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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236160/ethanol-and-cytokines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
Marisa Roberto, Reesha R Patel, Michal Bajo
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the ethanol-induced neuroimmune response in the brain. Ethanol initiates the innate immune response via activation of the innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs, e.g., TLR4, TLR3, TLR7) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) leading to a release of a plethora of chemokines and cytokines and development of the innate immune response. Cytokines and chemokines can have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties through which they regulate the immune response...
December 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235453/potential-impact-of-thermal-effects-during-ultrasonic-neurostimulation-retrospective-numerical-estimation-of-temperature-elevation-in-seven-rodent-setups
#2
Charlotte Constans, Philippe Mateo, Mickael Tanter, Jean-Francois Aubry
In the past decade, a handful but growing number of groups have reported worldwide successful low intensity focused ultrasound induced neurostimulation trials on rodents with effects ranging from movement elicitations to reduction of anesthesia time or reduction of the duration of drug induced seizures. The mechanisms underlying ultrasonic neuromodulation are still not fully understood. Given the low intensities used in most of the studies, a mechanical effect is more likely to be responsible for the neuromodulation effect, but a clear description of the thermal and mechanical effects is necessary to optimize clinical applications...
December 13, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234878/2nd-european-conference-on-brain-stimulation-in-psychiatry-ecbsp-individualizing-neuromodulation
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230247/wireless-neuromodulation-for-chronic-back-pain-delivery-of-high-frequency-dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-by-a-minimally-invasive-technique
#4
Bart Billet, Roel Wynendaele, Niek E Vanquathem
Objective: To evaluate the analgesic effect of a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation technology utilizing high-frequency pulse rates to treat intractable chronic back and leg pain. Methods: This case study presents the outcomes, with a novel, wireless, minimally invasive miniature neurostimulator system in a case of chronic back pain. The subject was implanted bilaterally with a Freedom 4A quadripolar electrode array at the L2 dorsal root ganglion. Stimulation was applied using 10 kHz pulse rate and 30 μs pulse width...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229556/experimental-and-clinical-strategies-for-treating-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3
#5
REVIEW
Zijian Wang
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), or Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the ataxin-3 protein. To date, there is no effective therapy available to prevent progression of this disease. However, clinical strategies for alleviating various symptoms are imperative to promote a better quality of life for SCA3/MJD patients. Furthermore, experimental therapeutic strategies, including gene silencing or mutant protein clearance, mutant polyQ protein modification, stabilizing the native protein conformation, rescue of cellular dysfunction and neuromodulation to slow the progression of SCA3/MJD, have been developed...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#6
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226666/fluorogenic-detection-of-monoamine-neurotransmitters-in-live-cells
#7
Kallol Bera, Anand Kant Das, Ananya Rakshit, Bidyut Sarkar, Anoop Rawat, Barun Kumar Maity, Sudipta Maiti
Monoamine neurotransmission is key to neuromodulation, but imaging monoamines in live neurons has remained a challenge. Here we show that externally added ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) can permeate live cells and form bright fluorogenic adducts with intracellular monoamines (e.g. setrotonin, dopamine and nor-epinephrine) and with L-DOPA, which can be imaged sensitively using conventional single-photon excitation in a fluorescence microscope. The peak excitation and emission wavelengths (λex = 401 nm and λem = 490 nm for serotonin; λex = 446 nm and λem = 557 nm for dopamine; and λex = 446 nm and λem = 544 nm for nor-epinephrine) are accessible to most modern confocal imaging instruments...
