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pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932211/strain-level-streptococcus-colonization-patterns-during-the-first-year-of-life
#1
Meredith S Wright, Jamison McCorrison, Andres M Gomez, Erin Beck, Derek Harkins, Jyoti Shankar, Stephanie Mounaud, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Aileen May R Mojica, Brian Bacay, Susan A Nzenze, Sheila Z M Kimaro, Peter Adrian, Keith P Klugman, Marilla G Lucero, Karen E Nelson, Shabir Madhi, Granger G Sutton, William C Nierman, Liliana Losada
Pneumococcal pneumonia has decreased significantly since the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), nevertheless, in many developing countries pneumonia mortality in infants remains high. We have undertaken a study of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiome during the first year of life in infants from The Philippines and South Africa. The study entailed the determination of the Streptococcus sp. carriage using a lytA qPCR assay, whole metagenomic sequencing, and in silico serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as 16S rRNA amplicon based community profiling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928078/a-nationwide-study-on-the-impact-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-antibiotic-use-and-ventilation-tube-insertion-in-denmark-2000-2014
#2
Michael Frantz Howitz, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Helene Ingels, Palle Valentiner-Branth, Kåre Mølbak, Bjarki Ditlev Djurhuus
Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccines (PCV) in national immunization programs have been successful in reducing the number of invasive and lower respiratory pneumococcal infections. The impact of the vaccines on upper respiratory infections caused by pneumococci is less clear although these account for most pneumococcal infections. In this study, we used likely proxies for respiratory infections in children, such as antibiotic use and ventilation tube insertions (VTI), to estimate the impact of the vaccine on a national level...
September 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928039/vaccination-coverage-of-adolescents-with-chronic-medical-conditions
#3
Annika M Hofstetter, Stewin Camargo, Karthik Natarajan, Susan L Rosenthal, Melissa S Stockwell
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with chronic medical conditions (CMCs) are at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infections. Little is known about their vaccine uptake. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 3,989 adolescents aged 11-17 years receiving care at academically affiliated pediatric clinics between August 2011 and June 2013. Data were abstracted from the medical center's electronic health record and immunization registry in 2014. Vaccination coverage, timeliness, and missed opportunities were evaluated and analyzed in 2015-2016...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922566/streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-chronic-endobronchial-infections-in-childhood
#4
Kim M Hare, Amanda J Leach, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Anne B Chang, Keith Grimwood
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is another chronic endobronchial infection associated with substantial morbidity...
September 18, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911902/the-impact-of-10-valent-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-hospitalization-for-pneumonia-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Cristiano Alicino, Chiara Paganino, Andrea Orsi, Matteo Astengo, Cecilia Trucchi, Giancarlo Icardi, Filippo Ansaldi
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at summarizing available data on the impact of PCV10 and PCV13 in reducing the incidence of CAP hospitalizations in children aged <5years. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted. We included time-series analyses and before-after studies, reporting the incidence of hospitalization for pneumonia in the periods before and after the introduction of PCV10 or PCV13 into the immunization program...
September 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910279/longitudinal-multiparameter-single-cell-analysis-of-macaques-immunized-with-pneumococcal-protein-conjugated-or-unconjugated-polysaccharide-vaccines-reveals-distinct-antigen-specific-memory-b-cell-repertoires
#6
Bin Jia, Lisa K McNeil, Christopher D Dupont, Konstantinos Tsioris, Rachel M Barry, Ingrid L Scully, Adebola O Ogunniyi, Christopher Gonzalez, Michael W Pride, Todd M Gierahn, Paul A Liberator, Kathrin U Jansen, J Christopher Love
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of protein-conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines has been well characterized for children. The level of protection conferred by unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines remains less clear, particularly for elderly individuals who have had prior antigenic experience through immunization with unconjugated polysaccharide vaccines or natural exposure to Streptococcus pneumoniae. METHODS: We compared the magnitude, diversity and genetic biases of antigen-specific memory B cells in two groups of adult cynomolgus macaques that were immunized with a 7-valent conjugated vaccine and boosted after five years with either a 13-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (13vPnC) or a 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) using microengraving (a single-cell analysis method) and single-cell RT-PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903506/a-population-based-assessment-of-the-impact-of-7-and-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-on-macrolide-resistant-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-emergence-and-decline-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-19a-cc320-with-dual-macrolide-resistance-mechanisms
#7
Max R Schroeder, Scott T Chancey, Stephanie Thomas, Wan-Hsuan Kuo, Sarah W Satola, Monica M Farley, David S Stephens
Background: Macrolide efflux encoded by mef(E)/mel and ribosomal methylation encoded by erm(B) confer most macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 reduced macrolide-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease (MR-IPD) due to PCV7 serotypes (6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F). Methods: In this study, the impact of PCV7 and PCV13 on MR-IPD was prospectively assessed. A 20-year study of IPD performed in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, using active, population-based surveillance formed the basis for this study...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898612/-paediatric-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-before-universal-vaccination-1995-2015
#8
Muriel Ferreira, Henrique Oliveira, Nuno Costa Silva, Luís Januário, Fernanda Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the private market in Portugal in 2001, reaching over the years a moderately high coverage. In July 2015, it was included in the National Immunisation Program. The aim of this study was to characterize invasive pneumococcal disease in a pediatric hospital before universal use of the vaccine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of medical records of all children with Streptococcus pneumoniae identified by culture and/or molecular biology (available since 2008), in products obtained from sterile sites, from January 1995 to June 2015...
