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Neuromodulators

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909301/intrinsic-functional-neurocircuitry-associated-with-treatment-response-to-transdiagnostic-cbt-in-bipolar-disorder-with-anxiety
#1
Kristen K Ellard, Aishwarya G Gosai, Emily E Bernstein, Navneet Kaur, Lousia G Sylvia, Joan A Camprodon, Darin D Dougherty, Andrew A Nierenberg, Thilo Deckersbach
BACKGROUND: Anxiety in bipolar disorder (BD) exacerbates emotion dysregulation and reduces treatment response. We recently conducted a pilot trial of transdiagnostic CBT to target anxiety and emotion dysregulation in BD adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly predicted by baseline levels of neuroticism and perceived affective control, as well as changes over time in emotion regulation skills. The present study investigates mechanism of treatment response by examining the relationship between baseline emotion regulation-related neural circuitry and trial outcomes...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908234/agmatine-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-and-camkii-%C3%AE-gene-expression-deteriorations-in-hippocampus-of-rat
#2
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908165/consequences-of-tuning-network-function-by-tonic-and-phasic-locus-coeruleus-output-and-stress-regulating-detection-and-discrimination-of-peripheral-stimuli
#3
David M Devilbiss
Flexible and adaptive behaviors have evolved with increasing complexity and numbers of neuromodulator systems. The neuromodulatory locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system is central to regulating cognitive function in a behaviorally-relevant and arousal-dependent manner. Through its nearly ubiquitous efferent projections, the LC-NE system acts to modulate neuron function on a cell-by-cell basis and exert a spectrum of actions across different brain regions to optimize target circuit function. As LC neuron activity, NE signaling, and arousal level increases, cognitive performance improves over an inverted-U shaped curve...
June 13, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907738/epigenetic-regulation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-is-associated-with-neural-response-during-selective-social-attention
#4
Meghan H Puglia, Jessica J Connelly, James P Morris
Aberrant attentional biases to social stimuli have been implicated in a number of disorders including autism and social anxiety disorder. Oxytocin, a naturally-occurring mammalian hormone and neuromodulator involved in regulating social behavior, has been proposed to impact basic biological systems that facilitate the detection of and orientation to social information. Here, we investigate a role for naturally-occurring variability in the endogenous oxytocinergic system in regulating neural response during attention to social information...
June 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905630/ultrasound-guided-percutaneous-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-neuromodulation-of-the-sciatic-nerve-for-postoperative-analgesia-following-ambulatory-foot-surgery-a-proof-of-concept-study
#5
Brian M Ilfeld, Rodney A Gabriel, Engy T Said, Amanda M Monahan, Jacklynn F Sztain, Wendy B Abramson, Bahareh Khatibi, John J Finneran, Pia T Jaeger, Alexandra K Schwartz, Sonya S Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is an analgesic modality involving the insertion of a lead through an introducing needle followed by the delivery of electric current. This modality has been reported to treat chronic pain as well as postoperative pain the day following knee surgery. However, it remains unknown if this analgesic technique may be used in ambulatory subjects following foot procedures beginning within the recovery room immediately following surgery, and with only short series of patients reported to date, the only available data are derived from strictly observational studies...
June 13, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905528/pacap-neurons-in-the-ventral-premammillary-nucleus-regulate-reproductive-function-in-the-female-mouse
#6
Rachel A Ross, Silvia Leon, Joseph C Madara, Danielle Schafer, Chrysanthi Fergani, Caroline A Maguire, Anne Mj Verstegen, Emily Brengle, Dong Kong, Allan E Herbison, Ursula B Kaiser, Bradford B Lowell, Victor M Navarro
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, Adcyap1 ) is a neuromodulator implicated in anxiety, metabolism and reproductive behavior. PACAP global knockout mice have decreased fertility and PACAP modulates LH release. However, its source and role at the hypothalamic level remain unknown. We demonstrate that PACAP-expressing neurons of the ventral premamillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (PMVPACAP ) project to, and make direct contact with, kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate and AVPV/PeN nuclei and a subset of these neurons respond to PACAP exposure...
