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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522038/injectable-and-topical-neurotoxins-in-dermatology-basic-science-anatomy-and-therapeutic-agents
#1
REVIEW
Cerrene N Giordano, Seth L Matarasso, David M Ozog
Botulinum toxin is a potentially deadly anaerobic bacterial toxin that acts by inhibiting release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting contraction of the exposed striated muscle. There are currently 4 botulinum toxin preparations approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA): onabotulinumtoxin, abobotulinumtoxin, incobotulinumtoxin and rimabotulinumtoxin. While significant overlap exists, each product has unique properties and specifications, including dosing, diffusion, and storage...
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521875/exome-sequencing-reveals-a-de-novo-pold1-mutation-causing-phenotypic-variability-in-mandibular-hypoplasia-deafness-progeroid-features-and-lipodystrophy-syndrome-mdpl
#2
Sahar Elouej, Ana Beleza-Meireles, Richard Caswell, Kevin Colclough, Sian Ellard, Jean Pierre Desvignes, Christophe Béroud, Nicolas Lévy, Shehla Mohammed, Annachiara De Sandre-Giovannoli
BACKGROUND: Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome (MDPL) is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder characterized by prominent loss of subcutaneous fat, a characteristic facial appearance and metabolic abnormalities. This syndrome is caused by heterozygous de novo mutations in the POLD1 gene. To date, 19 patients with MDPL have been reported in the literature and among them 14 patients have been characterized at the molecular level. Twelve unrelated patients carried a recurrent in-frame deletion of a single codon (p...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521360/exposure-of-the-external-carotid-artery-through-the-posterior-triangle-of-the-neck-a-novel-approach-to-facilitate-bypass-procedures-to-the-posterior-cerebral-circulation
#3
Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Michael T Lawton, Pooneh Mokhtari, Olivia Kola, Ivan H El-Sayed, Arnau Benet
BACKGROUND: The external carotid artery (ECA) is the main high-flow donor for extracranial-intracranial revascularization procedures. However, anatomic restraints limit the availability of ECA in posterior exposures of the craniocervical junction aimed for bypass to distal vertebral artery segments. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and safety of exposure of the ECA through the posterior triangle of the neck. METHODS: A preliminary feasibility study on the posterior neck exposure of the ECA was performed in 1 cadaveric head (2 sides) followed by a morphometric study on 9 cadaveric heads (18 sides)...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520860/growing-patients-with-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-longitudinal-changes-in-their-dentofacial-morphology-and-orofacial-functional-capacities
#4
Fabienne Egli, Sébastien Botteron, Catherine Morel, Stavros Kiliaridis
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the longitudinal changes in facial morphology, dental arch alterations and oral functional capacities that occur in growing patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in order to identify the effects of the progression of the disease. Subjects and Methods: Twelve DMD patients (6.5-17.5 years of age) and 12 matched controls were screened on two different occasions (T1 and T2), 2 years apart. Dental casts, lateral cephalometric radiographs, maximal posterior bite force and labial force were measured to determine changes in their functional capacities and dentofacial morphology...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516744/repetitive-nerve-stimulation-in-musk-antibody-positive-myasthenia-gravis
#5
Seung Woo Kim, Mun Kyung Sunwoo, Seung Min Kim, Ha Young Shin, Il Nam Sunwoo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Responses to repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) in patients with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody (Ab)-positive myasthenia gravis (MG) vary depending on the muscles tested. We analyzed the RNS responses of limb and facial muscles in MuSK-Ab-positive and acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-Ab-negative MG (MuSK MG) and MuSK-Ab-negative and AChR-Ab-negative [double-seronegative (DSN)] MG patients. METHODS: We retrospectively compared RNS responses between 45 MuSK MG and 29 DSN MG...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508263/new-insights-into-the-anatomy-of-the-midface-musculature-and-its-implications-on-the-nasolabial-fold
#6
Chelsea C Snider, Ashley N Amalfi, Lauren E Hutchinson, Nicole Z Sommer
BACKGROUND: The prominent nasolabial fold is a distinct feature of the aging midface. As minimally invasive procedures have become mainstream, chemodenervation is a preferred method for treating dynamic facial rhytids. We therefore sought to identify relevant nasolabial fold and midfacial muscular anatomy to determine the ideal location of neuromodulation to improve the aesthetics of the midface and nasolabial fold without altering the upper lip and smile. METHODS: Twelve hemifacial cadaveric dissections were performed to identify midface muscle origin, insertion, width, vector of pull, and neighboring structures...