December 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225041/syringaresinol-suppresses-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-picrotoxin-induced-epileptic-activity-in-the-hippocampus-through-presynaptic-mechanisms
#8
Young Seon Cho, Woo Seok Song, Sang Ho Yoon, Kyeong-Yeol Park, Myoung-Hwan Kim
Many neuromodulating drugs acting on the nervous system originate from botanical sources. These plant-derived substances modulate the activity of receptors, ion channels, or transporters in neurons. Their properties make the substances useful for medicine and research. Here, we show that the plant lignan (+)-syringaresinol (SYR) suppresses excitatory synaptic transmission via presynaptic modulation. Bath application of SYR rapidly reduced the slopes of the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) at the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapse in a dose-dependent manner...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224666/central-and-peripheral-roles-of-vasopressin-in-the-circadian-defense-of-body-hydration
#9
REVIEW
Claire Gizowski, Eric Trudel, Charles W Bourque
Vasopressin is a neuropeptide synthesized by specific subsets of neurons within the eye and brain. Studies in rats and mice have shown that vasopressin produced by magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) that project to the neurohypophysis is released into the blood circulation where it serves as an antidiuretic hormone to promote water reabsorption from the kidney. Moreover vasopressin is a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that contributes to time-keeping within the master circadian clock (i.e. the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) and is also used as an output signal by SCN neurons to direct centrally mediated circadian rhythms...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222304/targeting-novel-mechanisms-of-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#10
REVIEW
Huy Tran, Mihir Gupta, Kalpna Gupta
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from intense pain that can start during infancy and increase in severity throughout life, leading to hospitalization and poor quality of life. A unique feature of SCD is vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) characterized by episodic, recurrent, and unpredictable episodes of acute pain. Microvascular obstruction during a VOC leads to impaired oxygen supply to the periphery and ischemia reperfusion injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which may perpetuate a noxious microenvironment leading to pain...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219048/sodium-oxybate-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-withdrawal-syndrome-and-the-maintenance-of-alcohol-abstinence
#11
Carmen Mannucci, Simona Pichini, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Fabrizio Calapai, Sebastiano Gangemi, Michele Navarra, Gioacchino Calapai
BACKGROUND: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB or sodium oxybate) is both an exogenous and endogenous molecule with neuromodulator properties. In the United States, GHB is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy and narcolepsy with cataplexy in adults. In some European Union countries, sodium oxybate is applied for the treatment of opioid and alcohol withdrawal. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review was to describe the state of art of the pre-clinical research and the clinical evidence related to GHB used alone or in combination with other treatments in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and alcohol abstinence maintenance...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218704/sacral-neuromodulation-for-pelvic-pain-and-pelvic-organ-dysfunction-a-case-series
#12
Thierry Vancaillie, Lauren Kite, Elizabeth Howard, Jason Chow
BACKGROUND: The use of neuromodulation is growing and it is an established therapy for conditions such as bladder dysfunction. It is an increasingly used therapy for the management of chronic perineal pain but little research is currently available looking at its efficacy. AIM: We present a series of 52 patients who underwent placement of a neuromodulator, the majority of whom suffered from perineal pain, with most placements via the sacral hiatus. METHOD: Patients were asked to complete a survey recalling their symptoms prior to implantation and describing their symptoms and experience after...
December 8, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216222/cortical-computations-via-transient-attractors
#13
Oliver L C Rourke, Daniel A Butts
The ability of sensory networks to transiently store information on the scale of seconds can confer many advantages in processing time-varying stimuli. How a network could store information on such intermediate time scales, between typical neurophysiological time scales and those of long-term memory, is typically attributed to persistent neural activity. An alternative mechanism which might allow for such information storage is through temporary modifications to the neural connectivity which decay on the same second-long time scale as the underlying memories...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215039/semantic-discrimination-impacts-tdcs-modulation-of-verb-processing
#14
Valentina Niccolai, Anne Klepp, Peter Indefrey, Alfons Schnitzler, Katja Biermann-Ruben
Motor cortex activation observed during body-related verb processing hints at simulation accompanying linguistic understanding. By exploiting the up- and down-regulation that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exert on motor cortical excitability, we aimed at further characterizing the functional contribution of the motor system to linguistic processing. In a double-blind sham-controlled within-subjects design, online stimulation was applied to the left hemispheric hand-related motor cortex of 20 healthy subjects...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214985/non-invasive-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-via-focused-ultrasound-i-in-vivo-i
#15
Matthew Eric Downs, Stephen A Lee, Georgiana Yang, Seaok Kim, Qi Wang, Elisa E Konofagou
Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been employed on a wide range of clinical applications to safely and non-invasively achieve desired effects that have previously required invasive and lengthy procedures with conventional methods. Conventional electrical neuromodulation therapies that are applied to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are invasive and/or non-specific. Recently, focused ultrasound has demonstrated the ability to modulate the central nervous system and ex vivo peripheral neurons. Here, for the first time, noninvasive stimulation of the sciatic nerve eliciting a physiological response in vivo is demonstrated with FUS...