June 30, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887787/pneumococcal-vaccines-how-many-serotypes-are-enough
#9
REVIEW
Aaradhana Singh, A K Dutta
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes meningitis, pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis, sinusitis and otitis media specially in children and over 65 y age groups. It contributes significantly to under-five mortality and morbidity worldwide as well as in India. Use of pneumococcal vaccine seems to be the most effective measure to decrease the disease burden and reduction of under-five mortality. Many countries have already included Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV) in their National Immunization Programmes (NIP). Government of India has announced recently to include PCV13 in NIP in a phased manner...
September 9, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881165/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-adults-50%C3%A2-to-65%C3%A2-years-of-age-in-india-an-open-label-trial
#10
Bhagirath B Solanki, Christine Juergens, Manojkumar B Chopada, Pravin Supe, Vani Sundaraiyer, Natacha Le Dren-Narayanin, Mark W Cutler, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a major global public health concern in older adults, especially as life expectancy continues to increase in most countries, including India. Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) with the ability to enhance immunity (immunologic memory) on natural exposure or revaccination has been shown to protect against community-acquired pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease in adults 65 years of age and older. An unconjugated 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been available for decades; however, data on protection against pneumonia are inconsistent...
September 7, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880953/direct-and-indirect-impact-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-on-pneumonia-hospitalizations-and-economic-burden-in-all-age-groups-in-brazil-a-time-series-analysis
#11
Ana Lucia Andrade, Eliane T Afonso, Ruth Minamisava, Ana Luiza Bierrenbach, Elier B Cristo, Otaliba L Morais-Neto, Gabriela M Policena, Carla M A S Domingues, Cristiana M Toscano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867842/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-and-hospitalization-of-children-for-pneumonia-a-time-series-analysis-south-africa-2006-2014
#12
Alane Izu, Fatima Solomon, Susan A Nzenze, Azwifarwi Mudau, Elizabeth Zell, Katherine L O'Brien, Cynthia G Whitney, Jennifer Verani, Michelle Groome, Shabir A Madhi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We used data collected at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto between 2006 and 2014 - i.e. before and after April 2009, when a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was first included in South Africa's routine immunization programme. Using a Bayesian generalized seasonal autoregressive moving-average model and the data collected in 2006-2008, we estimated the numbers of children that would have been hospitalized for pneumonia between 2010 and 2014 if no pneumococcal conjugate vaccines had been used...
September 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866290/immunogenicity-safety-and-reactogenicity-of-the-pneumococcal-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-2-17-year-old-children-with-asplenia-or-splenic-dysfunction-a-phase-3-study
#13
L Szenborn, I V Osipova, H Czajka, S M Kharit, T Jackowska, N François, M A Habib, D Borys
BACKGROUND: Immunization with pneumococcal vaccines is an important prophylactic strategy for children with asplenia or splenic dysfunction, who are at high risk of bacterial infections (including S. pneumoniae). This study aimed to assess immunogenicity and safety of pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, GSK) in this at-risk population. METHODS: This phase III, multi-centre, open-label, controlled study, in which at-risk children with asplenia or splenic dysfunction were enrolled (age strata: 2-4, 5-10 and 11-17years), was conducted in Poland and the Russian Federation...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863866/rethinking-number-needed-to-vaccinate-for-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-in-older-adults-current-and-future-implications
#14
John M McLaughlin, David L Swerdlow, Raul E Isturiz, Luis Jodar
BACKGROUND: Number-needed-to-vaccinate (NNV) is increasingly used to inform decisions about vaccine use, but it is not calculated uniformly across studies. This study compared two methodologies for calculating NNV with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) to prevent one case of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among US adults aged ≥65years: (i) using one-year absolute rate differences as was originally performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and (ii) using absolute risk reduction over 5years...
