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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811598/effects-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-megaselia-scalaris-lowe-diptera-phoridae-and-its-microbial-community
#1
Marcus J Pennington, Jason A Rothman, Michael B Jones, Quinn S McFrederick, Jay Gan, John T Trumble
Drought, rising temperatures, and expanding human populations are increasing water demands. Many countries are extending potable water supplies by irrigating crops with wastewater. Unfortunately, wastewater contains biologically active, long-lived pharmaceuticals, even after treatment. Run-off from farms and wastewater treatment plant overflows contribute high concentrations of pharmaceuticals to the environment. This study assessed the effects of common pharmaceuticals on a cosmopolitan saprophagous insect, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809508/effects-of-high-temperatures-on-the-mortality-of-stegobium-paniceum-l-coleoptera-anobiidae
#2
Jianhua Lü
As an alternative to chemical fumigants, heat treatment has been a widely used physical method to successfully control stored-product insects in empty grain storage and food processing facilities. The drugstore beetle, Stegobium paniceum (L.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) is one of the most destructive stored-product insects in the world. The mortality of the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of S. paniceum was investigated when exposed to 43, 47, 51, and 55°C for different time intervals. The mortality rate of the S...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808563/conceptualizing-ecosystem-tipping-points-within-a-physiological-framework
#3
Christopher D G Harley, Sean D Connell, Zoë A Doubleday, Brendan Kelaher, Bayden D Russell, Gianluca Sarà, Brian Helmuth
Connecting the nonlinear and often counterintuitive physiological effects of multiple environmental drivers to the emergent impacts on ecosystems is a fundamental challenge. Unfortunately, the disconnect between the way "stressors" (e.g., warming) is considered in organismal (physiological) and ecological (community) contexts continues to hamper progress. Environmental drivers typically elicit biphasic physiological responses, where performance declines at levels above and below some optimum. It is also well understood that species exhibit highly variable response surfaces to these changes so that the optimum level of any environmental driver can vary among interacting species...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807479/multifactorial-analyses-revealed-optimal-aquaculture-modalities-improving-husbandry-fitness-without-clear-effect-on-stress-and-immune-status-of-pikeperch-sander-lucioperca
#4
Sébastien Baekelandt, Baptiste Redivo, Syaghalirwa N M Mandiki, Thibaut Bournonville, Alexis Houndji, Benoît Bernard, Najlae El Kertaoui, Mélodie Schmitz, Pascal Fontaine, Jean-Noël Gardeur, Yannick Ledoré, Patrick Kestemont
High mortality and impairment in growth rate during pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) ongrowing are among the major bottlenecks for its development in aquaculture. These failures may be related to high stress responsiveness since the rearing conditions are not yet optimized for this species. The objectives were to characterize the stress and immunological responses of pikeperch to major aquaculture modalities, and to identify the optimal aquaculture conditions for improving its welfare status. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (2(8-4))...
August 11, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806748/temperature-effects-on-gene-expression-and-morphological-development-of-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-larvae
#5
Sebastian N Politis, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Sune R Sørensen, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp), growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factors (igf)] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806469/climate-change-effects-on-respiratory-health-implications-for-nursing
#6
Maureen George, Jean-Marie Bruzzese, Lea Ann Matura
PURPOSE: Greenhouse gases are driving climate change. This article explores the adverse health effects of climate change on a particularly vulnerable population: children and adults with respiratory conditions. APPROACH: This review provides a general overview of the effects of increasing temperatures, extreme weather, desertification, and flooding on asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, and respiratory infections. We offer suggestions for future research to better understand climate change hazards, policies to support prevention and mitigation efforts targeting climate change, and clinical actions to reduce individual risk...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802900/adolescent-chronic-variable-social-stress-influences-exploratory-behavior-and-nicotine-responses-in-male-but-not-female-balb-cj-mice
#7
M J Caruso, D E Reiss, J I Caulfield, J L Thomas, A N Baker, S A Cavigelli, H M Kamens
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798803/preparation-of-a-nanoemulsion-with-carapa-guianensis-aublet-meliaceae-oil-by-a-low-energy-solvent-free-method-and-evaluation-of-its-preliminary-residual-larvicidal-activity
#8
Flávia L M Jesus, Fernanda B de Almeida, Jonatas L Duarte, Anna E M F M Oliveira, Rodrigo A S Cruz, Raimundo N P Souto, Ricardo M A Ferreira, Regina Gendzelevski Kelmann, José C T Carvalho, Ana C Lira-Guedes, Marcelino Guedes, Conxita Solans, Caio P Fernandes
