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envelope following response

Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
Eric R Weiss, Galit Alter, Javier Gordon Ogembo, Jennifer L Henderson, Barbara Tabak, Yasin Bakiş, Mohan Somasundaran, Manuel Garber, Liisa Selin, Katherine Luzuriaga
: The Epstein Barr virus (EBV) gp350 glycoprotein interacts with the cellular receptor to mediate viral entry and is thought to be the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To better understand the role of EBV-specific antibodies in the control of viral replication and evolution of sequence diversity, we measured EBV gp350-specific antibody responses and sequenced the gp350 gene in samples obtained from individuals experiencing primary EBV infection (acute infectious mononucleosis; AIM) and again 6 months later (convalescence, CONV)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Han Ah Lee, Yeon Seok Seo, Seung Woon Park, Sang Jung Park, Tae Hyung Kim, Sang Jun Suh, Young Kul Jung, Ji Hoon Kim, Hyunggin An, Hyung Joon Yim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun, Soon Ho Um
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clear indicators for stopping antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not yet available. Since the level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is correlated with covalently closed circular DNA, the HBsAg titer might be a good indicator of the off-treatment response. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the HBsAg titer and the entecavir (ETV) off-treatment response. METHODS: This study analyzed 44 consecutive CHB patients (age, 44...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Yiyan He, Jie Zhou, Shengnan Ma, Yu Nie, Dong Yue, Qian Jiang, Aisha Roshan Mohamed Wali, James Zhenggui Tang, Zhongwei Gu
Systemic gene delivery is a complicated and multistep process that confronts numerous biological barriers. It remains a formidable challenge to exploit a single gene carrier with multiple features to combat all obstacles collectively. Herein, a multi-responsive "turn-on" polyelectrolyte complex (DNA/OEI-SSx /HA-SS-COOH, DSS) delivery system is demonstrated with a sequential self-assembly of disulfide-conjugated oligoethylenimine (OEI-SSx ) and disulfide bond-modified hyaluronic acid envelope (HA-SS-COOH) that can combat multiple biological barriers collectively when administered intravenously...
September 26, 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Christian Lorenz, Thomas J Dougherty, Stephen Lory
: In Gram-negative bacteria a dedicated machinery, consisting of LolABCDE components targets lipoproteins to the outer membrane. We used a previously identified small molecule inhibitor of the LolCDE complex of Escherichia coli to assess the global transcriptional consequences of interference with lipoprotein transport. Exposure of E. coli to the LolCDE inhibitor at concentrations leading to minimal and significant growth inhibition, followed by RNA-seq, identified a small group of genes, whose transcripts were decreased and a larger group where mRNA levels increased 10-100 fold when compared to untreated cells...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Mickael L D Deroche, John F Culling, Mathieu Lavandier, Vincent L Gracco
A difference in fundamental frequency (ΔF0) and a difference in spatial location (ΔSL) are two cues known to provide masking releases when multiple speakers talk at once in a room. We examined situations in which reverberation should have no effect on the mechanisms underlying the releases from energetic masking produced by these two cues. Speech reception thresholds using both unpredictable target sentences and the coordinate response measure followed a similar pattern. Both ΔF0s and ΔSLs provided masking releases in the presence of nonspeech maskers (matched in excitation pattern and temporal envelope to the speech maskers) that, as intended, were robust to reverberation...
