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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342452/estimated-effect-of-temperature-on-years-of-life-lost-a-retrospective-time-series-study-of-low-middle-and-high-income-regions
#1
Maquins Odhiambo Sewe, Aditi Bunker, Vijendra Ingole, Thaddaeus Egondi, Daniel Oudin Åström, David M Hondula, Joacim Rocklöv, Barbara Schumann
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have reported a strong association between temperature and mortality. Additional insights can be gained from investigating the effects of temperature on years of life lost (YLL), considering the life expectancy at the time of death. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to assess the association between temperature and YLL at seven low-, middle-, and high-income sites. METHODS: We obtained meteorological and population data for at least nine years from four Health and Demographic Surveillance Sites in Kenya (western Kenya, Nairobi), Burkina Faso (Nouna), and India (Vadu), as well as data from cities in the United States (Philadelphia, Phoenix) and Sweden (Stockholm)...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340243/urban-heat-island-effect-on-cicada-densities-in-metropolitan-seoul
#2
Hoa Q Nguyen, Desiree K Andersen, Yuseob Kim, Yikweon Jang
Background: Urban heat island (UHI) effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods: To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338888/vibrio-communities-in-scleractinian-corals-differ-according-to-health-status-and-geographic-location-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#3
Esther Rubio-Portillo, Juan F Gago, Manuel Martínez-García, Luigi Vezzulli, Ramon Rosselló-Móra, Josefa Antón, Alfonso A Ramos-Esplá
The increase in seawater temperature associated with global warming is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing mass mortality events and Vibrio-related coral diseases. In the Mediterranean Sea, the endemic Cladocora caespitosa and the invasive species Oculina patagonica are the main scleractinian corals affected by mass mortalities. In this study, culturable Vibrio spp. assemblages associated with healthy and unhealthy colonies of these two shallow coral species were characterized to assess the presence of Vibrio pathogens in tissue necrosis...
December 21, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337319/the-effects-of-interaction-between-particulate-matter-and-temperature-on-mortality-in-beijing-china
#4
Lin Tian, Fengchao Liang, Qun Guo, Shi Chen, Shengning Xiao, Ziting Wu, Xiaobin Jin, Xiaochuan Pan
BACKGROUND: the effects of interaction between temperature and inhalable particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm, PM10) on mortality have been examined in some previous studies, but the results were inconsistent. This study aims to explore whether the effects of PM10 on daily non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality were modified by temperature levels in Beijing from 2006 to 2009. METHODS: we applied a bivariate response surface model and temperature-stratified model based on time-series Poisson generalized additive models (GAMs) to examine the interactive effects in single- and two-pollutant models...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334583/effects-of-carnosine-beta-alanyl-l-histidine-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-acute-kidney-injury-due-to-septic-shock
#5
Sabiha Sahin, Dilek Burukoglu Donmez
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human intensive care unit (ICU). Kidney function and the histological findings of AKI were investigated in an experimental rat model with sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and compared with and without treatment with carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups consisting eight rats in each: Group 1 - control; Group 2 - septic shock; and Group 3 - septic shock treated with carnosine...
January 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334564/validating-the-electronic-cardiac-arrest-risk-triage-ecart-score-for-risk-stratification-of-surgical-inpatients-in-the-postoperative-setting-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Bartlomiej Bartkowiak, Ashley M Snyder, Andrew Benjamin, Andrew Schneider, Nicole M Twu, Matthew M Churpek, Kevin K Roggin, Dana P Edelson
OBJECTIVE: Assess the accuracy of 3 early warning scores for predicting severe adverse events in postoperative inpatients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative clinical deterioration on inpatient hospital services is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Early warning scores have been developed to detect inpatient clinical deterioration and trigger rapid response activation, but knowledge regarding the application of early warning scores to postoperative inpatients is limited...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327184/efficacy-of-forced-air-warming-to-prevent-perioperative-hypothermia-in-morbidly-obese-versus-non-obese-patients
#7
Raphael Okoué, Daniela Calabrese, Pascal Nzé, Simon Msika, Hawa Keita
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is associated with an increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Forced-air warming systems are the most effective methods for its prevention. When using a mattress, a reduction in the area of diffusion of warm air by crushing due to excess weight cannot be ruled out. METHODS: We designed a prospective study to compare the efficacy of a forced-air warming mattress (Bair Hugger® 585) to prevent hypothermia (core temperature (CT°) < 36 °C) in morbidly obese (group MO, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2) and non-obese patients (group NO, BMI < 30 kg/m2)...
