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pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146381/impact-of-infant-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-community-acquired-pneumonia-hospitalization-in-all-ages-in-the-netherlands
#1
A M M van Deursen, T M Schurink-Van't Klooster, W H Man, J van de Kassteele, A B van Gageldonk-Lafeber, P C J L Bruijning-Verhagen, H E de Melker, E A M Sanders, M J Knol
BACKGROUND: The long-term impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on pneumonia hospitalizations in all age-groups varies between countries. In the Netherlands, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was implemented for newborns in 2006 and replaced by PCV10 in 2011. We assessed the impact of PCVs on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization rates in all age-groups. METHODS: A time series analysis using Poisson regression was performed on 155,994 CAP hospitalizations...
November 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145619/intranasal-immunization-with-an-attenuated-pep27-mutant-provides-protection-from-influenza-virus-and-secondary-pneumococcal-infections
#2
Seung Han Seon, Jung Ah Choi, Eunji Yang, Sukneung Pyo, Man Ki Song, Dong-Kwon Rhee
During influenza pandemics, secondary pneumococcal infections cause excessive mortality. However, the current pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine, PCV 13, provides only limited protection against secondary infection. Therefore, a more effective pneumococcal vaccine is required to protect against secondary pneumococcal infections. Here, intranasal immunization with an attenuated pneumococcal pep27 mutant provides protection from influenza virus infection, and also from secondary pneumococcal challenge...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134203/use-of-multiplex-quantitative-pcr-to-evaluate-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-colonization-in-african-children
#3
Courtney P Olwagen, Peter V Adrian, Marta C Nunes, Michelle J Groome, Mark F Cotton, Avy Violari, Shabir A Madhi
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization of children induces shifts in colonizing pneumococcal serotypes. This study evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with 7-valent PCV (PCV7) on vaccine serotype (VT) colonization and whether the increase in nonvaccine serotype (NVT) was due to either unmasking of previously low-density-colonizing serotypes or increase in acquisition of NVT. A multiplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to evaluate VT and NVT nasopharyngeal colonization in archived swabs of PCV-vaccinated and PCV-unvaccinated African children at 9 and 15 to 16 months of age...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#4
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126217/change-in-pneumococcus-serotypes-but-not-mortality-or-morbidity-in-pre-and-post-13-valent-polysaccharide-conjugate-vaccine-era-epidemiology-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-over-10-years
#5
Kam Lun Hon, King Hang Chan, Pak Long Ko, Michelle Ho Yan Cheung, Kathy Yin C Tsang, Lawrence C N Chan, Renee W Y Chan, Ting Fan Leung, Margaret Ip
Aim: Pneumococcus is a common commensal and an important pathogen among children for which immunization is available. Some serotypes occasionally cause severe pneumococcal disease with high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed all pneumococcal serotypes and mortality/morbidity in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) following universal pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunization. Methods: A 13-valent PCV was introduced in the universal immunization program in late 2011 in Hong Kong...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125809/burden-of-hospitalized-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study-in-vietnam-malaysia-indonesia-and-the-republic-of-korea
#6
Kah Kee Tan, Duc Anh Dang, Ki Hwan Kim, Cissy Kartasasmita, Hwang Min Kim, Xu-Hao Zhang, Fakrudeen Shafi, Ta-Wen Yu, Emilio Ledesma, Nadia Meyer
BACKGROUND: Few studies describe the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) burden in children in Asia. We estimated the proportion of all CAP hospitalizations in children from nine hospitals across the Republic of Korea (high-income), Indonesia, Malaysia (middle-income), and Vietnam (low/middle-income). METHODS: Over a one or two-year period, children <5 years hospitalized with CAP were identified using ICD-10 discharge codes. Cases were matched to standardized definitions of suspected (S-CAP), confirmed (C-CAP), or bacterial CAP (B-CAP) used in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine efficacy study (COMPAS)...
