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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320200/clinical-and-biological-features-of-interval-colorectal-cancer
#1
Yu Mi Lee, Kyu Chan Huh
Interval colorectal cancer (I-CRC) is defined as a CRC diagnosed within 60 months after a negative colonoscopy, taking into account that 5 years is the "mean sojourn time." It is important to prevent the development of interval cancer. The development of interval colon cancer is associated with female sex, old age, family history of CRC, comorbidities, diverticulosis, and the skill of the endoscopist. During carcinogenesis, sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) share many genomic and colonic site characteristics with I-CRCs...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320053/management-of-colorectal-trauma-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Ju Yong Cheong, Anil Keshava
Traumatic colorectal injuries are common during times of military conflict, and major improvements in their care have arisen in such periods. Since World War II, many classification systems for colorectal trauma have been proposed, including (i) Flint Grading System; (ii) Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index; (iii) Colonic/Rectal Injury Scale; and (iv) destructive/non-destructive colonic injuries. The primary goal of these classifications was to aid surgical management and, more particularly, to determine whether a primary repair or faecal diversion should be performed...
March 20, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320051/tale-of-two-cancers-don-t-forget-the-synchronous-colon-cancer
#3
Ju Yong Cheong, Raymond Oliphant, Anil Keshava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319897/dialysis-membrane-enforced-microelectrode-array-measurement-of-diverse-gut-electrical-activity
#4
Naoko Iwata, Takumi Fujimura, Chiho Takai, Kei Odani, Shin Kawano, Shinsuke Nakayama
A variety of electrical activities occur depending on the functional state in each section of the gut, but the application of microelectrode array (MEA) is rather limited. We thus developed a dialysis membranes-enforced technique to investigate diverse and complex spatio-temporal electrical activity in the gut. Muscle sheets isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of mice along with a piece of dialysis membrane were woven over and under the strings to fix them to the anchor rig, and mounted on an 8×8 MEA (inter-electrode distance=150µm)...
March 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319463/solid-cancer-incidence-among-the-life-span-study-of-atomic-bomb-survivors-1958-2009
#5
Eric J Grant, Alina Brenner, Hiromi Sugiyama, Ritsu Sakata, Atsuko Sadakane, Mai Utada, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Caitlin M Milder, Midori Soda, Harry M Cullings, Dale L Preston, Kiyohiko Mabuchi, Kotaro Ozasa
This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319461/monocytes-macrophages-mobilization-orchestrate-neovascularization-after-localized-colorectal-irradiation
#6
Céline Loinard, José Vilar, Fabien Milliat, Bernard Lévy, Marc Benderitter
In patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer, radiation dose to healthy tissue can occur, causing microvascular damage. Monocytes that have been shown to promote tissue revascularization comprise the subsets: CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)7/4(hi)/monocytes(hi) and CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)7/4(lo)/monocytes(lo). We hypothesized that monocytes were implicated in postirradiation blood vessel formation. C57Bl6 mice underwent localized colorectal irradiation and were sacrificed at different times after exposure. Bone marrow, spleen, blood and colon were collected...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319320/the-endochondral-bone-protein-chm1-sustains-an-undifferentiated-invasive-phenotype-promoting-lung-metastasis-in-ewing-sarcoma
#7
Kristina von Heyking, Julia Calzada-Wack, Stefanie Göllner, Frauke Neff, Oxana Schmidt, Tim Hensel, David Schirmer, Annette Fasan, Irene Esposito, Carsten Müller-Tidow, Poul H Sorensen, Stefan Burdach, Günther H S Richter
Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant, osteolytic bone or soft tissue tumors, which are characterized by EWS-ETS translocations and early metastasis to lung and bone. In this study, we investigated the role of the BRICHOS chaperone domain-containing endochondral bone protein chondromodulin I (CHM1) in ES pathogenesis. CHM1 is significantly over-expressed in ES, and chromosome immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data demonstrate CHM1 to be directly bound by an EWS-ETS translocation, EWS-FLI1. Using RNA interference we observed that CHM1 promoted chondrogenic differentiation capacity of ES cells but decreased the expression of osteolytic genes such as HIF1A, IL6, JAG1 and VEGF...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#8
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319096/hyperglycemia-exacerbates-colon-cancer-malignancy-through-hexosamine-biosynthetic-pathway
#9
A Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, H F B R Loponte, N R Mantuano, I A Oliveira, I F de Paula, L K Teixeira, J C M de-Freitas-Junior, K C Gondim, N Heise, R Mohana-Borges, J A Morgado-Díaz, W B Dias, A R Todeschini
Hyperglycemia is a common feature of diabetes mellitus, considered as a risk factor for cancer. However, its direct effects in cancer cell behavior are relatively unexplored. Herein we show that high glucose concentration induces aberrant glycosylation, increased cell proliferation, invasion and tumor progression of colon cancer. By modulating the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT), we demonstrate that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) is involved in those processes...