Andiroba (Carapa guianensis) seeds are the source of an oil with a wide range of biological activities and ethnopharmacological uses. However, few studies have devoted attention to innovative formulations, including nanoemulsions. The present study aimed to obtain a colloidal system with the andiroba oil using a low-energy and organic-solvent-free method. Moreover, the preliminary residual larvicidal activity of the nanoemulsion against Aedes aegypti was evaluated. Oleic and palmitic acids were the major fatty acids, in addition to the phytosterol β-sitosterol and limonoids (tetranortriterpenoids)...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797480/can-acclimation-of-thermal-tolerance-in-adults-and-across-generations-act-as-a-buffer-against-climate-change-in-tropical-marine-ectotherms
#9
S A Morley, K D Nguyen, L S Peck, C-H Lai, K S Tan
Thermal acclimation capacity was investigated in adults of three tropical marine invertebrates, the subtidal barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis, the intertidal gastropod Volegalea cochlidium and the intertidal barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. To test the relative importance of transgenerational acclimation, the developmental acclimation capacity of A. amphitrite was investigated in F1 and F2 generations reared at a subset of the same incubation temperatures. The increase in CTmax (measured through loss of key behavioural metrics) of F0 adults across the incubation temperature range 25...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797479/paralysis-and-heart-failure-precede-ion-balance-disruption-in-heat-stressed-european-green-crabs
#10
Lisa B Jørgensen, Johannes Overgaard, Heath A MacMillan
Acute exposure of ectotherms to critically high temperatures causes injury and death, and this mortality has been associated with a number of physiological perturbations including impaired oxygen transport, loss of ion and water homeostasis, and neuronal failure. It is difficult to discern which of these factors, if any, is the proximate cause of heat injury because, for example, loss of ion homeostasis can impair neuromuscular function (including cardiac function), and conversely impaired oxygen transport reduces ATP supply and can thus reduce ion transport capacity...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796630/opportunities-and-challenges-for-personal-heat-exposure-research
#11
Evan R Kuras, Molly B Richardson, Miriam M Calkins, Kristie L Ebi, Jeremy J Hess, Kristina W Kintziger, Meredith A Jagger, Ariane Middel, Anna A Scott, June T Spector, Christopher K Uejio, Jennifer K Vanos, Benjamin F Zaitchik, Julia M Gohlke, David M Hondula
BACKGROUND: Environmental heat exposure is a public health concern. The impacts of environmental heat on mortality and morbidity at the population scale are well documented, but little is known about specific exposures that individuals experience. OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this work was to catalyze discussion of the role of personal heat exposure information in research and risk assessment. The second objective was to provide guidance regarding the operationalization of personal heat exposure research methods...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796021/psychotropics-environmental-temperature-and-hospital-outcomes-in-older-medical-patients
#12
Arduino A Mangoni, Feruza Kholmurodova, Lidia Mayner, Paul Hakendorf, Richard J Woodman
PURPOSE: The authors investigated whether the use of psychotropics and environmental temperature on admission influence hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality in older medical patients. METHODS: Clinical and demographic characteristics, Charlson Comorbidity Index, use of psychotropic and nonpsychotropic drugs, hospital LOS, and mortality were retrospectively collected in medical patients 65 years and older (n = 382) admitted to a metropolitan teaching hospital during 5 consecutive heat waves (HWs) between 2007 and 2009...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792421/mass-mortalities-of-unknown-aetiology-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-in-port-stephens-new-south-wales-australia
#13
Jeffrey Go, Ania T Deutscher, Zoe B Spiers, Kirk Dahle, Peter D Kirkland, Cheryl Jenkins
From January to June 2013 and November to January 2014, mass mortalities were reported in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas cultivated in Port Stephens estuary, New South Wales, Australia. In some cases, 100% mortality was reported in both triploid and diploid C. gigas, although native species of oyster cultivated in the same areas remained unaffected. Histological examination of oysters sampled from the time of mortality events revealed consistent but non-specific pathology, involving a diffuse haemocytic infiltrate in the connective tissue surrounding the digestive gland, extending into the mantle in some instances, but no other signs of any infectious aetiological agent...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792416/identifying-coagulopathies-in-the-pathophysiology-of-cold-stress-syndrome-in-the-florida-manatee-trichechus-manatus-latirostris
#14
Ashley Barratclough, Bobbi J Conner, Marjory B Brooks, Alyssa Pontes Stablein, Trevor J Gerlach, Roger L Reep, Ray L Ball, Ruth Francis Floyd
Cold stress syndrome (CSS) in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris has been defined as morbidity and mortality resulting from prolonged exposure to water temperatures <20°C. The pathophysiology is described as multifactorial, involving nutritional, immunological and metabolic disturbances; however, the exact mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that thromboembolic complications contribute to the pathophysiology of CSS in addition to the previously described factors. During the winter of 2014-2015, 10 Florida manatees with clinical signs of CSS were presented to Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, FL, USA...