May 15, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507860/aging-and-sexual-differences-of-the-human-skull
#7
Luiz Eduardo Toledo Avelar, Márcio Alberto Cardoso, Leonardo Santos Bordoni, Lorena de Miranda Avelar, João Victor de Miranda Avelar
BACKGROUND: The aging process of the face comprises all layers: skin, subcutaneous fat, muscles, and skeleton, and the signs of aging depend mainly on which layer is mostly affected. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the aging facial skeleton, as well as establish the sexual differences, areas with a strong predisposition to resorption, and aesthetic repercussion for better treatment approach. METHODS: Skulls from the Forensic Anthropology Department of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were classified according to gender and age group (i...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501454/masseteric-nerve-for-gracilis-muscle-re-innervation-in-unilateral-facial-palsy-impact-on-quality-of-life
#8
B Bianchi, A Ferri, V Poddi, M Bergonzani, G Pedrazzi, S Ferrari, E Sesenna
BACKGROUND: Unilateral established or congenital facial palsies are usually treated with neuromuscular transplantation to reanimate the impaired side of the face. One of the most debated points is the motor nerve to choose for the reinnervation of the transplant. Contra-lateral healthy facial nerve is usually preferred, but in selected cases motor nerve to masseter is considered a valuable option. However only a few clinical studies focused on quality of life in this subset of patients are available in literature...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488622/family-with-ehlers-danlos-syndrome-combined-classic-and-vascular-type-with-rare-presentation-of-progressive-myopathy-and-unusual-association-of-severe-facial-and-trigeminal-motor-weakness
#9
A Nalini, N Devaraddi, N Gayathri, Chandrajit Prasad, V Preethish-Kumar, K Polavarapu, S Shantanu
We report the clinical, radiological, biochemical, muscle histology, and electron microscopic features of two members of a family with combined Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) [classic and vascular type] and progressive myopathy as the primary manifestation. A 35-year old lady presented with severe gluteal and thigh muscle pain and easy fatigability for 5 years. She developed weakness and wasting of pelvic and pectoral girdles and thighs for 3 years and severe neck flexor and truncal weakness for 6 months. She had a history of recurrent jaw dislocation, easy bruising with hyperpigmentation, hyperextensibility of joints, translucent skin, and papyraceous scars...
May 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488284/spontaneous-regression-of-a-plaque-type-striated-muscle-hamartoma
#10
Ximena Calderón-Castrat, Concepción Román-Curto, Angel Santos-Briz, Emilia Fernández-López, María Del Carmen Fraile Alonso
Striated muscle hamartoma (SMH) is a rare, congenital or acquired, benign tumor that predominantly affects children. Therapeutic management has classically been surgical intervention. We present a pediatric case of a facial plaque-type SMH with spontaneous regression that highlights the importance of clinical observation for a conservative approach.
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484541/bilateral-platysma-dystonia
#11
Achmad Fahmi, Ayako Mandai, Tetsuryu Mitsuyama, Shinichi Goto, Takaomi Taira
Platysma dystonia is an involuntary movement of platysma muscle. It is a rare form of dystonia. In this case report, we would like to report a good result of peripheral nerve denervation for bilateral platysma dystonia case. A 58-years-old woman presented with an 8-years history of involuntary jerking movement of her bilateral platysma muscles. Oral medication was not effective. Microsurgical denervation of the facial nerves and its terminal branches to the platysma muscles were performed. Immediately after surgery, the patient showed considerable improvement...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484373/evolution-and-development-of-the-inner-ear-efferent-system-transforming-a-motor-neuron-population-to-connect-to-the-most-unusual-motor-protein-via-ancient-nicotinic-receptors
#12
REVIEW
Bernd Fritzsch, Karen L Elliott
All craniate chordates have inner ears with hair cells that receive input from the brain by cholinergic centrifugal fibers, the so-called inner ear efferents (IEEs). Comparative data suggest that IEEs derive from facial branchial motor (FBM) neurons that project to the inner ear instead of facial muscles. Developmental data showed that IEEs develop adjacent to FBMs and segregation from IEEs might depend on few transcription factors uniquely associated with IEEs. Like other cholinergic terminals in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), efferent terminals signal on hair cells through nicotinic acetylcholine channels, likely composed out of alpha 9 and alpha 10 units (Chrna9, Chrna10)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481422/dual-chimeric-innervated-vastus-lateralis-free-flap-for-single-stage-blink-and-midface-reanimation
#13
Lauren S H Chong, Richard Tjahjono, Timothy J Eviston, Jonathan R Clark
BACKGROUND: The immediate reconstruction of the face in the setting of radical parotidectomy for malignancy represents a particular challenge. We present a novel technique using 2 sections of the vastus lateralis muscle as a chimeric flap in combination with the anterolateral thigh (ALT) fasciocutaneous flap to achieve midface reanimation and eye closure after radical parotidectomy. METHODS: The harvest technique in view of variations in chimeric muscle components, vascular pedicles, and neural coaptations is described herein...
