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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643570/home-based-neurologic-music-therapy-for-arm-hemiparesis-following-stroke-results-from-a-pilot-feasibility-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Alexander J Street, Wendy L Magee, Andrew Bateman, Michael Parker, Helen Odell-Miller, Jorg Fachner
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to evaluate music therapy as a home-based intervention for arm hemiparesis in stroke. DESIGN: A pilot feasibility randomized controlled trial, with cross-over design. Randomization by statistician using computer-generated, random numbers concealed in opaque envelopes. SETTING: Participants' homes across Cambridgeshire, UK. SUBJECTS: Eleven people with stroke and arm hemiparesis, 3-60 months post stroke, following discharge from community rehabilitation...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630358/assessing-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-ebola-vaccine-in-healthy-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
May S ElSherif, Catherine Brown, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Li Li, Trina Racine, Judie Alimonti, Thomas L Rudge, Carol Sabourin, Peter Silvera, Jay W Hooper, Steven A Kwilas, Nicole Kilgore, Christopher Badorrek, W Jay Ramsey, D Gray Heppner, Tracy Kemp, Thomas P Monath, Teresa Nowak, Shelly A McNeil, Joanne M Langley, Scott A Halperin
BACKGROUND: The 2013-2016 Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa was the most widespread in history. In response, alive attenuated recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing Zaire Ebolavirus glycoprotein (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP) was evaluated in humans. METHODS: In a phase 1, randomized, dose-ranging, observer-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy adults aged 18-65 years were randomized into 4 groups of 10 to receive one of 3 vaccine doses or placebo...
June 19, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607776/could-lc-ne-dependent-adjustment-of-neural-gain-drive-functional-brain-network-reorganization
#3
REVIEW
Carole Guedj, David Meunier, Martine Meunier, Fadila Hadj-Bouziane
The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is thought to act at synaptic, cellular, microcircuit, and network levels to facilitate cognitive functions through at least two different processes, not mutually exclusive. Accordingly, as a reset signal, the LC-NE system could trigger brain network reorganizations in response to salient information in the environment and/or adjust the neural gain within its target regions to optimize behavioral responses. Here, we provide evidence of the co-occurrence of these two mechanisms at the whole-brain level, in resting-state conditions following a pharmacological stimulation of the LC-NE system...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596770/a-phase-1-human-immunodeficiency-virus-vaccine-trial-for-cross-profiling-the-kinetics-of-serum-and-mucosal-antibody-responses-to-cn54gp140-modulated-by-two-homologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimens
#4
Sven Kratochvil, Paul F McKay, Jakub T Kopycinski, Cynthia Bishop, Peter John Hayes, Luke Muir, Christopher L Pinder, Deniz Cizmeci, Deborah King, Yoann Aldon, Bruce D Wines, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent, Kathrin Held, Christof Geldmacher, Len Dally, Nelson S Santos, Tom Cole, Jill Gilmour, Sarah Fidler, Robin J Shattock
A key aspect to finding an efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is the optimization of vaccine schedules that can mediate the efficient maturation of protective immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of alternate booster regimens on the immune responses to a candidate HIV-1 clade C CN54gp140 envelope protein, which was coadministered with the TLR4-agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A-aqueous formulation. Twelve study participants received a common three-dose intramuscular priming series followed by a final booster at either 6 or 12 months...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592540/covalent-linkage-of-hiv-1-trimers-to-synthetic-liposomes-elicits-improved-b-cell-and-antibody-responses
#5
Shridhar Bale, Geraldine Goebrecht, Armando Stano, Richard Wilson, Takayuki Ota, Karen Tran, Jidnyasa Ingale, Michael B Zwick, Richard T Wyatt