August 9, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791197/ambient-temperature-and-cardiovascular-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Mohammad Taghi Moghadamnia, Ali Ardalan, Alireza Mesdaghinia, Abbas Keshtkar, Kazem Naddafi, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad
INTRODUCTION: Our study aims at identifying and quantifying the relationship between the cold and heat exposure and the risk of cardiovascular mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Peer-reviewed studies about the temperature and cardiovascular mortality were retrieved in the MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from January 2000 up to the end of 2015...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780531/assessing-the-effects-of-weekly-preweaning-health-scores-on-dairy-calf-mortality-and-productivity-parameters-cohort-study
#16
Sophie Anne Mahendran, Richard Booth, Lies Beekhuis, Al Manning, Tania Blackmore, Arne Vanhoudt, Nick Bell
A longitudinal cohort study was conducted to follow the health of 787 calves from one UK dairy farm over a two-and-a-half-year period. Weekly health scores were gathered using a modified version of the Wisconsin Calf Scoring system (which did not record ear position) until calves were eight weeks of age, combined with data on colostral passive transfer, mortality, age at first conception and 305-day milk yield. High morbidity levels were detected, with 87 per cent of calves experiencing at least one clinically significant event (diarrhoea, pyrexia, pneumonia, nasal or ocular discharge, navel ill or joint ill)...
August 5, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777195/prevalence-and-prognostic-association-of-circulating-troponin-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#17
Thomas S Metkus, Eliseo Guallar, Lori Sokoll, David Morrow, Gordon Tomaselli, Roy Brower, Steven Schulman, Frederick K Korley
OBJECTIVE: Circulating cardiac troponin has been associated with adverse prognosis in the acute respiratory distress syndrome in small and single-center studies; however, comprehensive studies of myocardial injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome using modern high-sensitivity troponin assays, which can detect troponin at much lower circulating concentrations, have not been performed. DESIGN: We performed a prospective cohort study. SETTING: We included patients enrolled in previously completed trials of acute respiratory distress syndrome...
August 2, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776434/pneumonia-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-no-diagnostic-and-prognostic-value-of-different-quantitative-tracheal-aspirates-thresholds
#18
J Garnacho-Montero, A Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, I Lopez-García, J C Miranda, V González-Galán, Y Corcia-Palomo, I Alonso-Araujo, L Martín-Villén, J Aznar-Martín, R Amaya-Villar
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of pneumonia in ventilated patients is challenging due to the lack of specific and definitive clinical symptoms, laboratory data or radiological abnormalities. METHODS: Based on quantitative tracheal aspirate (QTA) results, three groups of patients were compared: <10(5) cfu/ml, ≥10(5) cfu/ml and <10(6) cfu/ml, and ≥10(6) cfu/ml. We recorded demographic variables, underlying diseases and severity of illness at ICU admission...
August 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774264/role-of-meteorological-conditions-in-reported-chickenpox-cases-in-wuhan-and-hong-kong-china
#19
Banghua Chen, Ayako Sumi, Lei Wang, Wang Zhou, Nobumichi Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: Chickenpox is a common contagious disease that remains an important public health issue worldwide. Over 90% of unvaccinated individuals become infected, but infection occurs at different ages in different parts of the world. Many people have been infected by 20 to 30 years of age in China, and adults and pregnant women who become infected often develop severe infection. Furthermore, a mortality rate of 2-3 per 100,000 infected persons has been reported. In this study, we explore the temperature-dependent transition of patterns of reported chickenpox cases in two large subtropical climate cities, Wuhan and Hong Kong, China, to aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effects of climatic changes on epidemiology of chickenpox in China...
August 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773090/hydrothermal-fabrication-of-highly-porous-titanium-bio-scaffold-with-a-load-bearable-property
#20
Han Lee, Jiunn-Der Liao, Kundan Sivashanmugan, Bernard Hao-Chih Liu, Yu-Han Su, Chih-Kai Yao, Yung-Der Juang
Porous titanium (P_Ti) is considered as an effective material for bone scaffold to achieve a stiffness reduction. Herein, biomimetic (bio-)scaffolds were made of sintered P_Ti, which used NaCl as the space holder and had it removed via the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction results showed that the subsequent sintering temperature of 1000 °C was the optimized temperature for preparing P_Ti. The compressive strength of P_Ti was measured using a compression test, which revealed an excellent load-bearing ability of above 70 MPa for that with an addition of 50 wt % NaCl (P_Ti_50)...
June 30, 2017: Materials
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