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pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645717/surveillance-of-pneumococcal-colonization-and-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-reveals-shift-in-prevalent-carriage-serotypes-in-massachusetts-children-to-relatively-low-invasiveness
#1
I Yildirim, B A Little, J Finkelstein, G Lee, W P Hanage, K Shea, S I Pelton
BACKGROUND: Following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), overall nasopharyngeal colonization rates have not changed significantly, however a dramatic and sustained decline in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children was observed in every setting where the PCVs were implemented. We aimed to describe the differences in invasive disease potential of serotypes that are common colonizers in pre- and post-vaccine eras in order to provide further insight in our understanding of dynamic epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases...
June 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637805/conjugation-of-pspa4pro-with-capsular-streptococcus-pneumoniae-polysaccharide-serotype-14-does-not-reduce-the-induction-of-cross-reactive-antibodies
#2
Míriam A da Silva, Thiago R Converso, Viviane M Gonçalves, Luciana C C Leite, Martha M Tanizaki, Giovana C Barazzone
Current pneumococcal vaccines are composed of bacterial polysaccharides as antigens plain or conjugated to carrier proteins. While efficacious against vaccine serotypes, epidemiologic data shows increasing incidence of infections caused by non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The use of Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) as a carrier protein in a conjugate vaccine could help preventing serotype replacement by increasing vaccine coverage and reducing selective pressure of S. pneumoniae serotypes...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633889/serious-pneumococcal-disease-outbreak-in-men-exposed-to-metal-fume-detection-response-and-future-prevention-through-pneumococcal-vaccination
#3
Judith Ewing, Lynsey Patterson, Neil Irvine, Lorraine Doherty, Anne Loughrey, Joe Kidney, Carmen Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Mary Ramsay, Lucy Jessop
Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#4
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626461/neoglycoconjugate-of-tetrasaccharide-representing-one-repeating-unit-of-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-type-14-capsular-polysaccharide-induces-the-production-of-opsonizing-igg1-antibodies-and-possesses-the-highest-protective-activity-as-compared-to-hexa-and-octasaccharide
#5
Ekaterina A Kurbatova, Nelli K Akhmatova, Elina A Akhmatova, Nadezhda B Egorova, Natalya E Yastrebova, Elena V Sukhova, Dmitriy V Yashunsky, Yury E Tsvetkov, Marina L Gening, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Identifying protective synthetic oligosaccharide (OS) epitopes of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides (CPs) is an indispensable step in the development of third-generation carbohydrate pneumococcal vaccines. Synthetic tetra-, hexa-, and octasaccharide structurally related to CP of S. pneumoniae type 14 were coupled to bovine serum albumin (BSA), adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and tested for their immunogenicity in mice upon intraperitoneal prime-boost immunizations. Injections of the conjugates induced production of opsonizing anti-OS IgG1 antibodies (Abs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623109/serotype-distribution-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolated-from-adult-respiratory-tract-infections-in-nationwide-japanese-surveillances-from-2006-to-2014
#6
Hisashi Shoji, Masayuki Maeda, Takahiro Takuma, Yoshihito Niki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Reports on the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have been received from many countries. However, in countries where the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) and 13-valent PCV (PCV13) were introduced, overall coverage of the serotypes by the vaccine gradually decreased due to pneumococcal serotype replacement. The aim of this study is to assess the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes and to also provide basic data on adult respiratory infection in Japan. METHODS: We analyzed 1086 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated from respiratory tract infection specimens in adult patients from 2006 to 2014...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619234/what-is-the-heterogeneity-in-the-impact-seen-with-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-telling-us
#7
William P Hausdorff, Steve Black
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have proven highly effective in decreasing invasive disease and pneumonia in young children. However, there is considerable geographic variability in the impact of these vaccines on other disease endpoints and in other age groups. Investigation of the possible causes of this variability would greatly improve our understanding of pneumococcal pathophysiology and stimulate the effort to design more broadly effective vaccines.