We have demonstrated that a liposomal array of well-ordered trimers enhances B cell activation, germinal center formation and the elicitation of tier-2 autologous neutralizing antibodies. Previously, we coupled well-ordered cleavage-independent NFL trimer via their C-terminal poly-histidine tails to nickel-lipids integrated into the lipid bilayer. Despite favorable in vivo effects, concern remains over the potentially longer term in vivo instability of non-covalent linkage of the trimers to the liposomes. Accordingly, we tested both cobalt coupling and covalent linkage of the trimers to the liposomes by reengineering the poly-histidine tail to include a free cysteine on each protomer of model BG505 NFL trimers to allow covalent linkage...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590113/dacarbazine-loaded-hollow-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-grafted-with-folic-acid-for-enhancing-antimetastatic-melanoma-response
#6
Qianqian Liu, Nan Xu, Liping Liu, Jun Li, Yamin Zhang, Chen Shen, Khurram Shezad, Lianbin Zhang, Jintao Zhu, Juan Tao
Dacarbazine (DTIC) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of melanoma; however, its poor solubility, photosensitivity, instability, and serious toxicity to normal cells limit its clinical applications. In this article, we present a rationally designed nanocarrier based on hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) for the encapsulation and targeted release of DTIC for eradicating melanoma. The nanocarrier (DTIC@HMLBFs) is prepared by modifying HMSNs with carboxyl groups to enhance the loading of DTIC, followed by further enveloping of folic acid-grafted liposomes, which act as a melanoma active target for controlled and targeted drug release...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542576/ebola-virus-glycoprotein-directly-triggers-t-lymphocyte-death-despite-of-the-lack-of-infection
#7
Mathieu Iampietro, Patrick Younan, Andrew Nishida, Mukta Dutta, Ndongala Michel Lubaki, Rodrigo I Santos, Richard A Koup, Michael G Katze, Alexander Bukreyev
Fatal outcomes of Ebola virus (EBOV) infections are typically preceded by a 'sepsis-like' syndrome and lymphopenia despite T cells being resistant to Ebola infection. The mechanisms that lead to T lymphocytes death remain largely unknown; however, the degree of lymphopenia is highly correlative with fatalities. Here we investigated whether the addition of EBOV or its envelope glycoprotein (GP) to isolated primary human CD4+ T cells induced cell death. We observed a significant decrease in cell viability in a GP-dependent manner, which is suggestive of a direct role of GP in T cell death...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539447/a-map-of-the-arenavirus-nucleoprotein-host-protein-interactome-reveals-that-jun%C3%A3-n-virus-selectively-impairs-the-antiviral-activity-of-pkr
#8
Benjamin R King, Dylan Hershkowitz, Philip L Eisenhauer, Marion E Weir, Christopher M Ziegler, Joanne Russo, Emily A Bruce, Bryan A Ballif, Jason Botten
Arenaviruses are enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that cause significant human disease. Encoding only four proteins to accomplish the viral life cycle, each arenavirus protein likely plays unappreciated accessory roles during infection. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify human proteins that interact with the nucleoprotein (NP) of the Old World arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCMV) and the New World arenavirus Junín Candid #1 (JUNV). Bioinformatic analysis of the identified protein partners of NP revealed that host translation appears to be a key biological process engaged during infection...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514687/particulate-array-of-well-ordered-hiv-clade-c-env-trimers-elicits-neutralizing-antibodies-that-display-a-unique-v2-cap-approach
#9
Paola Martinez-Murillo, Karen Tran, Javier Guenaga, Gustaf Lindgren, Monika Àdori, Yu Feng, Ganesh E Phad, Néstor Vázquez Bernat, Shridhar Bale, Jidnyasa Ingale, Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, Sijy O'Dell, Lotta Pramanik, Mats Spångberg, Martin Corcoran, Karin Loré, John R Mascola, Richard T Wyatt, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam
The development of soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era in HIV-1 vaccination. The recently reported native, flexibly linked (NFL) design allows the generation of native-like trimers from clinical isolates at high yields and homogeneity. As the majority of infections world-wide are of the clade C subtype, we examined responses in non-human primates to well-ordered subtype C 16055 trimers administered in soluble or high-density liposomal formats...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493891/antibody-to-hsv-gd-peptide-induced-by-vaccination-does-not-protect-against-hsv-2-infection-in-hsv-2-seronegative-women
#10
Peter B Gilbert, Jean-Louis Excler, Georgia D Tomaras, Lindsay N Carpp, Barton F Haynes, Hua-Xin Liao, David C Montefiori, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Gustavo H Kijak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Donald P Francis, Carter Lee, Faruk Sinangil, Phillip W Berman, Nakorn Premsri, Prayura Kunasol, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Rhoda Morrow, Lawrence Corey, Jerome H Kim