November 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119074/case-report-on-a-defective-antibody-response-against-pneumococcal-serotype-9v-in-a-patient-with-a-single-episode-of-pneumonia
#7
Diana van Kessel, Thijs Hoffman, Heleen van Velzen-Blad, Bob Meek, Suzan van Mens, Jan Grutters, Ger Rijkers
Background: Patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections and an impaired response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination are diagnosed with a specific antibody deficiency. In adult patients with pneumococcal pneumonia an impaired antibody response to the infecting pneumococcal serotype can sometimes be found. It is unknown whether these patients are unable to produce an adequate anti-polysaccharide antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination after recovery. Case presentation: The authors describe a case of invasive pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9V in a previously healthy 35-year-old female...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118167/invasive-disease-caused-simultaneously-by-dual-serotypes-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
Kedibone Ndlangisa, Mignon du Plessis, Mushal Allam, Nicole Wolter, Linda de Gouveia, Keith P Klugman, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca A Gladstone, Anne von Gottberg
There are at least 98 known pneumococcal serotypes. Invasive pneumococcal (IPD) disease is usually caused by a single serotype, and dual serotype IPD is rare. To assess factors associated with dual serotype IPD, patient information obtained through laboratory-based surveillance for IPD from 2005 through 2014 in South Africa was reviewed. Genomes of isolate pairs from co-infected individuals were sequenced to determine their molecular characteristics. For 30 (91%) of 33 patients with dual serotypes, one or both isolates were a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115905/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-infant-pneumococcal-vaccination-with-phid-cv-in-korea
#9
Xu-Hao Zhang, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Kyu-Bin Oh, Young Eun Lee, Chul-Min Kim
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) can cause invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD), pneumonia, and acute otitis media (AOM). Both the 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) are included in the National Immunization Program for infants in Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 3+1 schedule of PHiD-CV versus that of PCV-13 for National Immunization Program in Korea...
November 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102419/influence-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-acute-otitis-media-in-japan
#10
Atsushi Sasaki, Masaru Kunimoto, Sachio Takeno, Takahiro Sumiya, Takashi Ishino, Hirotoshi Sugino, Katsuhiro Hirakawa
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated: (i) changes in the incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) following introduction of public funding for free inoculation with 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) and (ii) changes in the rate of myringotomies for AOM (MyfA) in children 1year following the publication of the first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of AOM in children in Japan. METHODS: PCV7 was launched on the Japanese market in 2010 and gained public funding in 2011...
November 1, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096014/effects-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-infants-aged-0-to-90-days-in-madrid-spain
#11
Jesús Ruiz-Contreras, María Del Amo, Juan Picazo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096010/macrolides-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-panacea-or-placebo
#12
Christopher C Blyth, Jeffrey S Gerber
Pneumonia, most often caused by a respiratory virus, is common in childhood. Mycoplasma pneumoniae also is detected frequently, particularly in older children in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Despite recommendations for β-lactam antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, including erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, are prescribed frequently to children with acute lower respiratory infection. However, the significance of detecting "atypical" pathogens, including M pneumoniae, in children remains contentious...
October 31, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095807/vaccination-coverage-among-children-aged-19-35-months-united-states-2016
#13
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
Vaccination is the most effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases in young children (1). Data from the 2016 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) were used to assess coverage with recommended vaccines (2) among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained ≥90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine (91.9%), ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) (91.1%), ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine (90.6%), and ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) (90...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095719/novel-and-preclinical-treatment-strategies-in-pneumococcal-meningitis
#14
Jan P Bewersdorf, Denis Grandgirard, Uwe Koedel, Stephen L Leib
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent form of bacterial meningitis in Europe and the United States. Although early antimicrobial and adjuvant therapy with dexamethasone have helped to improve disease outcome in adults, mortality and morbidity rates remain unsatisfactorily high, emphasizing the need for additional treatment options. Promising targets for adjuvant therapy have been identified recently and will be the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Brain disease in pneumococcal meningitis is caused by direct bacterial toxicity and excessive meningeal inflammation...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093321/predominance-of-serogroup-19-cc320-271-among-penicillin-non-susceptible-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-after-the-introduction-of-the-pcv7-vaccine-in-several-regions-of-japan
#15
Mitsuru Oodate, Kouji Kimura, Hirotsugu Banno, Satoru Yokoyama, Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yoshichika Arakawa
Multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 19, including serotypes 19A and 19F, associated with clonal complex 320/271 (CC320/271), was previously shown to be predominant in many countries after the introduction of a seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). However, in Japan there has been no epidemiological research focused on penicillin-non-susceptible isolates after this event. Thus, we aimed to characterize penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSSP; penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 4...