September 25, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852326/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-a-universal-mass-vaccination-program-with-a-phid-cv-2-1-schedule-in-malaysia
#15
Xiao Jun Wang, Ashwini Saha, Xu-Hao Zhang
BACKGROUND: Currently, two pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are available in the private market of Malaysia-13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and pneumococcal polysaccharide and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a universal mass vaccination program with a PHiD-CV 2+1 schedule versus no vaccination or with a PCV13 2+1 schedule in Malaysia. METHODS: A published Markov cohort model was adapted to evaluate the epidemiological and economic consequences of programs with no vaccination, a PHiD-CV 2+1 schedule or a PCV13 2+1 schedule over a 10-year time horizon...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851801/generalisability-of-vaccine-effectiveness-estimates-an-analysis-of-cases-included-in-a-postlicensure-evaluation-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-the-usa
#16
Ruth Link-Gelles, Daniel Westreich, Allison E Aiello, Nong Shang, David J Weber, Jennifer B Rosen, Tasneem Motala, Laurene Mascola, Jeffery Eason, Karen Scherzinger, Corinne Holtzman, Arthur L Reingold, Meghan Barnes, Susan Petit, Monica M Farley, Lee H Harrison, Shelley Zansky, Ann Thomas, William Schaffner, Lesley McGee, Cynthia G Whitney, Matthew R Moore
OBJECTIVES: External validity, or generalisability, is the measure of how well results from a study pertain to individuals in the target population. We assessed generalisability, with respect to socioeconomic status, of estimates from a matched case-control study of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness for the prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease in children in the USA. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Thirteen active surveillance sites for invasive pneumococcal disease in the USA...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843578/estimates-of-the-global-regional-and-national-morbidity-mortality-and-aetiologies-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-195-countries-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#17
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2015 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 25 years and shows how the burden of LRI has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We estimated LRI mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using a modelling platform shared across most causes of death in the GBD 2015 study called the Cause of Death Ensemble model...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841854/distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotypes-in-the-northeast-macro-region-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil-after-the-introduction-of-conjugate-vaccine
#18
Marta Inês Cazentini Medeiros, Samanta Cristine Grassi Almeida, Maria Luiza Leopoldo Silva Guerra, Paulo da Silva, Ana Maria Machado Carneiro, Denise de Andrade
BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) still challenge health systems around the world, even with advances in vaccination programs. The present study evaluated the frequency of various Spn serotypes isolated in Regional Health Care Network 13 (RRAS 13), which includes the regional health departments (RHDs) of Araraquara, Barretos, Franca and Ribeirão Preto, especially after the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in 2010. METHODS: The analyzed Spn strains were isolated from patients with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) and then sent to Adolfo Lutz Institute (ALI) for further confirmative identification tests during the period from 1998 to 2013...
August 25, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832363/intranasal-vaccination-against-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-and-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-attenuates-hypertension-and-pneumococcal-infection-in-rodents
#19
Tatsuhiko Azegami, Yoshikazu Yuki, Kaori Hayashi, Akihito Hishikawa, Shin-Ichi Sawada, Kazuya Ishige, Kazunari Akiyoshi, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hiroshi Itoh
OBJECTIVES: To combat global increases in the prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases and concomitant infectious diseases, we aimed to develop an innovative intranasal vaccine that simultaneously targets both hypertension and pneumonia, is not given by invasive injection, and offers prolonged therapeutic effect and reduced frequency of administration. METHODS: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-pneumococcal surface protein A (AT1R-PspA) vaccine, consisting of a cationic nanometer-sized hydrogel incorporating AT1R partial peptide conjugated with PspA and cyclic diguanylate monophosphate adjuvant, was created and given intranasally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818574/antimicrobial-resistance-determinants-and-susceptibility-profiles-of-pneumococcal-isolates-recovered-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#20
Paulina A Hawkins, Patrick E Akpaka, Michele Nurse-Lucas, Rebecca Gladstone, Stephen D Bentley, Robert F Breiman, Lesley McGee, William H Swanston
INTRODUCTION: In Latin America and the Caribbean, pneumococcal infections were estimated to account for 12,000-18,000 deaths, 327,000 cases of pneumonia, 4,000 cases of meningitis and 1,229 cases of sepsis each year in children under five years old. Resistance of pneumococci to antimicrobial agents has evolved into a worldwide health problem in the last few decades. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 98 pneumococcal isolates collected in Trinidad and Tobago and associated genetic determinants...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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