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pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Abram L Wagner, Nijika Shrivastwa, Rachel C Potter, Sarah K Lyon-Callo, Matthew L Boulton
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of Michigan children with sickle cell disease (SCD) who were vaccinated according to pneumococcal vaccination recommendations and, secondarily, to examine uptake of meningococcal vaccine, and to compare up-to-date (UTD) vaccination status between children with and without SCD. STUDY DESIGN: Children with SCD who were born in Michigan were matched to controls without SCD using age, sex, race, and zip code. Using data from the state immunization registry, we assessed the significance of SCD status on UTD vaccination in logistic regression models...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Mejbah Uddin Bhuiyan, Thomas L Snelling, Rachel West, Jurissa Lang, Tasmina Rahman, Meredith L Borland, Ruth Thornton, Lea-Ann Kirkham, Chisha Sikazwe, Andrew C Martin, Peter C Richmond, David W Smith, Adam Jaffe, Christopher C Blyth
INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality globally. Introduction of the conjugate Haemophilus influenzae B and multivalent pneumococcal vaccines in developed countries including Australia has significantly reduced the overall burden of bacterial pneumonia. With the availability of molecular diagnostics, viruses are frequently detected in children with pneumonia either as primary pathogens or predispose to secondary bacterial infection. Many respiratory pathogens that are known to cause pneumonia are also identified in asymptomatic children, so the true contribution of these pathogens to childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
C Chen, P Beutels, A T Newall
In many settings, serotype changes as a result of infant 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) programs are likely to continue after the introduction of adult PCV13 programs. We applied a multi-cohort model to explore how potential serotype changes may impact on the cost-effectiveness of PCV13 use in Australian adults aged over 65 years. We found assumptions around continued herd protection from infant PCV13 programs to be critical when assessing the cost-effectiveness of adult PCV13 vaccination in Australia...
March 13, 2018: Vaccine
Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Sujith Subesinghe, Katie Bechman, Andrew I Rutherford, David Goldblatt, James B Galloway
OBJECTIVE: Vaccination is a key strategy to reduce infection risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is advocated in internationally recognized rheumatology society guidelines. The aim was to evaluate to the effect of antirheumatic drugs on influenza and pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and metaanalysis comparing the humoral response to influenza (pandemic and seasonal trivalent subunit vaccines) and pneumococcal (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines) vaccination in adult patients with RA treated with antirheumatic drugs...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Christine Juergens, James Trammel, Yasuko Shoji, Scott Patterson, Wendy Watson, Chris Webber, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Beate Schmoele-Thoma
Injection site reactions (ISRs; redness, swelling and pain) commonly occur within 1-2 days after vaccination. After administration of toxoid vaccines including diphtheria toxoid, a later onset of ISRs has also been observed. As the serotype capsular polysaccharides in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) are conjugated to cross-reactive material 197 (CRM197 ), a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin, the onset of ISRs over 14 days was explored in 8 adult studies with 19 cohorts. Subjects received PCV13 with aluminum phosphate (AlPO4 , n = 5667) or without AlPO4 (n = 304); 109 subjects received 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23)...
March 15, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Toumi Sano, Tamaho Suzuki, Ayako Nishigori, Chiharu Miyatake, Shinya Koizumi, Kiyohiko Kaizu, Atsushi Fujita, Mitsuhiro Kamisago, Bin Chang, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takeshi Asano
The introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has led to dramatic reductions in cases of invasive H. influenzae disease and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). After the introduction of the PCV7 and the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the number of children with IPD markedly decreased in our hospital. However, since 2015, three children with IPD have been admitted to our hospital. We analyzed the serotype, multilocus sequence type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated in these newly diagnosed cases...
2018: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
Carlos M Luna, Laura Pulido, Diego Burgos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As Streptococcus pneumoniae was considered the etiological agent of nearly all the cases of pneumonia at the beginning of the 20th century, and today is identified in fewer than 10-15% of cases, we analyze the possible causes of such a decline. RECENT FINDINGS: Extensive use of early empiric antimicrobial therapy, discovery of previously unrecognized pathogens, availability to newer diagnostic methods for the recognition of the pneumonia pathogens (PCR, urinary antigens, monoclonal antibodies etc...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Bernard Louizette Christophe, Mariana Mott, Gabriela da Cunha, Juliana Caierão, Pedro D Azevedo, Cícero Dias
PURPOSE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in the elderly is an important public health issue due to the increased proportion of this population in many countries including Brazil. We aimed to characterise pneumococci isolates in adults >50 years with IPD, following the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) as part of the National Childhood Immunisation Program for children ≤2 years in March 2010. METHODOLOGY: Between 2013 and 2015, pneumococcal isolates were collected and serotypes were determined using multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Umut Gazi, Djursun Karasartova, Ibrahim Tayfun Sahiner, Ayse Semra Gureser, Ozgur Tosun, Mehmet Kursat Derici, Mete Dolapci, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan
AIM: Splenectomised patients are associated with lifelong risk of fatal overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), which is mostly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Today OPSI cases can still be reported even in patients with appropriate vaccination. In our study, the levels of vaccine-specific memory B- and T cells were compared between control and splenectomised patients to enlighten the underlying reason. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five healthy and 14 post-traumatic splenectomised individuals were vaccinated with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23)...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Arto A Palmu, Kari Auranen, J Pekka Nuorti, Maija Toropainen, Lotta Siira, Mikko J Virtanen, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen
BACKGROUND: The ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. The impact of PCV10 vaccination against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in vaccine-eligible children has been high. We evaluated the long-term impact of PCV10 vaccination against IPD in vaccine-eligible and older, unvaccinated children six years after PCV10 introduction with a special focus on cross-protection against PCV10-related serotypes (serotypes in the same serogroups as the PCV10 types)...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Claire Dendle, Rhonda L Stuart, Kevan R Polkinghorne, Anne Balloch, John Kanellis, Johnathan Ling, Megan Kummrow, Chelsea Moore, Karin Thursky, Jim Buttery, Kim Mulholland, Poh-Yi Gan, Stephen Holdsworth, William R Mulley
BACKGROUND: Conjugated pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for kidney transplant recipients however their immunogenicity and potential to trigger allograft rejection though generation of de-novo anti-human leucocyte antigen antibodies has not been well studied. METHODS: Clinically stable kidney transplant recipients participated in a prospective cohort study and received a single dose of 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Anti-pneumococcal IgG was measured for the 13 vaccine serotypes pre and post vaccination and functional anti-pneumococcal IgG for 4 serotypes post-vaccination...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Clare L Cutland, Terry Nolan, Scott A Halperin, Zafer Kurugol, Khatija Ahmed, Kirsten P Perrett, Peter Richmond, Helen S Marshall, Mehmet Ceyhan, Devayani Kolhe, Marjan Hezareh, Marie Van Der Wielen
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) given alone or co-administered with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in toddlers. METHODS: In this phase III, open-label, controlled, multicentre study (NCT01939158), healthy toddlers aged 12-14 months were randomised into 4 groups to receive 1 dose of MenACWY-TT at month (M) 0 (ACWY_1), 2 doses of MenACWY-TT at M0 and M2 (ACWY_2), MenACWY-TT and PCV13 at M0 (Co-ad), or PCV13 at M0 and MenACWY-TT at M2 (PCV13/ACWY)...