September 19, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Anne-Marie C Andersson, Emeline Ragonnaud, Kelly E Seaton, Sheetal Sawant, Antonella Folgori, Stefano Colloca, Celia Labranche, David C Montefiori, Georgia D Tomaras, Peter J Holst
The low number of envelope (Env) spikes presented on native HIV-1 particles is a major impediment for HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine development. We designed virus-like particle encoding adenoviral vectors utilizing SIVmac239 Gag as an anchor for full length and truncated HIV-1 M consensus Env. Truncated Env overexpressed VRC01 and 17b binding antigen on the surface of transduced cells while the full length Env vaccine presented more and similar amounts of antigen binding to the trimer conformation sensitive antibodies PGT151 and PGT145, respectively...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Hamza Dar, Tahreem Zaheer, Muhammad Talha Rehman, Amjad Ali, Aneela Javed, Gohar Ayub Khan, Mustafeez Mujtaba Babar, Yasir Waheed
OBJECTIVE: To predict immunogenic promiscuous T cell epitopes from the polyprotein of the Zika virus using a range of bioinformatics tools. To date, no epitope data are available for the Zika virus in the IEDB database. METHODS: We retrieved nearly 54 full length polyprotein sequences of the Zika virus from the NCBI database belonging to different outbreaks. A consensus sequence was then used to predict the promiscuous T cell epitopes that bind MHC 1 and MHC II alleles using PorPred1 and ProPred immunoinformatic algorithms respectively...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Jon M Steichen, Daniel W Kulp, Talar Tokatlian, Amelia Escolano, Pia Dosenovic, Robyn L Stanfield, Laura E McCoy, Gabriel Ozorowski, Xiaozhen Hu, Oleksandr Kalyuzhniy, Bryan Briney, Torben Schiffner, Fernando Garces, Natalia T Freund, Alexander D Gitlin, Sergey Menis, Erik Georgeson, Michael Kubitz, Yumiko Adachi, Meaghan Jones, Andrew A Mutafyan, Dong Soo Yun, Christian T Mayer, Andrew B Ward, Dennis R Burton, Ian A Wilson, Darrell J Irvine, Michel C Nussenzweig, William R Schief
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against the N332 supersite of the HIV envelope (Env) trimer are the most common bnAbs induced during infection, making them promising leads for vaccine design. Wild-type Env glycoproteins lack detectable affinity for supersite-bnAb germline precursors and are therefore unsuitable immunogens to prime supersite-bnAb responses. We employed mammalian cell surface display to design stabilized Env trimers with affinity for germline-reverted precursors of PGT121-class supersite bnAbs...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Thea King, Chawalit Kocharunchitt, Kari Gobius, John P Bowman, Tom Ross
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli is a leading cause of foodborne illness, with the majority of cases linked to foods of bovine origin. Currently, no completely effective method for controlling this pathogen during carcass processing exists. Understanding how this pathogen behaves under those stress conditions experienced on the carcass during chilling in cold air could offer opportunities for development or improvement of effective decontamination processes. Therefore, we studied the growth kinetics and physiological response of exponential phase E...
September 11, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Alessandro Presacco, Jonathan Z Simon, Samira Anderson
The ability to understand speech is significantly degraded by aging, particularly in noisy environments. One way that older adults cope with this hearing difficulty is through the use of contextual cues. Several behavioral studies have shown that older adults are better at following a conversation when the target speech signal has high contextual content or when the background distractor is not meaningful. Specifically, older adults gain significant benefit in focusing on and understanding speech if the background is spoken by a talker in a language that is not comprehensible to them (i...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Uri Galili
Humans produce multiple natural antibodies against carbohydrate antigens on gastrointestinal bacteria. Two such antibodies appeared in primates in recent geological times. Anti-Gal, abundant in humans, apes and Old-World monkeys, appeared 20-30 million years ago (mya) following inactivation of the α1,3GT gene (GGTA1). This gene encodes in other mammals the enzyme α1,3galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT) that synthesizes α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3 Galα1-4GlcNAc-R) which bind anti-Gal. Anti-Neu5Gc, found only in humans, appeared in hominins <6 mya, following elimination of N-glycolylneuraminic-acid (Neu5Gc) because of inactivation of CMAH, the gene encoding hydroxylase that converts N-acetylneuraminic-acid (Neu5Ac) into Neu5Gc...
August 27, 2016: Glycobiology
Andrew Dimitrijevic, Jamal Alsamri, M Sasha John, David Purcell, Sahara George, Fan-Gang Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To record envelope following responses (EFRs) to monaural amplitude-modulated broadband noise carriers in which amplitude modulation (AM) depth was slowly changed over time and to compare these objective electrophysiological measures to subjective behavioral thresholds in young normal hearing and older subjects. DESIGN: HASH(0x37d4660) PARTICIPANTS: three groups of subjects included a young normal-hearing group (YNH 18 to 28 years; pure-tone average = 5 dB HL), a first older group ("O1"; 41 to 62 years; pure-tone average = 19 dB HL), and a second older group ("O2"; 67 to 82 years; pure-tone average = 35 dB HL)...
