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air pollution mortality

Rocío Carmona, Cristina Linares, Cristina Ortiz, Blanca Vázquez, Julio Díaz
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of noise on population morbidity and mortality have been observed both in the short and long term, the morbidity and mortality indicators used to date have not enabled information on such health effects to be accessed in real time. At an international level, there are relatively few studies, mostly recent, which have considered an alternative indicator, such as the demand for medical attention provided by emergency services, taking into account environmental factors other than noise...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Research
Qiang Zeng, Yang Ni, Guohong Jiang, Guoxing Li, Xiaochuan Pan
Years of life lost (YLL) is a more informative and accurate indicator than daily death counts for assessing air pollution related premature death. However, there is limited evidence available about the relationship of air pollution with YLL, especially in China. We conducted a ten-year (from January 1st, 2001 to December 31st, 2010) multi-district time-series study to estimate the effects of ambient particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm in size (PM10) on daily non-accidental deaths and YLL in six districts of Tianjin, China...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Rebecca DeVries, David Kriebel, Susan Sama
BACKGROUND: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute greatly to increased morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life. Recent studies report moderately strong positive associations between exposures to several air pollutants and COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HA). Studies that use clinically defined exacerbations rather than counting ED visits and HA may be more sensitive to environmental triggers like air pollution, but very few such studies exist...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Engi F Attia, Robert F Miller, Rashida A Ferrand
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of pulmonary infections has declined dramatically with improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, but chronic lung disease (CLD) is an increasingly recognized but poorly understood complication in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV. RECENT FINDINGS: There is a high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms, abnormal spirometry and chest radiographic abnormalities among HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, wherein 90% of the world's HIV-infected children live...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Miaomiao Liu, Yining Huang, Zongwei Ma, Zhou Jin, Xingyu Liu, Haikun Wang, Yang Liu, Jinnan Wang, Matti Jantunen, Jun Bi, Patrick L Kinney
While recent assessments have quantified the burden of air pollution at the national scale in China, air quality managers would benefit from assessments that disaggregate health impacts over regions and over time. We took advantage of a new 10×10km satellite-based PM2.5 dataset to analyze spatial and temporal trends of air pollution health impacts in China, from 2004 to 2012. Results showed that national PM2.5 related deaths from stroke, ischemic heart disease and lung cancer increased from approximately 800,000 cases in 2004 to over 1...
October 13, 2016: Environment International
Shakoor Hajat, Ceri Whitmore, Christophe Sarran, Andy Haines, Brian Golding, Harriet Gordon-Brown, Anthony Kessel, Lora E Fleming
BACKGROUND: Improved data linkages between diverse environment and health datasets have the potential to provide new insights into the health impacts of environmental exposures, including complex climate change processes. Initiatives that link and explore big data in the environment and health arenas are now being established. OBJECTIVES: To encourage advances in this nascent field, this article documents the development of a web browser application to facilitate such future research, the challenges encountered to date, and how they were addressed...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Amine Farias Costa, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Antônio Cm Ponce de Leon
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. OBJECTIVES: To quantify mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. METHODS: We performed a daily time series of non-accidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011...
October 7, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Małgorzata Kowalska, Krzysztof Kocot
Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
S E Bartington, I Bakolis, D Devakumar, O P Kurmi, J Gulliver, G Chaube, D S Manandhar, N M Saville, A Costello, D Osrin, A L Hansell, J G Ayres
Household Air Pollution (HAP) from biomass cooking fuels is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income settings worldwide. In Nepal the use of open stoves with solid biomass fuels is the primary method of domestic cooking. To assess patterns of domestic air pollution we performed continuous measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate Matter (PM2.5) in 12 biomass fuel households in Janakpur, Nepal. We measured kitchen PM2.5 and CO concentrations at one-minute intervals for an approximately 48-h period using the TSI DustTrak II 8530/SidePak AM510 (TSI Inc, St...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Xing Li, Jianpeng Xiao, Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Zhengmin Qian, Weilin Zeng, Lingchuan Guo, Wenjun Ma
The current air quality indices have been criticized for not capturing combined health effects of multiple air pollutants. We proposed an Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) based on the air pollution-mortality associations for communicating health risks of air pollution. Time-series studies were conducted to estimate the associations between air pollutants including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), suspended particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and mortality in Guangzhou from 2012 to 2015...
October 2, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Insa Korten, Kathryn Ramsey, Philipp Latzin
Air pollution exposure has increased extensively in recent years and there is considerable evidence that exposure to particulate matter can lead to adverse respiratory outcomes. The health impacts of exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period is especially concerning as it can impair organogenesis and organ development, which can lead to long-term complications. Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy affects respiratory health in different ways. Lung development might be impaired by air pollution indirectly by causing lower birth weight, premature birth or disturbed development of the immune system...
