Read by QxMD icon Read


Nivedita Bhattacharjee, Anupom Borah
Homocysteine (Hcy) when injected intranigrally in rat caused parkinsonian behavioural phenotypes and loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons but the underlying mechanisms of neurotoxicity remains elusive. In the present study, we focused on oxidative stress as one of the mechanisms of neurotoxicity in Hcy-induced hemiparkinsonian rat model. Unilateral intranigral infusion of Hcy (1.0 μmol in 2 μl) caused inhibition of mitochondrial complex-I activity, decrease in the level of striatal dopamine, loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and motor abnormalities...
October 9, 2016: Neurochemistry International
M Svetel, A Tomić, M Mijajlović, V Dobričić, I Novaković, T Pekmezović, L Brajković, V S Kostić
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mutations in the GCH1 gene, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1, the enzyme critically important for dopamine production in nigrostriatal neurons, are the most common cause of dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), characterized predominantly by limb dystonia, although parkinsonian features may also be present. It has been suggested that DRD is a neurochemical rather than neurodegenerative disorder. METHODS: Transcranial brain sonography, which might be a risk marker for nigral injury, was obtained from 141 subjects divided into four groups: (i) 11 patients with genetically confirmed DRD; (ii) 55 consecutive patients with Parkinson's disease (PD); (iii) 30 patients diagnosed as isolated adult-onset focal dystonia; and (iv) 45 healthy controls (HCs)...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
D J Vidyadhara, H Yarreiphang, T R Raju, Phalguni Anand Alladi
Disease genetics in admixed populations like Hispanic-Americans, African-Americans, etc. are gaining importance due to high disease burden in them. Furthermore, epidemiological studies conclusively prove ethnicity-based differential prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD), since the American-Caucasians are more susceptible than Asian-Indians and Africans. Contradictorily, Anglo-Indians, an admixture of Europeans and Asian-Indians are five-times less susceptible than Indians. We evaluated the neural basis of this phenomenon using the cytomorphological features of susceptibility to nigrostriatal neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Richard Gordon, Matthew L Neal, Jie Luo, Monica R Langley, Dilshan S Harischandra, Nikhil Panicker, Adhithiya Charli, Huajun Jin, Vellareddy Anantharam, Trent M Woodruff, Qun-Yong Zhou, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy
Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice...
October 5, 2016: Nature Communications
Randy Hunter, Uttam Ojha, Sunil Bhurtel, Guoying Bing, Dong-Young Choi
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a role in the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that inflammation mediates neuronal damage via exacerbation of a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces microglial activation and inflammation driven dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In order to test the hypothesis that LPS-induced inflammatory response might damage mitochondrial structure and function leading to nigral dopaminergic neuron loss, we injected LPS or saline into the striatum of rats...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Patrick Oeckl, Boris Ferger
The G-protein coupled receptor 6 (GPR6) is a constitutive active orphan GPCR which is predominantly expressed in striatopallidal neurons. GPR6 deficiency in mice may alter the susceptibility of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system relevant for Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we investigated the effect of GPR6 deficiency in mice on neurotoxicity induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine). GPR6(-/-)- and control mice were treated with MPTP (4×12.5mg/kg, i.p., 2h intervals) and analyzed after seven days...
September 17, 2016: Neuroscience
Jill R Crittenden, Paul W Tillberg, Michael H Riad, Yasuyuki Shima, Charles R Gerfen, Jeffrey Curry, David E Housman, Sacha B Nelson, Edward S Boyden, Ann M Graybiel
The dopamine systems of the brain powerfully influence movement and motivation. We demonstrate that striatonigral fibers originating in striosomes form highly unusual bouquet-like arborizations that target bundles of ventrally extending dopamine-containing dendrites and clusters of their parent nigral cell bodies. Retrograde tracing showed that these clustered cell bodies in turn project to the striatum as part of the classic nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, these striosome-dendron formations, here termed "striosome-dendron bouquets," likely represent subsystems with the nigro-striato-nigral loop that are affected in human disorders including Parkinson's disease...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Takafumi Arakaki, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier, Arthur Leblois, David Hansel
UNLABELLED: Absence seizures are characterized by brief interruptions of conscious experience accompanied by oscillations of activity synchronized across many brain areas. Although the dynamics of the thalamocortical circuits are traditionally thought to underlie absence seizures, converging experimental evidence supports the key involvement of the basal ganglia (BG). In this theoretical work, we argue that the BG are essential for the maintenance of absence seizures. To this end, we combine analytical calculations with numerical simulations to investigate a computational model of the BG-thalamo-cortical network...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Elaine Del-Bel, Mariza Bortolanza, Maurício Dos-Santos-Pereira, Keila Bariotto, Rita Raisman-Vozari
Inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a new concept that has gained ground due to the potential of mitigating dopaminergic neuron death by decreasing inflammation. The solution to this question is likely to be complex. We propose here that the significance of inflammation in PD may go beyond the nigral cell death. The pathological process that underlies PD requires years to reach its full extent. A growing body of evidence has been accumulated on the presence of multiple inflammatory signs in the brain of PD patients even in very late stages of the disease...
December 2016: Synapse
Simon Loiodice, Poppy Winlow, Sarah Dremier, Etienne Hanon, David Dardou, Omar Ouachikh, Aziz Hafidi, Andre Nogueira da Costa, Franck Durif
RATIONALE: Impulsive-compulsive disorders (ICD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have been described as behavioral or substance addictions including hypersexuality, gambling, or compulsive medication use of the dopamine replacement therapy (DRT). OBJECTIVES: A remaining challenge is to understand the neuroadaptations leading to reward bias in PD patients under DRT. METHODS: To this end, the appetitive effect of the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole was assessed after chronic exposure to L-dopa in an alpha-synuclein PD rat model...
