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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298291/plasmablast-response-to-primary-rhesus-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-a-monkey-model-of-congenital-cmv-transmission
#1
Qihua Fan, Cody S Nelson, Kristy M Bialas, Flavia Chiuppesi, Joshua Amos, Thaddeus C Gurley, Dawn Jones Marshall, Joshua Eudailey, Holly Heimsath, Jonathon Himes, Ashlesha Deshpande, Mark R Walter, Felix Wussow, Don J Diamond, Peter A Barry, M Anthony Moody, Amitinder Kaur, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide, and the leading infectious cause of neurologic deficits and hearing loss in newborns. Development of a maternal HCMV vaccine to prevent vertical virus transmission is a high priority, yet protective maternal immune responses following acute infection are poorly understood. To characterize the maternal humoral immune response to primary CMV infection, we investigated the plasmablast and early antibody repertoire using a nonhuman primate model with two acutely rhesus CMV (RhCMV) infected animals - a CD4+ T cell-depleted dam that experienced fetal loss shortly after vertical RhCMV transmission and an immunocompetent dam that did not transmit RhCMV to her infant...
March 15, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284242/epstein-barr-virus-nuclear-antigen-1-interacts-with-regulator-of-chromosome-condensation-1-dynamically-throughout-the-cell-cycle
#2
Thibaut Deschamps, Quentin Bazot, Derek M Leske, Ruth MacLeod, Dimitri Mompelat, Lionel Tafforeau, Vincent Lotteau, Vincent Maréchal, George S Baillie, Henri Gruffat, Joanna B Wilson, Evelyne Manet
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in viral episome replication and segregation, by recruiting the cellular complex of DNA replication onto the origin (oriP) and by tethering the viral DNA onto the mitotic chromosomes. Whereas the mechanisms of viral DNA replication are well documented, those involved in tethering EBNA1 to the cellular chromatin are far from being understood. Here, we have identified regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1) as a novel cellular partner for EBNA1...
February 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283525/molecular-viability-testing-of-uv-inactivated-bacteria
#3
Kris M Weigel, Felicia K Nguyen, Moira R Kearney, John S Meschke, Gerard A Cangelosi
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective at detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization...
March 10, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281035/acoustic-context-alters-vowel-categorization-in-perception-of-noise-vocoded-speech
#4
Christian E Stilp
Normal-hearing listeners' speech perception is widely influenced by spectral contrast effects (SCEs), where perception of a given sound is biased away from stable spectral properties of preceding sounds. Despite this influence, it is not clear how these contrast effects affect speech perception for cochlear implant (CI) users whose spectral resolution is notoriously poor. This knowledge is important for understanding how CIs might better encode key spectral properties of the listening environment. Here, SCEs were measured in normal-hearing listeners using noise-vocoded speech to simulate poor spectral resolution...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276012/isolation-of-contact-sites-between-inner-and-outer-mitochondrial-membranes
#5
Max Harner
Mitochondria are essential organelles of all eukaryotic cells. They perform a plethora of important metabolic functions and have a highly complex architecture that differs drastically between different cells and tissues. Mitochondria are delimited from the cytosol by the mitochondrial envelope that consists of the outer membrane and the inner membrane. The inner membrane is subdivided into the inner boundary membrane that runs parallel to the outer membrane and the crista membrane. Both sections of the inner membrane are linked by crista junctions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275059/differences-in-post-injury-auditory-system-pathophysiology-after-mild-blast-and-non-blast-acute-acoustic-trauma
#6
Nicholas Race, Jesyin Lai, Riyi Shi, Edward L Bartlett
Hearing difficulties are the most commonly reported disabilities among veterans. Blast exposures during explosive events likely play a role, given their propensity to directly damage both peripheral (PAS) and central (CAS) auditory system components. Post-blast PAS pathophysiology has been well-documented in both clinical case reports and laboratory investigations. In contrast, blast-induced CAS dysfunction remains under-studied, but has been hypothesized to contribute to an array of common veteran behavioral complaints including learning, memory, communication, and emotional regulation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272965/regulation-of-4e-bp1-activity-in-the-mammalian-oocyte
#7
Denisa Jansova, Marketa Koncicka, Anna Tetkova, Renata Cerna, Radek Malik, Edgar Del Llano, Michal Kubelka, Andrej Susor
Fully grown mammalian oocytes utilize transcripts synthetized and stored during earlier development. RNA localization followed by a local translation is a mechanism responsible for the regulation of spatial and temporal gene expression. Here we show that the mouse oocyte contains three forms of cap-dependent translational repressor expressed on the mRNA level: 4E-BP1, 4E-BP2 and 4E-BP3. However, only 4E-BP1 is present as a protein in oocytes, it becomes inactivated by phosphorylation after nuclear envelope breakdown and as such it promotes cap-dependent translation after NEBD...