March 20, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319059/camk2%C3%AE-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modulates-colitis-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-via-enhancing-stat3-activation
#10
X Ma, Z Meng, L Jin, Z Xiao, X Wang, W M Tsark, L Ding, Y Gu, J Zhang, B Kim, M He, X Gan, J E Shively, H Yu, R Xu, W Huang
Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2γ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2γ as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5A signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2γ protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma knockout mice displayed reduced CAC...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318974/long-distance-range-expansion-and-rapid-adjustment-of-migration-in-a-newly-established-population-of-barn-swallows-breeding-in-argentina
#11
David W Winkler, Facundo A Gandoy, Juan I Areta, Marshall J Iliff, Eldar Rakhimberdiev, Kevin J Kardynal, Keith A Hobson
When bird populations spread, long-distance pioneering populations are often backfilled by a more slowly advancing front [1-3]. The Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica, a globally distributed passerine [4, 5], expanded its breeding range an exceptional 7,000 km when it began breeding 35 years ago in its regular wintering range in Argentina [6], subsequently expanding over 500 km from its starting point [7-11]. Trans-hemispheric breeding attempts have occurred previously in related swallows [12-14], but only this colonization has lasted...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318785/biodegradation-of-polyester-polyurethane-by-aspergillus-tubingensis
#12
Sehroon Khan, Sadia Nadir, Zia Ullah Shah, Aamer Ali Shah, Samantha C Karunarathna, Jianchu Xu, Afsar Khan, Shahzad Munir, Fariha Hasan
The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses...
March 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318339/exendin-4-does-not-modify-growth-or-apoptosis-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#13
He Wenjing, Yu Shuang, Li Weisong, Xiao Haipeng
AIM: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are a kind of very popular antidiabetes drugs. They promote cell proliferation and survival through activation of signaling pathways in human islet cells involving phosphate idylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which are frequently activated in human colon cancer cells. Then, it is possible that taking GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists persistently would induce proliferation of β cells as well as colon cancer cells...
March 20, 2017: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318189/evaluation-of-esophageal-injuries-secondary-to-ingestion-of-unlabeled-corrosive-substances-pediatric-case-series
#14
Gonul Kucuk, Gulnur Gollu, Ufuk Ates, Zeynep A Cakmak, Meltem Kologlu, Aydın Yagmurlu, Tanju Aktug, Huseyin Dindar, Ahmet M Cakmak
Esophageal or gastric injuries secondary to caustic substance ingestion is still an important issue in developing countries. Its clinical spectrum can vary from absence of mucosal injury to complications such as severe burns, strictures and perforation. Physical examination and first endoscopic evaluation are very important in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to present 154 children who were undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of caustic substance ingestion including descaler, degreaser, unlabeled bleach, drain opener, surface cleaner, dishwasher rinse aid, hydrochloric acid...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318115/microbial-players-and-processes-involved-in-phytoplankton-bloom-utilization-in-the-water-column-of-a-fast-flowing-river-dominated-estuary
#15
Maria W Smith, Lydie Herfort, Caroline S Fortunato, Byron C Crump, Holly M Simon
Fueled by seasonal phytoplankton blooms, the Columbia River estuary is a natural bioreactor for organic matter transformations. Prior metagenome analyses indicated high abundances of diverse Bacteroidetes taxa in estuarine samples containing phytoplankton. To examine the hypothesis that Bacteroidetes taxa have important roles in phytoplankton turnover, we further analyzed metagenomes from water collected along a salinity gradient at 0, 5, 15, 25, and 33 PSU during bloom events. Size fractions were obtained by using a 3-μm prefilter and 0...
