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air pollution mortality

Paolo Giorgini, Paolo Di Giosia, Marco Petrarca, Francesco Lattanzio, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Claudio Ferri
BACKGROUND: Climate change is rapidly affecting all the regions of our planet. The most relevant example is global warming, which impacts on the earth's ecosystems, threatening human health. Other effects include extreme variations in temperature and increases in air pollution. These events may negatively impact mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: In this review, we discuss the main effects of climate changes on cardiovascular diseases, reporting the epidemiological evidences and the biological mechanisms linking climate change consequences to hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart diseases, heart failure and stroke...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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March 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Antonella Fiordelisi, Prisco Piscitelli, Bruno Trimarco, Enrico Coscioni, Guido Iaccarino, Daniela Sorriento
Clinical and epidemiological studies demonstrate that short- and long-term exposure to air pollution increases mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Given the increased industrialization and the increased sources of pollutants (i.e., cars exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke, industry emissions, burning of fossil fuels, incineration of garbage), air pollution has become a key public health issue to solve. Among pollutants, the particulate matter (PM) is a mixture of solid and liquid particles which differently affects human health depending on their size (i...
March 16, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
Lauren Pinault, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with a greater risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in Canada. Research based on Canadian cohorts suggests that exposure to PM2.5 varies by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Studies of NO₂, another pollutant, indicate that persons of lower socioeconomic status and some visible minority groups have greater exposure in urban centres. DATA AND METHODS: National residential PM2...
March 15, 2017: Health Reports
Peng Yin, Guojun He, Maoyong Fan, Kowk Yan Chiu, Maorong Fan, Chang Liu, An Xue, Tong Liu, Yuhang Pan, Quan Mu, Maigeng Zhou
Objectives To estimate the short term effect of particulate air pollution (particle diameter <10 μm, or PM10) on mortality and explore the heterogeneity of particulate air pollution effects in major cities in China.Design Generalised linear models with different lag structures using time series data.Setting 38 of the largest cities in 27 provinces of China (combined population >200 million).Participants 350 638 deaths (200 912 in males, 149 726 in females) recorded in 38 city districts by the Disease Surveillance Point System of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention from 1 January 2010 to 29 June 2013...
March 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Padma S Rao, Ayotunde T Etchie, Ajay Pillarisetti, Narendra K Arora, Kirk R Smith
National estimates of the health and economic burdens of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in India reveal substantial impacts. This information, often lacking at the local level, can justify and drive mitigation interventions. Here, we assess the health and economic gains resulting from attainment of WHO guidelines for PM2.5 concentrations - including interim target 2 (IT-2), interim target 3 (IT-3), and the WHO air quality guideline (AQG) - in Nagpur district to inform policy decision making for mitigation...
March 10, 2017: Environment International
Jiansheng Wu, Jie Zhu, Weifeng Li, Duo Xu, Jianzheng Liu
Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with mortality, but the extent of the adverse impacts differs across various regions. A quantitative estimation of health effects attributed to PM2.5 in China is urgently required, particularly because it has the largest population and high air pollution levels. Based on the remote sensing-derived PM2.5 and grid population data, we estimated the acute health effects of PM2.5 in China using an exposure-response function. The results suggest the following: (1) The proportion of the population exposed to high PM2...
March 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sabrina Naz, Andrew Page, Kingsley Emwinyore Agho
Household air pollution (HAP) mainly from cooking fuel is one of the major causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and middle-income countries like Pakistan. This study investigates for the first time the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality using the 2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS) data. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to examine the association between HAP and under-five mortality in a total of 11,507 living children across four age-groups (neonatal aged 0-28 days, post-neonatal aged 1-11 months, child aged 12-59 months and under-five aged 0-59 months)...
2017: PloS One
Otto Hänninen, Isabell Rumrich, Arja Asikainen
Ambient air pollution is a leading environmental risk factor causing substantial losses of life and significant morbidity. Concentration-response (CR) functions used globally to estimate such effects are largely based on ambient epidemiology, using centrally monitored outdoor air quality as an exposure indicator and various indices of population health as an outcome. Similar common understanding is mostly missing regarding indoor exposures. Less studied are health impact modifying factors such as particle size, infiltration, time-activity and population differences...
March 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Anne M Weaver, Gregory A Wellenius, Wen-Chih Wu, DeMarc A Hickson, Masoor Kamalesh, Yi Wang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality among African Americans. Ambient air pollution, including from traffic, is associated with HF, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cross-sectional associations between residential distance to major roadways with markers of cardiac structure: left ventricular (LV) mass index, LV end-diastolic diameter, LV end-systolic diameter, and LV hypertrophy among African Americans...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Jingying Zhu, Xuhui Zhang, Xi Zhang, Mei Dong, Jiamei Wu, Yunqiu Dong, Rong Chen, Xinliang Ding, Chunhua Huang, Qi Zhang, Weijie Zhou
Ambient air pollution ranks high among the risk factors that increase the global burden of disease. Previous studies focused on assessing mortality risk and were sparsely performed in populous developing countries with deteriorating environments. We conducted a time-series study to evaluate the air pollution-associated years of life lost (YLL) and mortality risk and to identify potential modifiers relating to the season and demographic characteristics. Using linear (for YLL) and Poisson (for mortality) regression models and controlling for time-varying factors, we found that an interquartile range (IQR) increase in a three-day average cumulative (lag 0-2 day) concentrations of PM2...