BACKGROUND: In the HIV-1 vaccine trial RV144, ALVAC-HIV prime with an AIDSVAX® B/E boost reduced HIV-1 acquisition by 31% at 42 months post first vaccination. The bivalent AIDSVAX® B/E vaccine contains two gp120 envelope glycoproteins, one from the subtype B HIV-1 MN isolate and one from the subtype CRF01_AE A244 isolate. Each envelope glycoprotein harbors a highly conserved 27-amino acid HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) tag sequence that shares 93% sequence identity with the HSV-2 gD sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490595/sensing-of-hiv-1-entry-triggers-a-type-i-interferon-response-in-human-primary-macrophages
#11
Jérémie Decalf, Marion Desdouits, Vasco Rodrigues, François-Xavier Gobert, Matteo Gentili, Santy Marques-Ladeira, Célia Chamontin, Marylène Mougel, Bruna Cunha de Alencar, Philippe Benaroch
Along with CD4+ T lymphocytes, macrophages are a major cellular source of HIV-1 replication, and a potential viral reservoir. Following entry and reverse transcription in macrophages, cloaking of the viral cDNA by the HIV-1 capsid limits its cytosolic detection, enabling efficient replication. However, whether incoming HIV-1 particles are sensed by macrophages prior to reverse-transcription, remains unclear. Here, we show that HIV-1 triggers a broad expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) in monocyte-derived macrophages within a few hours after infection...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479588/clinical-impact-of-the-early-alanine-amininotransferase-flare-during-tenofovir-monotherapy-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#12
Hee Yeon Seo, Han Ah Lee, Soon Young Ko, Joon Ho Wang, Jeong Han Kim, Won Hyeok Choe, So Young Kwon
Background/Aims: Little is known about the effect of early flares on response during first-line tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and outcome of early alanine aminotransferase (ALT) flare in treatment-naive patients with CHB during long-term TDF monotherapy. Methods: One hundred eighty-one treatment-naive CHB patients were treated with a 300-mg once-daily dose of TDF for more than 12 weeks...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456632/tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibits-spread-of-hepatitis-c-virus-among-liver-cells-independent-from-interferons
#13
Stephen M Laidlaw, Svetlana Marukian, Rachel H Gilmore, Siobhán B Cashman, Volodymyr Nechyporuk-Zloy, Charles M Rice, Lynn B Dustin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an inflammatory cytokine expressed by human fetal liver cells (HFLCs) after infection with cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus (HCV). TNF has been reported to increase entry of HCV pseudoparticles into hepatoma cells and inhibit signaling by interferon alpha (IFNα), but have no effect on HCV-RNA replication. We investigated the effects of TNF on HCV infection of and spread among Huh-7 hepatoma cells and primary HFLCs. METHODS: Human hepatoma (Huh-7 and Huh-7...
April 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450453/microtubule-dynamics-drive-enhanced-chromatin-motion-and-mobilize-telomeres-in-response-to-dna-damage
#14
Josh Lawrimore, Timothy M Barry, Raymond M Barry, Alyssa C York, Brandon Friedman, Diana M Cook, Kristen Akialis, Jolien Tyler, Paula Vasquez, Elaine Yeh, Kerry Bloom
Chromatin exhibits increased mobility on DNA damage, but the biophysical basis for this behavior remains unknown. To explore the mechanisms that drive DNA damage-induced chromosome mobility, we use single-particle tracking of tagged chromosomal loci during interphase in live yeast cells together with polymer models of chromatin chains. Telomeres become mobilized from sites on the nuclear envelope and the pericentromere expands after exposure to DNA-damaging agents. The magnitude of chromatin mobility induced by a single double-strand break requires active microtubule function...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443609/the-hiv-1-viral-synapse-signals-human-foreskin-keratinocytes-to-secrete-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-facilitating-hiv-1-foreskin-entry
#15
Z Zhou, L Xu, A Sennepin, C Federici, Y Ganor, D Tudor, D Damotte, N Barry Delongchamps, M Zerbib, M Bomsel
The complexity of signal transduction resulting from the contact of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected cells and mucosal cells has hampered our comprehension of HIV-1 mucosal entry. Such process is driven efficiently only by viral synapse contacts, whereas cell-free HIV-1 remains poorly infectious. Using CD4(+) T-cells expressing only HIV-1 envelope inoculated on human adult foreskin tissues, we designed methodologies to identify the signals transduced in foreskin keratinocytes following HIV-1-envelope-dependent viral synapse formation...