September 2016: Ear and Hearing
Lynn Elsey
AIM: To evaluate carers' satisfaction with the current service for home reconstitution and administration of intravenous (IV) antibiotics to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and identify ways of improving this service to reduce treatment burden. METHODS: A formative evaluation was conducted of all 17 carers who reconstituted and administered the IV antibiotics at home. This was carried out using a cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire of open and closed questions was sent first class with a pre-paid return envelope to the carers...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Alessandro Presacco, Jonathan Z Simon, Samira Anderson
Humans have a remarkable ability to track and understand speech in unfavorable conditions, such as in background noise, but speech understanding in noise does deteriorate with age. Results from several studies have shown that in younger adults, low frequency auditory cortical activity reliably synchronizes to the speech envelope, even when the background noise is considerably louder than the speech signal. However, cortical speech processing may be limited by age-related decreases in the precision of neural synchronization in the midbrain...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Paul W Ackermann, Paul Salo, David A Hart
The regulation of tendon metabolism including the responses to loading is far from being well understood. During the last decade, however, accumulating data show that tendon innervation in addition to afferent functions, via efferent pathways has a regulatory role in tendon homeostasis via a wide range of neuromediators, which coordinate metabolic and neuro-inflammatory pathways.Innervation of intact healthy tendons is localized in the surrounding structures, i.e paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the tendon proper is practically devoid of neuronal supply...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kristel L Emmer, Lindsay Wieczorek, Steven Tuyishime, Sebastian Molnar, Victoria R Polonis, Hildegund C J Ertl
OBJECTIVES: Over 2 million individuals are infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) each year, yet an effective vaccine remains elusive. The most successful HIV-1 vaccine to date demonstrated 31% efficacy. Immune correlate analyses associated HIV-1 envelope (Env)-specific antibodies with protection, thus providing a path toward a more effective vaccine. We sought to test the antibody response from novel prime-boost vaccination with a chimpanzee-derived adenovirus (AdC) vector expressing a subtype C Env glycoprotein (gp)140 combined with either a serologically distinct AdC vector expressing gp140 of a different subtype C isolate or an alum-adjuvanted, partially trimeric gp145 from yet another subtype C isolate...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Smita S Iyer, Sailaja Gangadhara, Blandine Victor, Xiaoying Shen, Xuemin Chen, Rafiq Nabi, Sudhir P Kasturi, Michael J Sabula, Celia C Labranche, Pradeep B J Reddy, Georgia D Tomaras, David C Montefiori, Bernard Moss, Paul Spearman, Bali Pulendran, Pamela A Kozlowski, Rama Rao Amara
UNLABELLED: The encouraging results of the RV144 vaccine trial have spurred interest in poxvirus prime-protein boost human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine modalities as a strategy to induce protective immunity. Because vaccine-induced protective immunity is critically determined by HIV envelope (Env) conformation, significant efforts are directed toward generating soluble trimeric Env immunogens that assume native structures. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model, we tested the immunogenicity and efficacy of sequential immunizations with DNA (D), modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (M), and protein immunogens, all expressing virus-like particles (VLPs) displaying membrane-anchored trimeric Env...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Cecilia Rademeyer, Bette Korber, Michael S Seaman, Elena E Giorgi, Ruwayhida Thebus, Alexander Robles, Daniel J Sheward, Kshitij Wagh, Jetta Garrity, Brittany R Carey, Hongmei Gao, Kelli M Greene, Haili Tang, Gama P Bandawe, Jinny C Marais, Thabo E Diphoko, Peter Hraber, Nancy Tumba, Penny L Moore, Glenda E Gray, James Kublin, M Juliana McElrath, Marion Vermeulen, Keren Middelkoop, Linda-Gail Bekker, Michael Hoelscher, Leonard Maboko, Joseph Makhema, Merlin L Robb, Salim Abdool Karim, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Jerome H Kim, Beatrice H Hahn, Feng Gao, Ronald Swanstrom, Lynn Morris, David C Montefiori, Carolyn Williamson
The development of biomedical interventions to reduce acquisition of HIV-1 infection remains a global priority, however their potential effectiveness is challenged by very high HIV-1 envelope diversity. Two large prophylactic trials in high incidence, clade C epidemic regions in southern Africa are imminent; passive administration of the monoclonal antibody VRC01, and active immunization with a clade C modified RV144-like vaccines. We have created a large representative panel of C clade viruses to enable assessment of antibody responses to vaccines and natural infection in Southern Africa, and we investigated the genotypic and neutralization properties of recently transmitted clade C viruses to determine how viral diversity impacted antibody recognition...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Sébastien R Mouchet, Tijani Tabarrant, Stéphane Lucas, Bao-Lian Su, Pete Vukusic, Olivier Deparis
Photonic structures encased by a permeable envelope give rise to iridescent blue color in the scales covering the male Hoplia coerulea beetle. This structure comprises a periodic porous multilayer. The color of these scales is known for changing from blue to green upon contact with water despite the presence of the envelope. This optical system has been referred to as a photonic cell due to the role of the envelope that mediates fluid exchanges with the surrounding environment. Following from previously studied liquid-induced changes in the color appearance of H...
May 30, 2016: Optics Express
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