January 11, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325753/induced-hypothermia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-and-respiratory-failure-cass-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#8
Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Maria Egede Johansen, Morten Bestle, Katrin Thormar, Lars Hein, Louise Gyldensted, Anne Lindhardt, Henrik Christensen, Stine Estrup, Henrik Planck Pedersen, Matthew Harmon, Uday Kant Soni, Silvia Perez-Protto, Nicolai Wesche, Ulrik Skram, John Asger Petersen, Thomas Mohr, Tina Waldau, Lone Musaeus Poulsen, Ditte Strange, Nicole P Juffermans, Daniel I Sessler, Else Tønnesen, Kirsten Møller, Dennis Karsten Kristensen, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Jens D Lundgren, Jens-Ulrik Jensen
BACKGROUND: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America...
January 8, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325692/ontogenetic-and-temperature-dependent-changes-in-tolerance-to-hypoxia-and-hydrogen-sulfide-during-the-early-life-stages-of-the-manila-clam-ruditapes-philippinarum
#9
Keita Kodama, Mitsuyasu Waku, Ryota Sone, Dai Miyawaki, Toshiro Ishida, Tetsuji Akatsuka, Toshihiro Horiguchi
Wind-induced upwelling of hypoxic waters containing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) sometimes causes mass mortalities of aquatic organisms inhabiting coastal areas, including the hypoxia-tolerant Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. We examined the tolerance of Manila clam to H2S under controlled laboratory conditions. Larvae and juveniles obtained by artificial fertilization or from a wild population were exposed to normoxic or to hypoxic water with or without un-ionized H2S (concentrations, 0.2-52.2 mg/L). Twenty-four-hour exposure experiments revealed ontogenetic changes in the clam's tolerance to H2S exposure: tolerance was enhanced from the larval stages to juveniles just after settlement but was attenuated as juveniles grew...
January 2, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322545/acute-toxicity-of-corexit-ec9500a-and-assessment-of-dioctyl-sulfosuccinate-as-an-indicator-for-monitoring-four-oil-dispersants-applied-to-diluted-bitumen
#10
Ceara Y MacInnis, Pamela Brunswick, Grace H Park, Craig Buday, Grant Schroeder, Ben Fieldhouse, Carl E Brown, Graham van Aggelen, Dayue Shang
The current study investigated oil dispersant toxicity to fish species typical of the cooler regions of Canada, together with less well documented issues pertaining to oil dispersant monitoring. Corexit EC9500A oil dispersant toxicity was assessed for the fresh water fish species rainbow trout and seawater species coho, chinook, and chum, with a final LC50 acute lethality range between 35.3 mg/L - 59.8 mg/L. The LC50 range was calculated using confirmed 0 h dispersant concentrations that were justified by fish mortality within the first 24 h of exposure and by variability of the dispersant indicator dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) used to monitor concentration at later time-points...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321054/the-association-between-daily-concentrations-of-air-pollution-and-visits-to-a-psychiatric-emergency-unit-a-case-crossover-study
#11
Anna Oudin, Daniel Oudin Åström, Peter Asplund, Steinn Steingrimsson, Zoltan Szabo, Hanne Krage Carlsen
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies, and a few epidemiological studies, suggest that air pollution may cause acute exacerbation of psychiatric disorders, and even increase the rate of suicide attempts, but epidemiological studies on air pollution in association with psychiatric disorders are still few. Our aim was to investigate associations between daily fluctuations in air pollution concentrations and the daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency unit...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319644/improving-thermoregulation-for-trauma-patients-in-the-emergency-department-an-evidence-based-practice-project
#12
Ada Saqe-Rockoff, Finn D Schubert, Amanda Ciardiello, Elizabeth Douglas
Extensive evidence exists on the association between hypothermia and increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Gaps in practice related to temperature assessment have been identified in literature, along with limited personnel knowledge regarding management of patients with accidental hypothermia. An interdisciplinary team identified gaps in practice in our institution regarding temperature assessment and documentation of rewarming and initiated an evidence-based practice project to change practice at our institution...