June 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903620/computational-motility-models-of-neurogastroenterology-and-neuromodulation
#7
Bradley B Barth, Xiling Shen
The success of neuromodulation therapies, particularly in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, has been greatly aided by computational, biophysical models. However, treating gastrointestinal disorders with electrical stimulation has been much less explored, partly because the mode of action of such treatments is unclear, and selection of stimulation parameters is often empirical. Progress in gut neuromodulation is limited by the comparative lack of biophysical models capable of simulating neuromodulation of gastrointestinal function...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902669/effects-of-central-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-on-anxiety-feeding-behavior-and-hypothalamic-neuromodulators-in-the-rat
#8
Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando, Sheila Leone
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is strongly involved in the regulation of anxiety and feeding behavior. RVD-hemopressin(α) [RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, is a negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptor and a positive allosteric modulator of CB2 receptor which has been recently reported to exert anxiolytic/antidepressant and anorexigenic effects after peripheral administration in rats. Pharmacological evidences reported a possible link between brain hypocretin/orexin, monoamine and eCB systems, as regards appetite and emotional behavior control...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899691/brain-functional-connectivity-changes-after-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-epileptic-patients
#9
Franca Tecchio, Carlo Cottone, Camillo Porcaro, Andrea Cancelli, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Giovanni Assenza
Focal epilepsy is a network pathology, where the brain connectivity of the epileptic focus (EF) influences seizure frequency and cortical dysfunction. Growing evidence supports a clinical efficacy of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) in drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). ctDCS effects can be merely attributed to the inhibition of cortical excitability, which is abnormally increased in epilepsy, but its effect on brain network of DRE patients has never been reported. We aimed at exploring the hypothesis that functional connectivity (FC) changes may explain part of ctDCS clinical effects in DRE patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899398/touch-induced-face-conditioning-is-mediated-by-genetic-variation-in-opioid-but-not-oxytocin-receptors
#10
Yu Fu, Emre Selcuk, Sarah R Moore, Richard A Depue
Soft touch possesses strong prosocial effects that facilitate social bonding and group cohesion in animals. Touch activates opioids (OP) and oxytocin (OXT), two neuromodulators involved in affiliative behaviors and social bonding. We examined whether touch serves as an unconditioned reward in affective conditioning of human faces, a basic process in social bonding, and whether this process is mediated by variation in mu-OP (OPRM1) and OXT (rs53576) receptor genes. Participants viewed affectively-neutral human faces, half of which were paired with a brief soft brushing on the forearm as an unconditioned stimulus (US)...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896085/deep-brain-stimulation-a-potential-treatment-for-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-and-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-pdd
#11
REVIEW
Qing Lv, Ailian Du, Wenshi Wei, Yuanyuan Li, Gailing Liu, Xiao Ping Wang
Damage to memory circuits may lead to dementia symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been shown to be a novel means of memory neuromodulation when critical nodes in the memory circuit are targeted, such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) and fornix. Potential memory improvements have been observed after DBS in patients with AD and PDD. DBS for the treatment of AD and PDD may be feasible and safe, but it is still preliminary...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895259/modulation-of-long-term-potentiation-like-cortical-plasticity-in-the-healthy-brain-with-low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-fields
#12
Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni, Mauro Magoni
BACKGROUND: Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels on cellular membranes. Recently, the CTU Mega 20 device was presented as a molecular accelerator, using energy up to 200 J and providing high-power (2 Tesla) pulsating fields with a water-repulsive (diamagnetic) action and tissue biostimulation. We tested the hypothesis that LF-PEMFs could modulate long-term corticospinal excitability in healthy brains by applying CTU Mega 20® ...