March 8, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246356/differential-antibody-responses-to-conserved-hiv-1-neutralizing-epitopes-in-the-context-of-multivalent-scaffolds-and-native-like-gp140-trimers
#8
Charles D Morris, Parisa Azadnia, Natalia de Val, Nemil Vora, Andrew Honda, Erick Giang, Karen Saye-Francisco, Yushao Cheng, Xiaohe Lin, Colin J Mann, Jeffrey Tang, Devin Sok, Dennis R Burton, Mansun Law, Andrew B Ward, Linling He, Jiang Zhu
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) have provided valuable insights into the humoral immune response to HIV-1. While rationally designed epitope scaffolds and well-folded gp140 trimers have been proposed as vaccine antigens, a comparative understanding of their antibody responses has not yet been established. In this study, we probed antibody responses to the N332 supersite and the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in the context of heterologous protein scaffolds and native-like gp140 trimers. Ferritin nanoparticles and fragment crystallizable (Fc) regions were utilized as multivalent carriers to display scaffold antigens with grafted N332 and MPER epitopes, respectively...
February 28, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193847/dna-damage-response-independent-role-for-mdc1-in-maintaining-genomic-stability
#9
Zhiguo Li, Chen Shao, Yifan Kong, Colin Carlock, Nihal Ahmad, Xiaoqi Liu
MDC1 is a central player in checkpoint activation and subsequent DNA repair following DNA damage. Although MDC1 has been extensively studied, much of its known functions to date pertains to the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Herein, we report a novel function of phosphorylated MDC1, independent of ATM and DNA damage, which is required for proper mitotic progression and maintenance of genomic stability. We demonstrate that MDC1 is an in vivo target of Plk1 and that the phosphorylated MDC1 is dynamically localized to nuclear envelopes, centrosomes, kinetochores and the midbodies...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161514/biosorption-behavior-and-proteomic-analysis-of-escherichia-coli-p4-under-cadmium-stress
#10
Zaman Khan, Abdul Rehman, Muhammad Atif Nisar, Saima Zafar, Inga Zerr
Bacteria develop a variety of adaptations at transcriptomic, metabolomic and proteomic levels in order to survive potentially damaging environmental perturbations. Present study is exploring the fluctuations in proteome of E. coli P4 to knob Cd(+2)-induced cytotoxicity. An attempt was also made to integrate all these approaches to gain comprehensive insight of Cd(+2) stress response in E. coli P4. This study is exposing the altered behavior of various proteins and their underlying metabolic pathways which have previously not been reported with reference to Cd(+2) stress such as sulfoquinovose biosynthesis and degradation pathway...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152379/selective-transduction-of-astrocytic-and-neuronal-cns-subpopulations-by-lentiviral-vectors-pseudotyped-with-chikungunya-virus-envelope
#11
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Michael Dieringer, Xuan Ying Poh, Julia Sanchez-Garrido, Yunan Gao, Argyro Sgourou, Laura E Simmons, Nicholas D Mazarakis
Lentiviral vectors are gene delivery vehicles that integrate into the host genome of dividing and non-dividing mammalian cells facilitating long-term transgene expression. Lentiviral vector versatility is greatly increased by incorporating heterologous viral envelope proteins onto the vector particles instead of the native envelope, conferring on these pseudotyped vectors a modified tropism and host range specificity. We investigated the pseudotyping efficiency of HIV-1 based lentiviral vectors with alphaviral envelope proteins from the Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV-G) and Sindbis Virus (SINV-G)...
January 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127942/prevention-of-allograft-hcv-recurrence-with-peri-transplant-human-monoclonal-antibody-mbl-hcv1-combined-with-a-single-oral-direct-acting-antiviral-a-proof-of-concept-study
#12
H L Smith, R T Chung, P Mantry, W Chapman, M P Curry, T D Schiano, E Boucher, P Cheslock, Y Wang, D C Molrine
Patients with active hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection at transplantation experience rapid allograft infection, increased risk of graft failure and accelerated fibrosis. MBL-HCV1, a neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the HCV envelope, was combined with a licensed oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) to prevent HCV recurrence post-transplant in an open-label exploratory efficacy trial. Eight subjects received MBL-HCV1 beginning on the day of transplant with telaprevir initiated between days 3 and 7 post-transplantation...
March 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107359/sustained-cortical-and-subcortical-measures-of-auditory-and-visual-plasticity-following-short-term-perceptual-learning
#13
Bonnie K Lau, Dorea R Ruggles, Sucharit Katyal, Stephen A Engel, Andrew J Oxenham
Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105879/factor-selection-for-service-quality-evaluation-a-hospital-case-study
#14
Ahmad Ameryoun, Seyedvahid Najafi, Bayram Nejati-Zarnaqi, Seyed Omid Khalilifar, Mahdi Ajam, Ahmad Ansarimoghadam
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075556/biosynthesis-of-the-methylthioxylose-capping-motif-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Shiva Kumar Angala, Michael R McNeil, Libin Shi, Maju Joe, Ha Pham, Sophie Zuberogoitia, Jérôme Nigou, Claudia M Boot, Todd L Lowary, Martine Gilleron, Mary Jackson
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a lipoglycan found in abundant quantities in the cell envelope of all mycobacteria. The nonreducing arabinan termini of LAM display species-specific structural microheterogeneity that impacts the biological activity of the entire molecule. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for instance, produces mannoside caps made of one to three α-(1 → 2)-Manp-linked residues that may be further substituted with an α-(1 → 4)-linked methylthio-d-xylose (MTX) residue. While the biological functions and catalytic steps leading to the formation of the mannoside caps of M...