December 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208219/neuronal-modulation-of-d-melanogaster-sexual-behaviour
#16
REVIEW
Bárður Eyjólfsson Ellendersen, Anne C von Philipsborn
Drosophila melanogaster sexual behaviour relies on well-studied genetically determined neuronal circuits. At the same time, it can be flexible and is modulated by multiple external and internal factors. This review focuses on how physiological state, behavioural context and social experience impact sexual circuits in the two sexes. We discuss how females tune receptivity and other behaviours depending on mating status and how males adjust courtship intensity based on sexual satiety, age and the conflicting drive for aggression...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205954/mechanisms-underpinning-sympathetic-nervous-activity-and-its-modulation-using-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#17
Susan A Deuchars, Varinder K Lall, Jennifer Clancy, Mohd Mahadi, Aaron Murray, Lucy Peers, Jim Deuchars
What is the topic of this review? This review briefly considers what modulates sympathetic nerve activity and how it may change as we age or in pathological conditions. It then focuses on transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation, a method of neuromodulation in autonomic cardiovascular control. What advances does it highlight? The review considers the pathways involved in eliciting the changes in autonomic balance seen with transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation in relationship to other neuromodulatory techniques...
November 11, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204381/a-fuzzy-controller-for-movement-stabilization-using-afferent-control-controller-synthesis-and-simulation
#18
Zahra Khodadadi, Hamid R Kobravi, Milad F Majd
Stimulation of spinal sensorimotor circuits can improve motor control in animal models and humans with spinal cord injury (SCI). More recent evidence suggests that the stimulation increases the level of excitability in the spinal circuits, activates central pattern generators, and it is also able to recruit distinctive afferent pathways connected to specific sensorimotor circuits. In addition, the stimulation generates well-defined responses in leg muscles after each pulse. The problem is that in most of the neuromodulation devices, electrical stimulation parameters are regulated manually and stay constant during movement...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204349/annotation-of-nerve-cord-transcriptome-in-earthworm-eisenia-fetida
#19
Vasanthakumar Ponesakki, Sayan Paul, Dinesh Kumar Sudalai Mani, Veeraragavan Rajendiran, Paulkumar Kanniah, Sudhakar Sivasubramaniam
In annelid worms, the nerve cord serves as a crucial organ to control the sensory and behavioral physiology. The inadequate genome resource of earthworms has prioritized the comprehensive analysis of their transcriptome dataset to monitor the genes express in the nerve cord and predict their role in the neurotransmission and sensory perception of the species. The present study focuses on identifying the potential transcripts and predicting their functional features by annotating the transcriptome dataset of nerve cord tissues prepared by Gong et al...
December 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202318/single-session-tdcs-over-the-left-dlpfc-disrupts-interference-processing
#20
Christian Frings, Thorsten Brinkmann, Maximilian A Friehs, Tim van Lipzig
Whether single session tDCS can impact upon cognition in healthy subjects is currently a heated debate against the background of inconsistent results. In view of the current methodological discussion concerning tDCS we developed an alternative approach to measure effects of single session tDCS on the Stroop task. The left DLPFC was stimulated in a pre-post design using a new electrode set-up (a 9 cm2 electrode was placed over the left DLPFC while a 35 cm2 was placed over the parieto-occipital cortex) contrasting anodal versus cathodal stimulation...
December 1, 2017: Brain and Cognition
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