June 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892215/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-symptomatology-and-cognition-in-psychosis-a-qualitative-review
#13
REVIEW
Tina Gupta, Nicholas J Kelley, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Vijay A Mittal
Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating condition that affects approximately 1% of the population. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia typically exhibit positive (e.g., hallucinations) and negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) and impairments in cognitive function. Given the limitations of antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy in fully treating psychosis symptomatology, there has been increasing interest in other interventions such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, that is safe, cost-effective, and widely accessible...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892214/exploratory-study-of-rtms-neuromodulation-effects-on-electrocortical-functional-measures-of-performance-in-an-oddball-test-and-behavioral-symptoms-in-autism
#14
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Allan Tasman, Manuel F Casanova
There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age) were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891705/microscale-optoelectronic-infrared-to-visible-upconversion-devices-and-their-use-as-injectable-light-sources
#15
He Ding, Lihui Lu, Zhao Shi, Dan Wang, Lizhu Li, Xichen Li, Yuqi Ren, Changbo Liu, Dali Cheng, Hoyeon Kim, Noel C Giebink, Xiaohui Wang, Lan Yin, Lingyun Zhao, Minmin Luo, Xing Sheng
Optical upconversion that converts infrared light into visible light is of significant interest for broad applications in biomedicine, imaging, and displays. Conventional upconversion materials rely on nonlinear light-matter interactions, exhibit incidence-dependent efficiencies, and require high-power excitation. We report an infrared-to-visible upconversion strategy based on fully integrated microscale optoelectronic devices. These thin-film, ultraminiaturized devices realize near-infrared (∼810 nm) to visible [630 nm (red) or 590 nm (yellow)] upconversion that is linearly dependent on incoherent, low-power excitation, with a quantum yield of ∼1...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889655/plasticity-of-retinal-gap-junctions-roles-in-synaptic-physiology-and-disease
#16
John O'Brien, Stewart A Bloomfield
Electrical synaptic transmission via gap junctions underlies direct and rapid neuronal communication in the central nervous system. The diversity of functional roles played by electrical synapses is perhaps best exemplified in the vertebrate retina in which gap junctions are expressed by each of the five major neuronal types. These junctions are highly plastic; they are dynamically regulated by ambient illumination and circadian rhythms acting through light-activated neuromodulators. The networks formed by electrically coupled neurons provide plastic, reconfigurable circuits positioned to play key and diverse roles in the transmission and processing of visual information at every retinal level...
June 11, 2018: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889082/beyond-the-muscular-involvement-in-non-dystrophic-myotonias-the-emerging-role-of-neuromodulation
#17
Simona Portaro, Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alfredo Manuli, Tina Balletta, Antonia Trinchera, Placido Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
BACKGROUND: The central nervous system involvement, in terms of a maladaptive sensory-motor plasticity, is well known in patients with dystrophic myotonias (DMs). To date, there are no data suggesting a central nervous system involvement in non-dystrophic myotonias (NDMs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate sensory-motor plasticity in patients with Myotonia Congenita (MC) and Paramyotonia Congenita (PMC) with or without mexiletine. METHODS: Twelve patients with a clinical, genetic, and electromyographic evidence of MC, fifteen with PMC, and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in the study...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888402/a-3d-magnetic-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogel-for-magnetomechanical-neuromodulation-of-primary-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#18
Andy Tay, Ali Sohrabi, Kate Poole, Stephanie Seidlits, Dino Di Carlo
Neuromodulation tools are useful to decipher and modulate neural circuitries implicated in functions and diseases. Existing electrical and chemical tools cannot offer specific neural modulation while optogenetics has limitations for deep tissue interfaces, which might be overcome by miniaturized optoelectronic devices in the future. Here, a 3D magnetic hyaluronic hydrogel is described that offers noninvasive neuromodulation via magnetomechanical stimulation of primary dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The hydrogel shares similar biochemical and biophysical properties as the extracellular matrix of spinal cord, facilitating healthy growth of functional neurites and expression of excitatory and inhibitory ion channels...
June 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886565/the-proton-pump-inhibitor-nonresponder-a-behavioral-approach-to-improvement-and-wellness
#19
REVIEW
Megan E Riehl, Joan W Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a difficult to treat medical condition, where nearly 40% of patients are refractory to standard medical intervention, which typically begins with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). These PPI nonresponders represent a population of patients, where treatment planning must be individualized; multidisciplinary and psychiatric comorbidities should be considered. This review highlights treatment options that include neuromodulators, lifestyle, and psychological interventions for the PPI nonresponder...
June 9, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883692/17%C3%AE-estradiol-potentiates-trek1-channel-activity-through-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor
#20
Nasreen Choudhury, Sujit Kumar Sikdar
TWIK-related potassium channel 1 (TREK1), a two-pore domain potassium channel, is modulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters by activation of membrane receptor - coupled second messengers. 17β-estradiol is a neuromodulator capable of regulating several cellular processes including the activity of ion channels, in a rapid and non-genomic manner. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is known to facilitate rapid actions of 17β-estradiol, though its role in modulation of ion channels is not widely explored...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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