October 31, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093131/exploring-the-role-of-competition-induced-by-non-vaccine-serotypes-for-herd-protection-following-pneumococcal-vaccination
#16
G L Masala, M Lipsitch, C Bottomley, S Flasche
The competitive pressure from non-vaccine serotypes may have helped pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to limit vaccine-type (VT) serotype prevalence. We aimed to investigate if, consequently, the indirect protection of vaccines targeting most pneumococcal serotypes could fall short of the profound effects of current formulations. We compared three previously described pneumococcal models harmonized to simulate 20 serotypes with a combined pre-vaccination prevalence in children younger than 5-years-old of 40%...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092707/determining-the-contribution-of-em-streptococcus-pneumoniae-em-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-australia
#17
REVIEW
J Kevin Yin, Sanjay H Jayasinghe, Patrick G Charles, Catherine King, Clayton K Chiu, Robert I Menzies, Peter B McIntyre
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the proportion and severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in Australians aged 18 years and over. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review with unpublished data from the largest study. DATA SOURCES: Multiple key bibliographic databases to June 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Australian studies on the aetiology of CAP in adults. DATA SYNTHESIS: In the 12 studies identified, pneumococcus was the most common cause of CAP...
November 6, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089193/driving-immunization-through-the-medicare-annual-wellness-visit-a-growing-opportunity
#18
Angela K Shen, Rob Warnock, Jeffrey A Kelman
INTRODUCTION: The Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) is a Medicare benefit designed to help prevent disease and disability based on individualized health and risk factors. METHODS: This study analyzes Medicare Part B fee-for-service claims from 2011 to 2016 to assess AWV and seasonal influenza and pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations utilization over time. RESULTS: Utilization of the AWV has increased from 8% of Medicare beneficiaries in 2011 to 19% in 2015...
October 28, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080806/t-cell-mediated-immune-response-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv-13-and-tetanus-toxoid-vaccine-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-psoriasis-during-tofacitinib-treatment
#19
Kevin Winthrop, Neil Korman, William Abramovits, Scott T Rottinghaus, Huaming Tan, Annie Gardner, Geoffrey Mukwaya, Mandeep Kaur, Hernan Valdez
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is often treated with immunomodulatory therapies that may affect immune response to common antigens. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effect of long-term exposure to tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily (BID) on T cell function in psoriasis patients. METHODS: Patients completing at least 3 months' continuous treatment with tofacitinib 10 mg BID were vaccinated with T cell-dependent vaccines (monovalent tetanus toxoid and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate [PCV-13])...
October 25, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077699/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-and-pneumonia-prevention-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#20
Fortino Solórzano-Santos, Lilia Espinoza-García, Glorinella Aguilar-Martínez, Luisa Beirana-Palencia, Gabriela Echániz-Avilés, Guadalupe Miranda-Novales
BACKGROUND: A successful strategy to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae infections is the administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effectiveness of the 7- and 13-valent PCV for the prevention of all-cause pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of children younger than 5 years of age, with congenital heart disease (CHD) and different vaccination schedules, was analyzed. History of vaccination was confirmed with verifiable records...
September 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
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