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Neuromodulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675596/post-finasteride-syndrome-and-post-ssri-sexual-dysfunction-two-sides-of-the-same-coin
#1
REVIEW
Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Giancarlo Panzica, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi
Sexual dysfunction is a clinical condition due to different causes including the iatrogenic origin. For instance, it is well known that sexual dysfunction may occur in patients treated with antidepressants like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). A similar side effect has been also reported during treatment with finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme 5alpha-reductase, for androgenetic alopecia. Interestingly, sexual dysfunction persists in both cases after drug discontinuation. These conditions have been named post-SSRI sexual dysfunction (PSSD) and post-finasteride syndrome (PFS)...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674729/in-vitro-cortical-network-firing-is-homeostatically-regulated-a-model-for-sleep-regulation
#2
Sohrab Saberi-Moghadam, Alessandro Simi, Hesam Setareh, Cyril Mikhail, Mehdi Tafti
Prolonged wakefulness leads to a homeostatic response manifested in increased amplitude and number of electroencephalogram (EEG) slow waves during recovery sleep. Cortical networks show a slow oscillation when the excitatory inputs are reduced (during slow wave sleep, anesthesia), or absent (in vitro preparations). It was recently shown that a homeostatic response to electrical stimulation can be induced in cortical cultures. Here we used cortical cultures grown on microelectrode arrays and stimulated them with a cocktail of waking neuromodulators...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674264/ultrasonic-modulation-of-neural-circuit-activity
#3
REVIEW
William J Tyler, Shane W Lani, Grace M Hwang
Ultrasound (US) is recognized for its use in medical imaging as a diagnostic tool. As an acoustic energy source, US has become increasingly appreciated over the past decade for its ability to non-invasively modulate cellular activity including neuronal activity. Data obtained from a host of experimental models has shown that low-intensity US can reversibly modulate the physiological activity of neurons in peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and intact brain circuits. Experimental evidence indicates that acoustic pressures exerted by US act, in part, on mechanosensitive ion channels to modulate activity...
April 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674256/effects-of-interleukin-6-and-il-6-ampk-signaling-pathway-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-astrocytes-viability-under-experimental-septic-condition
#4
Xiao-Lan Chen, Yang Wang, Wan-Wan Peng, Yi-Jun Zheng, Tian-Nan Zhang, Ping-Jun Wang, Jin-Da Huang, Qi-Yi Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a neuromodulation factor with extensive and complex biological activities. IL-6 has been reported to activate AMPK, while AMPK regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-6 in mitochondrial biogenesis using astrocytes under experimental septic condition and examined how IL-6/AMPK signaling pathway affected this process. METHODS: The primary cultures of cerebral cortical astrocytes were randomly allocated into six groups: control group, LPS+IFN-γ group, IL-6 group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6), C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+Compound C), siRNA group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA) and siRNA+C group (LPS+IFN-γ+IL-6+IL-6R siRNA+ Compound C)...
April 16, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674171/a-combinatorial-modulation-of-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-medial-amygdala-by-oxytocin-urocortin3-and-estrogen
#5
Linoy Mia Frankiensztajn, Rotem Gur-Pollack, Shlomo Wagner
The medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) plays a pivotal role in a variety of mammalian social behaviors. Specifically, activity of the hypothalamic pro-social neuropeptide oxytocin in the MeA was shown to be crucial for social recognition memory. The MeA is also a hub of neuroendocrine activity and expresses a large number of receptors of neuropeptides and hormones. These include oxytocin receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor type 2 (CRFR2). In a previous study we found that intracerebroventricular (ICV) oxytocin application to anesthetized rats promotes long-term depression (LTD) of the MeA response to electrical stimulation of its main sensory input, the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB)...
April 11, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672680/cognitive-correlates-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-mild-alzheimer-s-dementia
#6
Osama Sabri, Philipp M Meyer, Susanne Gräf, Swen Hesse, Stephan Wilke, Georg-Alexander Becker, Michael Rullmann, Marianne Patt, Julia Luthardt, Gudrun Wagenknecht, Alexander Hoepping, Rene Smits, Annegret Franke, Bernhard Sattler, Solveig Tiepolt, Steffen Fischer, Winnie Deuther-Conrad, Ulrich Hegerl, Henryk Barthel, Peter Schönknecht, Peter Brust
In early Alzheimer's dementia, there is a need for PET biomarkers of disease progression with close associations to cognitive dysfunction that may aid to predict further cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Amyloid biomarkers are not suitable for that purpose. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2-nAChRs) are widely abundant in the human brain. As neuromodulators they play an important role in cognitive functions such as attention, learning and memory. Post-mortem studies reported lower expression of α4β2-nAChRs in more advanced Alzheimer's dementia...