February 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Laís Fajersztajn, Paulo Saldiva, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Victor Figueiredo Leite, Anna Maria Buehler
OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution is among the leading risks for health worldwide and by 2050 will largely overcome deaths due to unsafe sanitation and malaria, but local evidence from Latin America (LA) is scarce. We aimed to summarize the effect of short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) on morbidity and mortality in Latin America and evaluate evidence coverage and quality, using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The comprehensive search (six online databases and hand-searching) identified studies investigating the short-term associations between PM2...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
Alexis D Vick, Heather H Burris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: African Americans disproportionately suffer from leading causes of morbidity and mortality including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and preterm birth. Disparities can arise from multiple social and environmental exposures, but how the human body responds to these exposures to result in pathophysiologic states is incompletely understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation, can be altered in response to exposures such as air pollution, psychosocial stress, and smoking...
March 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
Renjie Chen, Peng Yin, Xia Meng, Cong Liu, Lijun Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Jennifer A Ross, Lap Ah Tse, Zhuohui Zhao, Haidong Kan, Maigeng Zhou
RATIONALE: Evidence concerning the acute health effects of fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution in developing countries is quite limited. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short-term associations between PM2.5 and daily cause-specific mortality in China. METHODS: A nationwide time-series analysis was performed in 272 representative Chinese cities from 2013 to 2015. Two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models were applied to estimate regional- and national-average associations between PM2...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
V Mattei, F Santilli, S Martellucci, J Di Pasquale, F Liberati, C Protano, M Vitali, M Sorice
BACKGROUND: The present research aims to obtain information on cancer deaths in the five Latium provinces in the years 2006-2010 and to highlight similarities and differences between them. METHODS: The survey was carried through statistical elaboration of cancer mortality data for the years 2006-2010 obtained from the National Institute of Statistics. RESULTS: The mortality due to oncological diseases in Rieti province showed a decreasing temporal trend for the years investigated...
March 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Hanna Leona Lokys, Jürgen Junk, Andreas Krein
Air quality and thermal stress lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Studies on morbidity and the combined impact of air pollution and thermal stress are still rare. To analyse the correlations between air quality, thermal stress and morbidity, we used a two-stage meta-analysis approach, consisting of a Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) and a meta-analysis investigating whether latitude or the number of inhabitants significantly influence the correlations...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Cristina Ortiz, Cristina Linares, Rocio Carmona, Julio Díaz
According to the WHO, 3 million deaths are attributable to air pollution due to particulate matter (PM) world-wide. However, there are no specific updated studies which calculate short-term PM-related cause specific mortality in Spain. The objective is to quantify the relative risks (RRs) and attributable risks (ARs) of daily mortality associated with PM10 concentrations, registered in Spanish provinces and to calculate the number of PM-related deaths. We calculated daily mortality due to natural (ICD-10: A00 R99), circulatory (ICD-10: I00 I99) and respiratory causes (ICD-10: J00 J99) for each province across the period 2000-2009...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Lital Yinon, George Thurston
BACKGROUND: The statistical association between increased exposure to air pollution and increased risk of morbidity and mortality is well established. However, documentation of the health benefits of lowering air pollution levels, which would support the biological plausibility of those past statistical associations, are not as well developed. A better understanding of the aftereffects of interventions to reduce air pollution is needed in order to: 1) better document the benefits of lowered air pollution; and, 2) identify the types of reductions that most effectively provide health benefits...
February 22, 2017: Environment International
Kai Chen, Lian Zhou, Xiaodong Chen, Jun Bi, Patrick L Kinney
BACKGROUND: Few multicity studies have addressed the health effects of ozone in China due to the scarcity of ozone monitoring data. A critical scientific and policy-relevant question is whether a threshold exists in the ozone-mortality relationship. METHODS: Using a generalized additive model and a univariate random-effects meta-analysis, this research evaluated the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and daily total mortality in seven cities of Jiangsu Province, China during 2013-2014...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
Yu-Sheng Shen, Shih-Chun Candice Lung
Previous studies have shown both health and environmental benefits of green spaces, especially in moderating temperature and reducing air pollution. However, the characteristics of green structures have been overlooked in previous investigations. In addition, the mediation effects of green structures on respiratory mortality have not been assessed. This study explores the potential mediation pathways and effects of green structure characteristics on respiratory mortality through temperature, primary and secondary air pollutants separately using partial least squares model with data from Taiwan...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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