March 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318108/neonatal-mono-colonization-of-germ-free-mice-with-lactobacillus-casei-enhances-casein-immunogenicity-after-oral-sensitization-to-cow-s-milk
#16
Matieny Aicha Maiga, Stéphanie Morin, Hervé Bernard, Sylvie Rabot, Karine Adel -Patient, Stéphane Hazebrouck
SCOPE: Food allergy is an increasing global health problem and perinatal administration of probiotic bacteria is currently under investigation in order to prevent the development of allergic diseases. Here, we investigated the impact of neonatal mono-colonization of mice with Lactobacillus casei BL23 on an oral sensitization to cow's milk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mono-colonized (LC) mice were obtained by inoculating L. casei to germ-free (GF) parents. Nine-week-old GF, LC and conventional (CV) mice were orally sensitized to cow's milk with cholera toxin as adjuvant...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318090/caecal-bascule-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#17
Jin-Soo Park, Kheng-Seong Ng, Christopher J Young
BACKGROUND: Caecal bascule is a rare condition characterized by the inferior pole of the caecum folding on a horizontal axis antero-superiorly towards the ascending colon, potentially causing obstruction. An unusual variant of volvulus, diagnosis is challenging due to its obscurity. We present the experience of an Australian tertiary-referral hospital with the diagnosis/management of caecal bascule, and review cases reported in the literature to raise awareness of this uncommon diagnosis...
March 20, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318085/inflammatory-double-hit-model-of-temporomandibular-joint-disorder-with-elevated-ccl2-cxcl9-cxcl10-rantes-and-behavioural-hypersensitivity-in-tnfr1-r2-mice
#18
S L McIlwrath, R Nesemeier, F Ma, H S Oz, L Zhang, K N Westlund
BACKGROUND: Patients with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD), reactive arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis often have combined etiology of hereditary and microenvironmental factors contributing to joint pain. Multiple clinical and animal studies indicate 'double-hit' inflammatory insults can cause chronic inflammation. The first inflammatory insult primes the immune system and subsequent insults elicit amplified responses. The present 'double hit' study produced a chronic orofacial pain model in mice with genetic deletion of both TNFα receptors (TNFR1/R2-/-), investigating the main nociceptive signalling pathways in comparisons to wild type mice...
March 20, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317910/enterohemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-pathogenesis-role-of-long-polar-fimbriae-in-peyer-s-patches-interactions
#19
Charlotte Cordonnier, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Jonathan Thévenot, Amandine Rougeron, Sandra Rénier, Benoit Chassaing, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Nicolas Barnich, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot, Valérie Livrelli
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are major food-borne pathogens whose survival and virulence in the human digestive tract remain unclear owing to paucity of relevant models. EHEC interact with the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches of the distal ileum and translocate across the intestinal epithelium via M-cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) in EHEC pathogenesis. Of the 236 strains tested, a significant association was observed between the presence of lpf operons and pathogenicity...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317592/long-term-prognostic-value-of-preoperative-anemia-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
M J Wilson, M van Haaren, J J Harlaar, Hee Chul Park, H J Bonjer, J Jeekel, J J Zwaginga, M Schipperus
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term prognostic factor of preoperative anemia in colorectal cancer patients. BACKGROUND: Anemia is frequently observed in colorectal cancer patients, with a case incidence of 30 to 67 percent. Besides an indicator of tumor-induced blood loss and inflammation, anemia in cancer is also suggested to be a cause of inferior outcome, possibly via worsening of tumor hypoxia. As surgery is likely to enhance anemia, the long-term prognostic value of preoperative anemia seems most interesting...
March 2017: Surgical Oncology
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