August 19, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Fang Fang, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Lingchuan Guo, Linwei Tian, Mario Schootman, Katherine A Stamatakis, Zhengmin Qian, Wenjun Ma
Vigorous air pollution control measures were implemented during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and a large-scale military parade (described here as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue" periods) in Beijing, China. A natural experiment was conducted in a health impact assessment framework to estimate the number of deaths attributable to PM2.5, using concentration-response functions derived from previous studies conducted in Beijing, combined with the differences in PM2.5 concentrations between intervention and reference periods...
September 17, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Artur J Badyda, James Grellier, Piotr Dąbrowiecki
Air pollution, one of ten most important causes of premature mortality worldwide, remains a major issue also in the EU, with more than 400,000 premature deaths due to exposure to PM2.5 reported yearly. The issue is particularly significant in Poland, where there is the highest concentration of PM2.5 among the UE countries. This study focused on the proportion of mortality due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary diseases attributable to PM2.5 in eleven biggest Polish cities in the years 2006-2011. The findings demonstrate that the mean annual concentration of PM2...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marieke B A Dijkema, Robert T van Strien, Saskia C van der Zee, Sanne F Mallant, Paul Fischer, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef, Ulrike Gehring
BACKGROUND: Air pollution episodes are associated with increased cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. Cohort studies showed associations of spatial variation in traffic-related air pollution with respiratory and cardiovascular mortality. Much less is known in particular about associations with cardiovascular morbidity. We explored the relation between spatial variation in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and cardiopulmonary hospital admissions. METHODS: This ecological study was based on hospital admissions data (2001-2004) from the National Medical Registration and general population data for the West of the Netherlands (population 4...
November 2016: Environmental Research
Ziaeddin Bonyadi, Mohammad Hasan Ehrampoush, Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mehdi Mokhtari, Abbas Sadeghi
Poor air quality is one of the most important environmental problems in many large cities of the world, which can cause a wide range of acute and chronic health effects, including partial physiological disorders and cardiac death due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. According to the latest edition of the national standard for air quality, maximum contamination level is 15 μg/m(3) per year and 35 μg/m(3) per day. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality attributed to PM2...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Hualiang Lin, Tao Liu, Jianpeng Xiao, Weilin Zeng, Xing Li, Lingchuan Guo, Yonghui Zhang, Yanjun Xu, Jun Tao, Hong Xian, Kevin M Syberg, Zhengmin Min Qian, Wenjun Ma
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported significant association between ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) and mortality, however, few studies have investigated the relationship of mortality with PM2.5 and associated mortality burden in China, especially in a multicity setting. METHODS: We investigated the PM2.5-mortality association in six cities of the Pearl River Delta region from 2013 to 2015. We used generalized additive Poisson models incorporating penalized smoothing splines to control for temporal trend, temperature, and relative humidity...
September 14, 2016: Environment International
Helen L Macintyre, Clare Heaviside, Lucy S Neal, Paul Agnew, John Thornes, Sotiris Vardoulakis
Exposure to particulate air pollution is known to have negative impacts on human health. Long-term exposure to anthropogenic particulate matter is associated with the equivalent of around 29,000 deaths a year in the UK. However, short-lived air pollution episodes on the order of a few days are also associated with increased daily mortality and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular conditions. The UK experienced widespread high levels of particulate air pollution in March-April 2014; observations of hourly mean PM2...
August 24, 2016: Environment International
Roger O McClellan
Four papers on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) by Anenberg et al., Fann et al., Shin et al., and Smith contribute to a growing body of literature on estimated epidemiological associations between ambient PM2.5 concentrations and increases in health responses relative to baseline notes. This article provides context for the four articles, including a historical review of provisions of the U.S. Clean Air Act as amended in 1970, requiring the setting of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants such as particulate matter (PM)...
September 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Gali Cohen, Ilan Levy, Yuval, Jeremy D Kark, Noam Levin, David M Broday, David M Steinberg, Yariv Gerber
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested a carcinogenic effect of exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Recently, higher rates of cancer incidence were observed among myocardial infarction survivors compared with the general population. We examined the association between chronic exposure to nitrogen oxides, a proxy measure for traffic-related air pollution, and cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of myocardial infarction patients. METHODS: Patients aged ≤65 years admitted to hospital in central Israel with a first myocardial infarction in 1992-1993 were followed to 2013 for cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality...
September 13, 2016: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Dara R Adams, Gaurav S Ajmani, Vivian C Pun, Kristen E Wroblewski, David W Kern, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock, Helen H Suh, Jayant M Pinto
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction has profound effects on quality of life, physical and social function, and mortality itself. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) is a pervasive air pollutant that is associated with respiratory diseases. Given the olfactory nerve's anatomic exposure to airborne pollutants, we investigated the relationship between NO2 exposure and olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: The ability to identify odors was evaluated using a validated test in respondents from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a representative probability sample of home-dwelling, older U...
September 13, 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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