April 26, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430890/acceptability-comparison-between-hawley-retainers-and-vacuum-formed-retainers-in-orthodontic-adult-patients-a-single-centre-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Mohammed Saleh, Mohammad Y Hajeer, Dieter Muessig
Background: Hawley retainers (HRs) and vacuum formed retainers (VFRs) are the most commonly used removable retainers in the orthodontic practice. Patients' cooperation in wearing these appliances is affected by the levels of discomfort and oral impairment. The evidence regarding their acceptably among orthodontic patients is limited. Aims: To compare the acceptability of HRs and VFRs over a 6-month period in a group of fixed orthodontic patients. Trial Design: Two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373273/appropriate-regulation-of-the-%C3%AF-e-dependent-envelope-stress-response-is-necessary-to-maintain-cell-envelope-integrity-and-stationary-phase-survival-in-escherichia-coli
#17
Hervé Nicoloff, Saumya Gopalkrishnan, Sarah E Ades
The alternative sigma factor σ(E) is a key component of the Escherichia coli response to cell envelope stress and is required for viability even in the absence of stress. The activity of σ(E) increases during entry into stationary phase, suggesting an important role for σ(E) when nutrients are limiting. Elevated σ(E) activity has been proposed to activate a pathway leading to the lysis of nonculturable cells that accumulate during early stationary phase. To better understand σ(E)-directed cell lysis and the role of σ(E) in stationary phase, we investigated the effects of elevated σ(E) activity in cultures grown for 10 days...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366604/single-n277a-substitution-in-c2-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-influences-vaccine-elicited-cd4i-neutralizing-and-anti-v2-antibody-responses
#18
Xian Tang, Jia Guo, Lin Cheng, Caijun Sun, Li Liu, Teng Zuo, Hui Wang, Ling Chen, Linqi Zhang, Zhiwei Chen
An effective HIV vaccine remains elusive, and immunogens capable of eliciting protective host humoral immunity have not yet been identified. Although HIV/SIV infections result in the abundant production of CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies (Abs), these Abs are not protective due to steric restrictions following gp120 binding to CD4 on target cells. Here we report that both DNA- and vaccinia-based vaccines encoding SIVmac239 gp160 readily elicited high levels of CD4i Abs in experimental animals. We identified a highly conserved N-linked glycosylation site N277 in the C2 region which strongly affected the immunogenicity of the CD4i Ab domain...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365225/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-one-versus-two-doses-of-takeda-s-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-in-children-in-asia-and-latin-america-interim-results-from-a-phase-2-randomised-placebo-controlled-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Xavier Sáez-Llorens, Vianney Tricou, Delia Yu, Luis Rivera, Suely Tuboi, Pedro Garbes, Astrid Borkowski, Derek Wallace
BACKGROUND: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease in human beings, and vector control has not halted its spread worldwide. A dengue vaccine for individuals aged 9 years and older has been licensed, but there remains urgent medical need for a vaccine that is safe and effective against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1-4) in recipients of all ages. Here, we present the preplanned interim analyses at 6 months of a tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (TDV), which is comprised of an attenuated DENV-2 virus strain (TDV-2) and three chimeric viruses containing the premembrane and envelope protein genes of DENV-1, DENV-3, and DENV-4 genetically engineered into the attenuated TDV-2 genome backbone (TDV-1, TDV-3, and TDV-4)...
June 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362674/human-frequency-following-responses-to-vocoded-speech
#20
Saradha Ananthakrishnan, Xin Luo, Ananthanarayan Krishnan
OBJECTIVES: Vocoders offer an effective platform to simulate the effects of cochlear implant speech processing strategies in normal-hearing listeners. Several behavioral studies have examined the effects of varying spectral and temporal cues on vocoded speech perception; however, little is known about the neural indices of vocoded speech perception. Here, the scalp-recorded frequency following response (FFR) was used to study the effects of varying spectral and temporal cues on brainstem neural representation of specific acoustic cues, the temporal envelope periodicity related to fundamental frequency (F0) and temporal fine structure (TFS) related to formant and formant-related frequencies, as reflected in the phase-locked neural activity in response to vocoded speech...
March 30, 2017: Ear and Hearing
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