March 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075174/analysis-of-sivmac-envelope-specific-antibodies-selected-via-phage-display
#16
Sergio Ita, Mayara Rovariz Agostinho, Katherine Sullivan, Seung Yub Han, Rana Akleh, Welkin Johnson, Ismael Ben Farouck Fofana
We have constructed a single chain Fv (scFv) phage display library from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque that developed unusually high-titer neutralizing antibody responses against tier-3, neutralization-resistant SIVmac239. The library was screened using trimeric (gp140) and monomeric (gp120) forms of the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) glycoprotein. We also cloned variable-heavy and variable-light (VH-VL) antibody fragments from 7 previously described rhesus macaque B-cell lines (BLCL) that produce SIV gp120-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069361/dna-mva-protein-vaccination-of-rhesus-macaques-induces-hiv-specific-immunity-in-mucosal-associated-lymph-nodes-and-functional-antibodies
#17
Gerald K Chege, Wendy A Burgers, Tracey L Müller, Clive M Gray, Enid G Shephard, Susan W Barnett, Guido Ferrari, David Montefiori, Carolyn Williamson, Anna-Lise Williamson
Successful future HIV vaccines are expected to generate an effective cellular and humoral response against the virus in both the peripheral blood and mucosal compartments. We previously reported the development of DNA-C and MVA-C vaccines based on HIV-1 subtype C and demonstrated their immunogenicity when given in a DNA prime-MVA boost combination in a nonhuman primate model. In the current study, rhesus macaques previously vaccinated with a DNA-C and MVA-C vaccine regimen were re-vaccinated 3.5years later with MVA-C followed by a protein vaccine based on HIV-1 subtype C envelope formulated with MF59 adjuvant (gp140Env/MF59), and finally a concurrent boost with both vaccines...
February 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063474/porcine-gpx1-enhances-gp5-based-dna-vaccination-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#18
Luping Du, Bin Li, Fengjiao Pang, Zhengyu Yu, Xiangwei Xu, Baochao Fan, Yeping Tan, Kongwang He, Kehe Huang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been causing huge economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Commercial PRRSV vaccines including killed and modified live ones are available. However the protective efficacy of these vaccines is incomplete. Thus, it is in urgent need to develop safer and more effective PRRSV vaccines. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid co-expressing porcine glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) and the envelope glycoprotein (GP5) encoding-gene of PRRSV (pcDNA3...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031369/mapping-the-human-memory-b-cell-and-serum-neutralizing-antibody-responses-to-dengue-virus-serotype-4-infection-and-vaccination
#19
Usha K Nivarthi, Nurgun Kose, Gopal Sapparapu, Douglas Widman, Emily Gallichotte, Jennifer M Pfaff, Benjamin J Doranz, Daniela Weiskopf, Alessandro Sette, Anna P Durbin, Steve S Whitehead, Ralph Baric, James E Crowe, Aravinda M de Silva
The four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes are mosquito-borne flaviviruses responsible for dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. People exposed to DENV develop antibodies (Abs) that strongly neutralize the serotype responsible for infection. Historically, infection with DENV serotype 4 (DENV4) has been less common and less studied than infections with the other three serotypes. However, DENV4 has been responsible for recent large and sustained epidemics in Asia and Latin America. The neutralizing antibody responses and the epitopes targeted against DENV4 have not been characterized in human infection...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997339/toll-like-receptor-3-adjuvant-in-combination-with-virus-like-particles-elicit-a-humoral-response-against-hiv
#20
Ethan Poteet, Phoebe Lewis, Changyi Chen, Sam On Ho, Thai Do, SuMing Chiang, Celia Labranche, David Montefiori, Gary Fujii, Qizhi Yao
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) composed of HIVIIIB Gag and HIVBaL gp120/gp41 envelope are a pseudovirion vaccine capable of presenting antigens in their native conformations. To enhance the immunogenicity of the HIV Env antigen, VLPs were coupled to VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) containing one of four toll-like-receptor (TLR) ligands, each activating a receptor with distinct cellular localization and downstream pathways. C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated by intranasal prime followed by two sub-cheek boosts and their sera immunoglobulin and neutralizing potency were measured over a duration of 3months after vaccination...
November 21, 2016: Vaccine
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