March 1, 2018: Vaccine
Arto A Palmu, Jukka Jokinen, Heta Nieminen, Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Esa Ruokokoski, Taneli Puumalainen, Marta Moreira, Lode Schuerman, Dorota Borys, Terhi M Kilpi
Estimation of the full disease burden caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is challenging due to the difficulties in assigning the aetiology especially in lower and upper respiratory infections. We estimated the pneumococcal disease burden by using the vaccine-preventable disease incidence (VPDI) of PHiD-CV10 vaccine (GSK) in our clinical trial setting. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease (FinIP) trial was a cluster-randomized, double-blind trial in children <19 months who received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis B/A vaccine as control in 26 clusters according to 3+1 or 2+1 schedules (infants < 7 months) or catch-up schedules (children 7-18 months)...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
Mona Mohammadzadeh, Setareh Mamishi, Babak Pourakbari, Shima Mahmoudi
Despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes widespread morbidity and mortality. Current vaccines contain free polysaccharides or protein-polysaccharide conjugates, but do not induce protection against serotypes that are not included in the vaccines. Therefore, developing alternative vaccines is of high priority and importance. Several investigators have identified protective antigens common to pneumococci of many or all serotypes. Malley et al. in their study, have recommended unencapsulated whole cells, as an alternative vaccine, a number of such antigens unoccluded by capsule were presented in a native configuration in 2001...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Thanthima Suwanthawornkul, Naiyana Praditsitthikorn, Wantanee Kulpeng, Manuel Alexander Haasis, Anna Melissa Guerrero, Yot Teerawattananon
Background: Many economic evaluations ignore economies of scale in their cost estimation, which means that cost parameters are assumed to have a linear relationship with the level of production. Economies of scale is the situation when the average total cost of producing a product decreases with increasing volume caused by reducing the variable costs due to more efficient operation. This study investigates the significance of applying the economies of scale concept: the saving in costs gained by an increased level of production in economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Kim M Hare, Heidi C Smith-Vaughan, Amanda J Leach, Susan J Pizzutto, Gabrielle B McCallum, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), the most common bacterial lower airway infection in children with protracted bacterial bronchitis, is associated with progression to bronchiectasis. We determined whether vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduced NTHi lower airway infection compared to children not PHiD-CV-vaccinated. Our unique childhood vaccination schedule and prospective 9-year bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collection provided an exclusive opportunity to examine this hypothesis...
February 22, 2018: Vaccine
Kinley Dorji, Sonam Phuntsho, Pempa, Suthasinee Kumluang, Sarayuth Khuntha, Wantanee Kulpeng, Sneha Rajbhandari, Yot Teerawattananon
BACKGROUND: Due to competing health priorities and limited resources, many low-income countries, even those with a high disease burden, are not able to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-utility of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) compared to no vaccination in Bhutan. METHODS: A model-based cost-utility analysis was performed in the Bhutanese context using a government perspective...
February 22, 2018: Vaccine
Kimiko Ubukata, Miyuki Morozumi, Megumi Sakuma, Misako Takata, Eriko Mokuno, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. We examined etiologic changes in AOM after introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine as routine immunization for Japanese children in 2014. Serotypes, resistance genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities, and multilocus sequence typing of pneumococcal isolates were also characterized. METHODS: Otolaryngologists prospectively collected middle ear fluid from 582 children by tympanocentesis or sampling through a spontaneously ruptured tympanic membrane between June 2016 and January 2017...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ifedayo M O Adetifa, Aishatu L Adamu, Angela Karani, Michael Waithaka, Kofo A Odeyemi, Christy A N Okoromah, Mohammed M Bello, Isa S Abubakar, Victor Inem, J Anthony G Scott
Changes in nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage of vaccine-type (VT) Streptococcus pneumoniae can be used to assess the effectiveness of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10). We conducted a baseline carriage survey in rural (Kumbotso, Kano) and urban (Pakoto, Ogun) Nigeria. In this cross-sectional study, we obtained data on demography, clinical history, risk factors, and took NP swabs for pneumococcal culture. We calculated crude and age-standardised carriage prevalence and used log-binomial regression to assess risk factors for carriage...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
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