May 8, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473025/-primary-aneurysmal-bone-cyst-of-the-maxillary-sinus
#14
Annegrete Aalkjær Danielsen, Margarat Malgorzata Jensen, Victor Vishwanath Iyer
This case report describes a primary aneurysmal bone cyst in the maxillary sinus of a 50-year-old woman. She had nonspecific symptoms through four years of tearing, muscle tension in the face and neck as well as a sense of altered sound of speech. A magnetic resonance imaging of the facial skeleton showed multiple cystic processes with liquid mirror in nearly all large cysts. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of a rare aneurysmal bone cyst, and the operation was done by endoscopic resection. At the one-month post-operative control there was no recurrence...
May 1, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471705/individualized-management-of-facial-synkinesis-based-on-facial-function
#15
Cecilia Montalban Maria, Jin Kim
OBJECTIVES: The researchers analyzed facial patterns in subjects with facial synkinesis after facial paralysis and evaluated the involved muscles to aid in the development of effective treatments for facial synkinesis. METHODS: A total of 142 subjects were included in the study, the primary measure for synkinesis was determined by video analysis involving the strongest combination of two muscle groups that contributed to facial expression. The secondary measure of synkinesis was the analysis of its severity using the SB grading system, while observing the number of facial synkinetic movements...
May 4, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468212/craniofacial-manifestations-in-severe-nemaline-myopathy
#16
Yunfeng Xue, Pilar L Magoulas, John O Wirthlin, Edward P Buchanan
Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital muscular disease characterized by the presence of rod (nemaline) bodies visualized on muscle biopsy. The disease is genetically and clinically heterogeneous, and the age of onset can vary from neonate to adult. Patients typically present initially with diffuse muscle weakness and hypotonia. The disease also afflicts facial musculature and can cause anomalous facial growth and development. The authors report a patient of early onset NM with significant craniofacial abnormalities...
May 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463058/generating-facial-expressions-of-disgust-activates-neurons-in-the-thoracic-spinal-cord-a-spinal-fmri-study
#17
Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen, Theresa A McIver
Facial expressions of disgust, which involve movement of the levator labii muscles on the nose, allow an organism to restrict the intake of potentially aversive stimuli by constricting the air cavities in the nostrils and reducing the speed of air intake. In the current research, we used fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord to measure neural activity related to (1) the contraction of the intercostal muscles that modulate the velocity of air intake and (2) the sensory feedback associated with this contraction. Thirteen participants completed two spinal fMRI runs in which the thoracic segments of the spinal cord were measured...
May 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462983/alterations-in-metabolic-patterns-have-a-key-role-in-diagnosis-and-progression-of-primrose-syndrome
#18
Alberto Casertano, Paolo Fontana, Raoul C Hennekam, Marco Tartaglia, Rita Genesio, Tina Barbaro Dieber, Lucia Ortega, Lucio Nitsch, Daniela Melis
Primrose syndrome is characterized by unusual facial features, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, enlarged, and calcified external ears, sparse body hair, and distal muscle wasting. Nine patients have been described in the literature. The disorder is due to missense mutations in ZBTB20. Here we describe one newly diagnosed 18-month-old patient and provide 10 year follow-up of an earlier reported patient, highlighting the progression and complexity of the disorder. Metabolic studies showed reduced glucose tolerance with prevalence of amino acids and fatty acids catabolism, ketogenesis, and gluconeogenesis, resulting in a Krebs cycle reversion...
April 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462198/intramuscular-hemangiomas-on-the-masseter-muscle-and-orbicularis-oris-muscle-a-report-of-two-cases
#19
Il-Kyu Kim, Ji-Hoon Seo, Hyun-Young Cho, Dong-Hwan Lee, Jun-Min Jang, Joon Mee Kim, In Suh Park
Intramuscular hemangioma (IMH) is a rare vascular disease involving skeletal muscle, comprising only 0.8% of hemangiomas. About 10% to 15% of IMHs occur in the head and neck region, mostly involving the masseter muscle. IMH occurs mostly in childhood, but is often not found until unexpected enlargement, pain, or cosmetic asymmetry occurs in adulthood. Several non-surgical treatments including cryotherapy, sclerosant injection, and arterial ligature have been described, but complete surgical resection is the curative intervention...
April 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458495/hemifacial-microsomia-clinicoradiological-insight-and-report-of-a-case
#20
Nidhi Chhabra, Anuj Chhabra
BACKGROUND: Hemifacial microsomia is a congenital malformation characterized by deficiency in the amount of hard and soft tissue on one side of the face. It is primarily a syndrome of the first branchial arch, involving underdevelopment of the temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles, mandibular ramus, ear and, occasionally, defects in facial nerve and muscles. CASE DETAILS: The clinical and radiological manifestations of a 14-year-old male patient having hemifacial microsomia is highlighted in this article to enhance our knowledge and diagnostic skill of this rare entity...
January 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
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