April 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671739/cellular-diversity-in-the-drosophila-midbrain-revealed-by-single-cell-transcriptomics
#7
Vincent Croset, Christoph Daniel Treiber, Scott Waddell
To understand the brain, molecular details need to be overlaid onto neural wiring diagrams so that synaptic mode, neuromodulation and critical signaling operations can be considered. Single-cell transcriptomics provide a unique opportunity to collect this information. Here we present an initial analysis of thousands of individual cells from Drosophila midbrain, that were acquired using Drop-Seq. A number of approaches permitted the assignment of transcriptional profiles to several major brain regions and cell-types...
April 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670050/epilepsy-and-neuromodulation-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Churl-Su Kwon, Valeria Ripa, Omar Al-Awar, Fedor Panov, Saadi Ghatan, Nathalie Jetté
Neuromodulation is a treatment strategy that is increasingly being utilized in those suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy who are not appropriate for resective surgery. The number of double-blinded RCTs demonstrating the efficacy of neurostimulation in persons with epilepsy is increasing. Although reductions in seizure frequency is common in these trials, obtaining seizure freedom is rare. Invasive neuromodulation procedures (DBS, VNS, and RNS) have been approved as therapeutic measures. However, further investigations are necessary to delineate effective targeting, minimize side effects that are related to chronic implantation and to improve the cost effectiveness of these devices...
April 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667598/a-random-phased-array-for-mr-guided-transcranial-ultrasound-neuromodulation-in-non-human-primates
#9
Vandiver Chaplin, Marshal A Phipps, Charles F Caskey
Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) is a non-invasive technique for therapy and study of brain neural activation. Here we report on the design and characterization of a new MR-guided FUS transducer for neuromodulation in non-human primates at 650 kHz. The array is randomized with 128 elements 6.6 mm in diameter, radius of curvature 7.2 cm, opening diameter 10.3 cm (focal ratio 0.7), and 46% coverage. Simulations were used to optimize transducer geometry with respect to focus size, grating lobes, and directivity...
April 18, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662434/review-of-the-neural-oscillations-underlying-meditation
#10
REVIEW
Darrin J Lee, Edwin Kulubya, Philippe Goldin, Amir Goodarzi, Fady Girgis
Objective: Meditation is one type of mental training that has been shown to produce many cognitive benefits. Meditation practice is associated with improvement in concentration and reduction of stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, different forms of meditation training are now being used as interventions for a variety of psychological and somatic illnesses. These benefits are thought to occur as a result of neurophysiologic changes. The most commonly studied specific meditation practices are focused attention (FA), open-monitoring (OM), as well as transcendental meditation (TM), and loving-kindness (LK) meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659404/prospective-cohort-study-investigating-changes-in-body-image-quality-of-life-and-self-esteem-following-minimally-invasive-cosmetic-procedures
#11
Joseph F Sobanko, Julia Dai, Joel M Gelfand, David B Sarwer, Ivona Percec
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive cosmetic injectable procedures are increasingly common. However, a few studies have investigated changes in psychosocial functioning following these treatments. OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in body image, quality of life, and self-esteem following cosmetic injectable treatment with soft tissue fillers and neuromodulators. METHODS: Open, prospective study of 75 patients undergoing cosmetic injectable procedures for facial aging to evaluate changes in psychosocial functioning within 6 weeks of treatment...
April 13, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656312/evaluation-of-taurine-neuroprotection-in-aged-rats-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Raeesa Gupte, Sarah Christian, Paul Keselman, Joshua Habiger, William M Brooks, Janna L Harris
Despite higher rates of hospitalization and mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in patients over 65 years old, older patients remain underrepresented in drug development studies. Worse outcomes in older individuals compared to younger adults could be attributed to exacerbated injury mechanisms including oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and bioenergetic dysfunction. Accordingly, pleiotropic treatments are attractive candidates for neuroprotection. Taurine, an endogenous amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, osmolytic, and neuromodulator effects, is neuroprotective in adult rats with TBI...