September 10, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Maowen Ba, Min Kong, Lina Guan, Maoli Yi, Hongli Zhang
Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model...
August 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Ji Ae Lee, Hyo Jin Son, Ji Hyun Kim, Ki Duk Park, Nari Shin, Hye Ri Kim, Eun Mee Kim, Dong Jin Kim, Onyou Hwang
The degenerative process of the nigral dopamine(DA)rgic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) involves both oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In the present study, we aimed at developing a novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for PD therapy. Toward this end, we screened a novel focused library of isothiocyanate derivatives that we have generated for an anti-inflammatory property. We obtained a novel compound ITC-57 and found that ITC-57 effectively induced gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1, the catalytic and modulatory subunits of glutamylcysteine ligase, and HO-1 in DAergic neuronal CATH...
September 6, 2016: Free Radical Research
Jae-Hyeok Lee, Sun-Yong Baek, YoungKyu Song, Sujeong Lim, Hansol Lee, Minh Phuong Nguyen, Eun-Joo Kim, Gi Yeong Huh, Se Young Chun, HyungJoon Cho
High field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based delineation of the substantia nigra (SN) and visualization of its inner cellular organization are promising methods for the evaluation of morphological changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases; however, corresponding MR contrasts must be matched and validated with quantitative histological information. Slices from two postmortem SN samples were imaged with a 7 Tesla (7T) MRI with T1 and T2* imaging protocols and then stained with Perl's Prussian blue, Kluver-Barrera, tyrosine hydroxylase, and calbindin immunohistochemistry in a serial manner...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carol Naughton, Daniel O'Toole, Deniz Kirik, Eilís Dowd
In most patients, Parkinson's disease is thought to emerge after a lifetime of exposure to, and interaction between, various genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the key genetic factors linked to this condition is α-synuclein, and the α-synuclein protein is pathologically associated with idiopathic cases. However, α-synuclein pathology is also present in presymptomatic, clinically "normal" individuals suggesting that environmental factors, such as Parkinson's disease-linked agricultural pesticides, may be required to precipitate Parkinson's disease in these individuals...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Mallory N Locklear, Michalis Michealos, William F Collins, Mary F Kritzer
The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems regulate cognitive and motivational processes and are strongly implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders in which these processes are disturbed. Sex differences and sex hormone modulation are also known for these dopamine-sensitive behaviors in health and disease. One relevant mechanism of hormone impact appears to be regulation of cortical and subcortical dopamine levels. This study asked whether this regulation of dopamine tone is a consequence of sex or sex hormone impact on the firing modes of ventral midbrain dopamine neurons...
August 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Zhaowei Wang, Aimin Chen, Shengjuan Yan, Chengyan Li
The aim of this study was to explore the curative effect of differentiated human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) transplantation on rat of advanced Parkinson disease (PD) model. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and induced differentiation in vitro. The PD rats were established and allocated randomly into 2 groups: differentiated hUC-MSCs groups and physiological saline groups (the control group). Rotation test and immunofluorescence double staining were done...
August 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Hua-Min Xu, Jun Wang, Ning Song, Hong Jiang, Jun-Xia Xie
A growing body of evidence suggests that glial cells play an important role in neural development, neural survival, nerve repair and regeneration, synaptic transmission and immune inflammation. As the highest number of cells in the central nervous system, the role of glial cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) has attracted more and more attention. It has been confirmed that nigral iron accumulation contributes to the death of dopamine (DA) neurons in PD. Until now, most researches on nigral iron deposition in PD are focusing on DA neurons, but in fact glial cells in the central nervous system also play an important role in the regulation of iron homeostasis...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Xiaojun Guan, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Peiyu Huang, Nian Wang, Zhujing Shen, Jingjing Xu, Wei Luo, Minming Zhang
PURPOSE: Because the roles of striatal-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuits in the heterogeneous motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD) are becoming recognized, this study was designed to investigate the relationships between regional iron in the cardinal subcortical nuclei in these circuits and the different motor impairments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two PD patients and 40 normal subjects were included and accepted for Enhanced T2 -Star Weighted Angiography Scanning (3...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Maria Xilouri, Oeystein Roed Brekk, Alexia Polissidis, Margarita Chrysanthou-Piterou, Ismini Kloukina, Leonidas Stefanis
Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) involves the selective lysosomal degradation of cytosolic proteins such as SNCA (synuclein α), a protein strongly implicated in Parkinson disease (PD) pathogenesis. However, the physiological role of CMA and the consequences of CMA failure in the living brain remain elusive. Here we show that CMA inhibition in the adult rat substantia nigra via adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNAs targeting the LAMP2A receptor, involved in CMA's rate limiting step, was accompanied by intracellular accumulation of SNCA-positive puncta, which were also positive for UBIQUITIN, and in accumulation of autophagic vacuoles within LAMP2A-deficient nigral neurons...
August 19, 2016: Autophagy
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Giuseppe P Anastasi, Gianpaolo A Basile, Pietro Ciolli, Mariangela Irrera, Giuseppina Cutroneo, Daniele Bruschetta, Giuseppina Rizzo, Stefania Mondello, Placido Bramanti, Angelo Quartarone
Substantia nigra is an important neuronal structure, located in the ventral midbrain, that exerts a regulatory function within the basal ganglia circuitry through the nigro-striatal pathway. Although its subcortical connections are relatively well-known in human brain, little is known about its cortical connections. The existence of a direct cortico-nigral pathway has been demonstrated in rodents and primates but only hypothesized in humans. In this study, we aimed at evaluating cortical connections of substantia nigra in vivo in human brain by using probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography on magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging data...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"