June 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616365/streptococcus-pneumoniae-otitis-media-pathogenesis-and-how-it-informs-our-understanding-of-vaccine-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Hakansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. RECENT FINDINGS: Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Recent information suggests that Streptococcus pneumoniae, which colonize the nasopharynx asymptomatically, can sense potentially "threatening" changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by virus infection by upregulating specific sets of genes involved in biofilm release, dissemination from the nasopharynx to other sites, and protection against the host immune system...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616364/recurrent-acute-otitis-media-what-are-the-options-for-treatment-and-prevention
#9
REVIEW
Anna Granath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To survey current strategies for treatment and prevention of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM). RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment with systemic antibiotics is required in recurrent episodes of acute otitis media. A cautious attitude is recommended due to antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics also provide effective prophylaxis for rAOM. Topical treatment with ear drops is recommended in rAOM with otorrhea from tympanostomy tubes. Pneumococcal conjugated vaccines seem to have a moderate reductive effect on overall otitis media...
2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612153/streptococcus-pneumoniae-antimicrobial-resistance-decreased-in-the-helsinki-metropolitan-area-after-routine-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-of-infants-in-finland
#10
R Sihvonen, L Siira, M Toropainen, P Kuusela, A Pätäri-Sampo
Since the introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) into the Finnish national vaccination program in September 2010, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children has decreased steeply in Finland. We studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) isolated in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during 2009-2014. We divided the data into two age groups: isolates from patients <5 years old and ≥5 years old. We also studied the serotype distribution of invasive isolates and of a subset of non-invasive multidrug-resistant isolates...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605414/childhood-deaths-attributable-to-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2006-2014
#11
Godwin Oligbu, Sarah Collins, Carmen L Sheppard, Norman K Fry, Mary Slack, Ray Borrow, Shamez N Ladhani
Background.: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), but deaths due to IPD still occur. We aimed to describe children who died of IPD since PCV introduction in England and Wales. Methods.: Public Health England conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England and Wales. IPD cases in PCV-eligible children aged <5 years (born since 4 September 2004 and diagnosed between 4 September 2006 and 3 September 2014) were actively followed up by postal questionnaires and, for fatal cases, detailed information was requested prospectively from multiple sources...
June 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604773/surveillance-of-impact-of-pcv-10-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-mozambique-2013-2015
#12
Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Goitom Weldegebriel, Reggis Katsande, Linda de Gouveia, Charlotte Elizabeth Comé, Arlindo Zacarias Cuco, Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli, Cícero Dias, Juliana Caierão, Jason Mwenda Mathiu, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604328/the-status-of-vaccine-availability-and-associated-factors-in-tshwane-government-clinics
#13
Ntombenhle Judith Ngcobo, Mercy G Kamupira
BACKGROUND: Vaccines have greatly contributed to the control of vaccine-preventable diseases and to human development. Efforts by many countries to introduce new vaccines are a significant move towards achieving the sustainable development goal for health. However, effective vaccine supply chains that ensure an uninterrupted supply of vaccines are pivotal to attaining universal access to life-saving vaccines and sustainable development. The introduction of new vaccines puts a strain on supply chains; South Africa (SA) is no exception, as there are indications of vaccine stock-outs in clinics...
May 24, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602602/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-use-in-adults-addressing-an-unmet-medical-need-for-non-bacteremic-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#14
Heather L Sings
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), with the largest burden of disease attributed to non-bacteremic pneumonia. Due to the high persistent burden of disease, pneumococcal pneumonia, particularly non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, continues to be a major public health concern. There are currently two pneumococcal vaccines approved for use in adults in the United States (US) and other countries worldwide: a 23-valent pneumococcal simple polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13)...