January 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317152/predicting-long-term-outcomes-after-cardiac-arrest-by-using-serum-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin
#13
Yu-Ri Park, Joo Suk Oh, Hyunho Jeong, Jungtaek Park, Young Min Oh, Semin Choi, Kyoung Ho Choi
OBJECTIVES: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is secreted by various tissues in pathologic states. Previous studies reported that post-cardiac arrest serum NGAL levels correlate with short-term neurologic outcomes and survival. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between NGAL levels post-cardiac arrest and long-term outcomes and survival. METHODS: This prospective observational study and retrospective review included adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors who were treated by hypothermia-targeted temperature management...
December 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316410/environmental-warming-and-feminization-of-one-of-the-largest-sea-turtle-populations-in-the-world
#14
Michael P Jensen, Camryn D Allen, Tomoharu Eguchi, Ian P Bell, Erin L LaCasella, William A Hilton, Christine A M Hof, Peter H Dutton
Climate change affects species and ecosystems around the globe [1]. The impacts of rising temperature are particularly pertinent in species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), where the sex of an individual is determined by incubation temperature during embryonic development [2]. In sea turtles, the proportion of female hatchlings increases with the incubation temperature. With average global temperature predicted to increase 2.6°C by 2100 [3], many sea turtle populations are in danger of high egg mortality and female-only offspring production...
January 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315468/when-do-trauma-patients-lose-temperature-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
S C Eidstuen, O Uleberg, G Vangberg, E Skogvoll
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypothermia in trauma patients is high and rapid recognition is important to prevent further heat loss. Hypothermia is associated with poor patient outcomes and is an independent predictor of increased mortality. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in core body temperature of trauma patients during different treatment phases in the pre-hospital and early in-hospital settings. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study in severely injured patients...
January 7, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314257/contemporary-management-and-outcomes-of-acute-type-a-aortic-dissection-an-analysis-of-the-sts-adult-cardiac-surgery-database
#16
Teng C Lee, Zachary Kon, Faisal H Cheema, Maria V Grau-Sepulveda, Brian Englum, Sunghee Kim, Paramita S Chaudhuri, Vinod H Thourani, Gorav Ailawadi, G Chad Hughes, Matthew L Williams, J Matthew Brennan, Lars Svensson, James S Gammie
PURPOSE: Management of acute type A aortic dissection (AAAD) is challenging and operative strategies are varied. We used the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (STS ACSD) to describe contemporary surgical strategies and outcomes for AAAD. METHODS: Between July 2011 and September 2012, 2982 patients with AAAD underwent operations at 640 centers in North America. RESULTS: In this cohort, median age was 60 years old, 66% were male, and 80% had hypertension...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313368/tackling-the-health-impacts-of-climate-change-in-the-twenty-first-century
#17
Nicholas Heng
The turn of the twenty-first century has borne witness to the seemingly relentless march of climate change, with global mean temperatures and sea levels projected to rise significantly in the near future. Despite considerable improvements in healthcare, mortality rates and life expectancy worldwide over the past few decades, there is increasing evidence postulating the potentially adverse impacts of environmental alterations on health in more ways than one. These not only involve direct and indirect climatic-related health impacts, but also those modulated by human aspects...
January 9, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311701/equal-fitness-paradigm-explained-by-a-trade-off-between-generation-time-and-energy-production-rate
#18
James H Brown, Charles A S Hall, Richard M Sibly
Most plant, animal and microbial species of widely varying body size and lifestyle are nearly equally fit as evidenced by their coexistence and persistence through millions of years. All organisms compete for a limited supply of organic chemical energy, derived mostly from photosynthesis, to invest in the two components of fitness: survival and production. All organisms are mortal because molecular and cellular damage accumulates over the lifetime; life persists only because parents produce offspring. We call this the equal fitness paradigm...
January 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310580/evaluation-of-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-technique-for-diagnosis-of-malaria-in-ahero-sub-county-hospital-kenya
#19
Regina Kandie, Rachel Ochola, Kariuki Njaanake
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment of malaria in a timely manner could avert deaths. Treatment ultimately relies on the rapid and accurate diagnosis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a cytogenetic technique based on detection of specific nucleic acid, has the potential to address the limitations of the current diagnostic approaches. This study investigates further the performance of FISH for the diagnosis of malaria in a rural setting in Western Kenya...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306663/projection-of-temperature-related-mortality-due-to-cardiovascular-disease-in-beijing-under-different-climate-change-population-and-adaptation-scenarios
#20
Boya Zhang, Guoxing Li, Yue Ma, Xiaochuan Pan
Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
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