April 14, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651458/differential-expression-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-afferent-neurons-renders-selective-neural-block-by-ionic-direct-current
#13
Fei Yang, Michael Anderson, Shaoqiu He, Kimberly Stephens, Yu Zheng, Zhiyong Chen, Srinivasa N Raja, Felix Aplin, Yun Guan, Gene Fridman
The assertion that large-diameter nerve fibers have low thresholds and small-diameter fibers have high thresholds in response to electrical stimulation has been held in a nearly axiomatic regard in the field of neuromodulation and neuroprosthetics. In contrast to the short pulses used to evoke action potentials, long-duration ionic direct current has been shown to block neural activity. We propose that the main determinant of the neural sensitivity to direct current block is not the size of the axon but the types of voltage-gated sodium channels prevalent in its neural membrane...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#14
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649928/noninvasive-activation-of-cervical-spinal-networks-after-severe-paralysis
#15
Parag Gad, Sujin Lee, Nicholas Terrafranca, Hui Zhong, Amanda Turner, Yury Gerasimenko, Victor Reggie Edgerton
Paralysis of the upper extremities following cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly impairs one's ability to live independently. While regaining hand function or grasping ability is considered one of the most desired functions in tetraplegics, limited therapeutic development in this direction has been demonstrated to date in humans with a high, severe cervical injury. The underlying hypothesis is after severe cervical SCI, nonfunctional sensory-motor networks within the cervical spinal cord can be transcutaneously neuromodulated to physiological states which enables and amplifies voluntary control of the hand...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643759/changes-in-h-reflex-recruitment-after-trans-spinal-direct-current-stimulation-with-multiple-electrode-configurations
#16
Alexander Kuck, Dick F Stegeman, Herman van der Kooij, Edwin H F van Asseldonk
Trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is an electro-modulatory tool with possible application in the rehabilitation of spinal cord injury. TsDCS generates a small electric field, aiming to induce lasting, functional neuromodulation in the targeted neuronal networks. Earlier studies have shown significant modulatory effects after application of lumbar tsDCS. However, for clinical application, a better understanding of application specific factors is required. Our goal was to investigate the effect of different electrode configurations using lumbar spinal tsDCS on spinal excitability...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642368/re-effectiveness-of-btx-a-and-neuromodulation-in-treating-oab-with-or-without-detrusor-overactivity-a-systematic-review
#17
Alan J Wein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642366/re-detailed-analysis-of-adverse-events-and-surgical-interventions-in-a-large-prospective-trial-of-sacral-neuromodulation-therapy-for-overactive-bladder-patients
#18
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629499/reduced-brain-entropy-by-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-healthy-young-adults
#19
Donghui Song, Da Chang, Jian Zhang, Wei Peng, Yuanqi Shang, Xin Gao, Ze Wang
Entropy indicates system irregularity and the capacity for information processing. Recent research has identified interesting voxel-wise entropy distribution patterns in normal brain and its changes due to aging and brain disorders. A question of great scientific and clinical importance is whether brain entropy (BEN) can be modulated using non-invasive neuromodulations. The purpose of this study was to address this open question using high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). BEN was calculated from resting state fMRI at each voxel acquired before and after applying 20 Hz rTMS or SHAM (control) stimulation...
April 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628873/combined-rtms-fmri-studies-an-overlooked-resource-in-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
Bhedita J Seewoo, Sarah J Etherington, Kirk W Feindel, Jennifer Rodger
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, which has brain network-level effects in healthy individuals and is also used to treat many neurological and psychiatric conditions in which brain connectivity is believed to be abnormal. Despite the fact that rTMS is being used in a clinical setting and animal studies are increasingly identifying potential cellular and molecular mechanisms, little is known about how these mechanisms relate to clinical changes. This knowledge gap is amplified by non-overlapping approaches used in preclinical and clinical rTMS studies: preclinical studies are mostly invasive, using cellular and molecular approaches, while clinical studies are non-invasive, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), TMS electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and behavioral measures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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