June 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601421/impact-of-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-on-pneumonia-in-the-gambia-population-based-surveillance-and-case-control-studies
#15
Grant A Mackenzie, Philip C Hill, Shah M Sahito, David J Jeffries, Ilias Hossain, Christian Bottomley, Uchendu Uchendu, David Ameh, Malick Ndiaye, Chidebereh D Osuorah, Oyedeji Adeyemi, Jayani Pathirana, Yekini Olatunji, Bade Abatan, Ebirim Ahameefula, Bilquees S Muhammad, Augustin E Fombah, Debasish Saha, Roslyn Mackenzie, Ian Plumb, Aliu Akano, Bernard Ebruke, Readon C Ideh, Bankole Kuti, Peter Githua, Emmanuel Olutunde, Ogochukwu Ofordile, Edward Green, Effua Usuf, Henry Badji, Usman N A Ikumapayi, Ahmad Manjang, Rasheed Salaudeen, E David Nsekpong, Sheikh Jarju, Martin Antonio, Sana Sambou, Lamin Ceesay, Yamundow Lowe-Jallow, Dawda Sowe, Momodou Jasseh, Kim Mulholland, Maria Knoll, Orin S Levine, Stephen R Howie, Richard A Adegbola, Brian M Greenwood, Tumani Corrah
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are used in many low-income countries but their impact on the incidence of pneumonia is unclear. The Gambia introduced PCV7 in August, 2009, and PCV13 in May, 2011. We aimed to measure the impact of the introduction of these vaccines on pneumonia incidence. METHODS: We did population-based surveillance and case-control studies. The primary endpoint was WHO-defined radiological pneumonia with pulmonary consolidation...
June 7, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594913/reduction-in-all-cause-otitis-media-related-outpatient-visits-in-children-after-pcv10-introduction-in-brazil
#16
Ana L Sartori, Ruth Minamisava, Ana L Bierrenbach, Cristiana M Toscano, Eliane T Afonso, Otaliba L Morais-Neto, José L F Antunes, Elier B Cristo, Ana Lucia Andrade
Few studies have reported the effect of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) on otitis media (OM) in infants. In particular, no population-based study in upper-middle income countries is available. In 2010, Brazil introduced PCV10 into its routine National Immunization Program using a 3+1 schedule. We measured the impact of PCV10 on all-cause OM in children. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted in Goiânia/Brazil considering monthly rates (per 100,000) of all-cause OM outpatient visits in children aged 2-23 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592578/bacterial-meningitis-in-finland-1995-2014-a-population-based-observational-study
#17
Aleksandra Polkowska, Maija Toropainen, Jukka Ollgren, Outi Lyytikäinen, J Pekka Nuorti
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its epidemiological characteristics, however, are changing due to new vaccines and secular trends. Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae (10-valent) were introduced in 1986 and 2010 in Finland. We assessed the disease burden and long-term trends of five common causes of bacterial meningitis in a population-based observational study. METHODS: A case was defined as isolation of S...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592303/assessing-the-efficiency-of-catch-up-campaigns-for-the-introduction-of-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-a-modelling-study-based-on-data-from-pcv10-introduction-in-kilifi-kenya
#18
Stefan Flasche, John Ojal, Olivier Le Polain de Waroux, Mark Otiende, Katherine L O'Brien, Moses Kiti, D James Nokes, W John Edmunds, J Anthony G Scott
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organisation recommends the use of catch-up campaigns as part of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) to accelerate herd protection and hence PCV impact. The value of a catch-up campaign is a trade-off between the costs of vaccinating additional age groups and the benefit of additional direct and indirect protection. There is a paucity of observational data, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, to quantify the optimal breadth of such catch-up campaigns...
June 7, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590240/epidemiology-of-culture-confirmed-infections-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-2012-2015-and-nasopharyngeal-carriage-in-children-and-households-in-taiwan-2014-2015
#19
Rajendra Prasad Janapatla, Lin-Hui Su, Hsin-Hang Chen, Hsin-Ju Chang, Tian-Chi Tsai, Po-Yen Chen, Chyi-Liang Chen, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
PURPOSE: An observational study was performed to investigate the carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) era in Taiwan. METHODOLOGY: From March 2014 to March 2015 a total of 500 healthy children and their households (631 adults) were enrolled from two large medical centres for nasopharyngeal carriage survey. Clinical isolates were prospectively collected from June 2012 to May 2015 at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585796/-impact-of-13-valent-pneumococal-conjugate-polysaccharide-vaccination-in-exacerbations-rate-of-copd-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-obstruction
#20
J M Figueira-Gonçalves, N Bethencourt-Martín, L I Pérez-Méndez, D Díaz-Pérez, C Guzmán-Sáenz, P Viña-Manrique, A J Pedrero-García
OBJECTIVE: One of the major microorganisms described as the cause of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is Streptococcus pneumoniae. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) in COPD patients with regard to the development of exacerbations and the possible differential effect according to the patient's phenotype. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients with COPD and FEV1 ≤ 65% and 18-month follow-up...
June 6, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
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