pollutant associations are often estimated by adjusting or controlling for other pollutants in the mixture. Recently, the need to characterize the relationship between health outcomes and the larger multipollutant mixture has been emphasized in an attempt to better protect public health and inform more sustainable air quality management decisions...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039622/airing-clean-air-in-clean-india-mission
#10
EDITORIAL
T Banerjee, M Kumar, R K Mall, R S Singh
The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038878/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-air-pollution-and-mortality-in-a-chinese-tuberculosis-cohort
#11
Zhuoxin Peng, Cong Liu, Biao Xu, Haidong Kan, Weibing Wang
BACKGROUND: Evidence for the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and the mortality of tuberculosis (TB) patients is limited. METHODS: We analyzed the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter <2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) and cause-specific mortality in a Chinese TB patients cohort from 2003 to 2013. Data from the Global Burden of Disease 2013 estimate were used to assess yearly average concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone at the household addresses of participants...
December 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029451/the-interactive-effects-between-high-temperature-and-air-pollution-on-mortality-a-time-series-analysis-in-hefei-china
#12
Rennie Xinrui Qin, Changchun Xiao, Yibin Zhu, Jing Li, Jun Yang, Shaohua Gu, Junrui Xia, Bin Su, Qiyong Liu, Alistair Woodward
Recent evidence suggests that there may be an interaction between air pollution and heat on mortality, which is pertinent in the context of global climate change. We sought to examine this interaction in Hefei, a hot and polluted Chinese city. We conducted time-series analyses using daily mortality, air pollutant concentration (including particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10μm (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)), and temperature data from 2008 to 2014. We applied quasi-Poisson regression models with natural cubic splines and examined the interactive effects using temperature-stratified models...
October 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017364/contrasting-effects-of-hypoxia-on-copper-toxicity-during-development-in-the-three-spined-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#13
Jennifer A Fitzgerald, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Eduarda M Santos
Hypoxia is a global problem in aquatic systems and often co-occurs with pollutants. Despite this, little is known about the combined effects of these stressors on aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effects of hypoxia and copper, a toxic metal widespread in the aquatic environment. We used the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as a model because of its environmental relevance and amenability for environmental toxicology studies. We focused on embryonic development as this is considered to be a sensitive life stage to environmental pollution...
December 22, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990617/stroke-temporal-trends-and-association-with-atmospheric-variables-and-air-pollutants-in-northern-spain
#14
Ana Santurtún, Patricia Bolivar Ruiz, Laura López-Delgado, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Javier Riancho, María T Zarrabeitia
Stroke, the second cause of death and the most frequent cause of severe disability among adults in developed countries, is related to a large variety of risk factors. This paper assesses the temporal patterns in stroke episodes in a city in Northern Spain during a 12-year period and analyzes the possible effects that atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables may have on stroke on a daily scale. Our results show that there is an increase in stroke admissions (r = 0.818, p = 0.001) especially in patients over 85 years old...
December 19, 2016: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981476/disability-adjusted-life-years-and-economic-cost-assessment-of-the-health-effects-related-to-pm2-5-and-pm10-pollution-in-mumbai-and-delhi-in-india-from-1991-to-2015
#15
Kamal Jyoti Maji, Anil Kumar Dikshit, Ashok Deshpande
Particulate air pollution is becoming a serious public health concern in urban cities in India due to air pollution-related health effects associated with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and economic loss. To obtain the quantitative result of health impact of particulate matter (PM) in most populated Mumbai City and most polluted Delhi City in India, an epidemiology-based exposure-response function has been used to calculate the attributable number of mortality and morbidity cases from 1991 to 2015 in a 5-year interval and the subsequent DALYs, and economic cost is estimated of the health damage based on unit values of the health outcomes...
December 15, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981338/seasonal-association-between-ambient-ozone-and-mortality-in-zhengzhou-china
#16
Lijie Qin, Jianqin Gu, Shijie Liang, Fang Fang, Weimin Bai, Xu Liu, Tao Zhao, Joseph Walline, Shenglong Zhang, Yingjie Cui, Yaxin Xu, Hualiang Lin
Different seasonal health effects of ambient ozone (O3) have been reported in previous studies. This might be due to inappropriate adjustment of temperature in different seasons. We used daily data on non-accidental mortality and ambient air pollution in Zhengzhou from January 19, 2013 to June 30, 2015. Season-stratified analyses using generalized additive models were conducted to evaluate the seasonal associations with adjustment of temperature with different lagged days (lag0-1 for warm season, lag0-14 for cold season)...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977410/how-serious-are-health-impacts-in-one-of-the-most-polluted-regions-of-central-europe
#17
Vítězslav Jiřík, Andrea Dalecká, Veronika Vašendová, Jana Janoutová, Vladimír Janout
BACKGROUND: The long-term exposure to pollutants in ambient air is associated with higher mortality and occurrence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary diseases. The longitudinal cross-section study focuses on the associations between long-term exposures to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic pollutants and the prevalence and incidence of such specific diseases including immunodeficiencies. METHODS: The data on health status from industrial and non-industrial regions were obtained from health documentation for a 5-year period from 2007 to 2011 and represent the whole population living in polluted (1,249,323 inhabitants) and unpolluted (631,387 inhabitants) regions...
December 15, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968831/mortality-as-a-function-of-dust-haze-in-china-a-multi-city-time-series-study
#18
Jun Yang, Maigeng Zhou, Peng Yin, Mengmeng Li, Chun-Quan Ou, Shaohua Gu, Qiyong Liu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, hazardous dust-hazehas become one of the most catastrophic weather events in China. Reliable estimation of the burden of dust-haze on health has implications for implementation of mitigation measures. We did a time-series study to examine the health effects of dust-haze in China. METHODS: A dust-haze day was defined ashaving daily visibility of less than 10 km, no rainfall, and relative humidity of less than 80%. A two-stage analysis was used to assess the effect of dust-haze on city-specific, cause-specific, sex-specific, and age-specific mortality in ten Chinese provincial capitals...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939950/a-critical-review-of-the-escape-project-for-estimating-long-term-health-effects-of-air-pollution
#19
REVIEW
Frederick W Lipfert
The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) is a13-nation study of long-term health effects of air pollution based on subjects pooled from up to 22 cohorts that were intended for other purposes. Twenty-five papers have been published on associations of various health endpoints with long-term exposures to NOx, NO2, traffic indicators, PM10, PM2.5 and PM constituents including absorbance (elemental carbon). Seven additional ESCAPE papers found moderate correlations (R2=0.3-0.8) between measured air quality and estimates based on land-use regression that were used; personal exposures were not considered...
December 8, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939045/air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-mortality-with-over-25years-follow-up-a-combined-analysis-of-two-british-cohorts
#20
Hakim-Moulay Dehbi, Marta Blangiardo, John Gulliver, Daniela Fecht, Kees de Hoogh, Zaina Al-Kanaani, Therese Tillin, Rebecca Hardy, Nish Chaturvedi, Anna L Hansell
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality are well established. There are comparatively fewer studies in Europe, and in the UK particularly, than in North America. We examined associations in two British cohorts with >25years of follow-up. METHODS: Annual average NO2, SO2 and black smoke (BS) air pollution exposure estimates for 1991 were obtained from land use regression models using contemporaneous monitoring data...
December 7, 2016: Environment International
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