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Facial muscles

Dinesh Rokaya, Kanokwan Suttagul, Shraddha Joshi, Bishwa Prakash Bhattarai, Pravin Kumar Shah, Shantanu Dixit
Background: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) represents a subgroup of painful orofacial disorders involving pain in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region, fatigue of the cranio-cervico-facial muscles (especially masticatory muscles), limitation of mandible movement, and the presence of a clicking sound in the TMJ. TMD is associated with multiple factors and systemic diseases. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of TMD in Nepalese subjects for the first time. Methods: A total of 500 medical and dental students (127 men and 373 women) participated in this study from May 2016 to September 2016...
February 2018: Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Carlos F Benitez-Quiroz, Ramprakash Srinivasan, Aleix M Martinez
Facial expressions of emotion in humans are believed to be produced by contracting one's facial muscles, generally called action units. However, the surface of the face is also innervated with a large network of blood vessels. Blood flow variations in these vessels yield visible color changes on the face. Here, we study the hypothesis that these visible facial colors allow observers to successfully transmit and visually interpret emotion even in the absence of facial muscle activation. To study this hypothesis, we address the following two questions...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jessica E Steele, Ian R Woodcock, Adrian D Murphy, Monique M Ryan, Tony J Penington, Christopher J Coombs
INTRODUCTION: Masticatory muscles or their nerve supply are options for facial reanimation surgery, but their ability to create spontaneous smile has been questioned. This study assessed the percentage of healthy adults who activate the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. METHODS: Healthy volunteer adults underwent electromyography (EMG) studies of the temporalis and masseter muscles during voluntary and spontaneous smile. Responses were repeated three times and recorded as negative, weakly positive, or strongly positive according to the activity observed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Katarzyna Świder, Jacek Matys
After a stroke, patients frequently show compromised swallowing, mastication, and speech, as well as unfavorable motion and deviation of the tongue and mandible. The dentist can improve the oral rehabilitation of a patient with deteriorated facial and oral muscles after a stroke by incorporating orofacial myofunctional therapy. This report describes a method for tongue exercises and correction of mandible deviation in an edentulous patient after a stroke by using a pearl on a wire in the anteriomedian palatal part of the maxillary denture...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Maurício de Maio
Consideration of facial muscle dynamics is underappreciated among clinicians who provide injectable filler treatment. Injectable fillers are customarily used to fill static wrinkles, folds, and localized areas of volume loss, whereas neuromodulators are used to address excessive muscle movement. However, a more comprehensive understanding of the role of muscle function in facial appearance, taking into account biomechanical concepts such as the balance of activity among synergistic and antagonistic muscle groups, is critical to restoring facial appearance to that of a typical youthful individual with facial esthetic treatments...
March 16, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Erdogan Cicik, Rengin Yildirim, Ceyhun Arici, Funda Dikkaya, Osman Sevki Arslan
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of hemifacial spasm (HFS) on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. Methods: Twenty-four consecutive patients with HFS and 25 age- and gender-matched randomly selected eyes of healthy volunteers underwent corneal pachymetry and IOP measurements using Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) and noncontact tonometer (NCT). IOP measurements were performed before (during HFS) and 2 weeks after Botox injections in HFS patients and in healthy volunteers without Botox injections...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
M A Akulov, O R Orlova, T V Tabashnikova, V V Karnaukhov, A S Orlova
Surgical treatment of posterior cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle tumors is associated with a risk of facial nerve dysfunction. The causes for facial muscle paresis include nerve compression by the tumor, destruction of the nerve structure by the tumor growing from nerve fibers, nerve injury during surgical removal of the tumor, etc. The first 3 months after facial nerve injury are a potential therapeutic window for the use of botulinum toxin type A (BTA). During this period, the drug is introduced both in the healthy side to improve the facial symmetry at rest and during mimetic movements and in the affected side to induce drug-induced ptosis...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Jean K Mah, Jia Feng, Marni B Jacobs, Tina Duong, Kate Carroll, Katy de Valle, Cara L Carty, Lauren P Morgenroth, Michela Guglieri, Monique M Ryan, Paula R Clemens, Mathula Thangarajh, Richard Webster, Edward Smith, Anne M Connolly, Craig M McDonald, Peter Karachunski, Mar Tulinius, Amy Harper, Avital Cnaan, Yi-Wen Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate motor function associations with age, sex, and D4Z4 repeats among participants with early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) type 1 as defined by weakness onset before 10 years of age. METHODS: We collected standardized motor assessments, including manual muscle testing (MMT), quantitative muscle testing, functional motor evaluations, and clinical severity scores (CSSs), at 12 Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group centers...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Craig A Marquardt, Daniel J Goldman, Bruce N Cuthbert, Shmuel Lissek, Scott R Sponheim
Emotional dysfunction is evident in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet it is unclear what aspects of the disorder most directly relate to aberrant emotional responding. Also, the frequent co-occurrence of blast-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) among recently deployed U.S. military personnel complicates efforts to understand the basis for emotional disruption. We studied a cross-sectional sample (enriched for PTSD and mTBI) of 123 U.S. veterans of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We measured subjective affective evaluations and peripheral psychophysiological responses to images with pleasant, neutral, unpleasant, and combat-related aversive content...
February 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Yue Deng, Yaping Xu, Huanhai Liu, Hu Peng, Qilei Tao, Hongyi Liu, Haibin Liu, Jian Wu, Xiaoping Chen, Jingping Fan
Objective To investigate the effects of electrical stimulation (ES) on the nerve regeneration and functional recovery of facial expression muscles in facial nerve defect rats. Methods Sixty rats were surgically introduced with a 1-cm defect on the right facial nerves and evenly divided into the Surgery group (Group A, the main trunk of the right facial nerve was surgically cut-off with a 1.0 cm at the foramina stylomastoideum) and the Surgery + ES group (Group B). Twenty normal rats were as normal control group (without receiving surgery or ES)...
March 2018: Neurological Research
Ikjae Lee, Hani Kushlaf
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate needle electromyography (EMG) practice patterns among electromyographers in patients taking novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs). METHODS: A survey questionnaire was sent to members of the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) via email weblink. Anonymous survey responses were collected through an online website. RESULTS: 58 AANEM members responded, 28 (48%) of whom worked at a teaching hospital and 30 (52%) in a private setting...
March 6, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
Ozcan Cakmak, Berke Özücer, Mustafa Aktekin, Fazil Emre Özkurt, Rami Al-Salman, Ismet Emrah Emre
Background: Inadequate release of retaining ligaments during facelift surgery may lead to an unnatural appearance. However, most facelift surgeons are hesitant in transecting these ligaments to avoid possible injury to facial subbranches. Objectives: In our surgical practice for modified composite flap rhytidectomy we use the finger-assisted malar elevation (FAME) technique in order to enable safe release of the zygomatic cutaneous ligaments through the prezygomatic space under direct vision...
March 2, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Ryuichi Azuma, Shimpo Aoki, Tetsushi Aizawa, Masahiro Kuwabara, Tomoharu Kiyosawa
Background: Static reconstruction surgery that tightens the tension of the inferior tarsus, thereby raising the lax lower eyelid, is a common treatment for paralytic ectropion of the lower eyelid. We present one such operative procedure, in which an orbicularis oculi muscle flap was used. Methods: The surgical technique involves partial resection of the tarsus and the skin, as well as a superior-based orbicularis oculi muscle flap that is sutured to the firm tissue present on the Whitnall tubercle...
March 5, 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Christopher D Conrady, Richard M Feist, Alison Crum
Purpose: Orbital myositis is characterized by pain with eye movements, gaze restriction, diplopia, and enlargement of extraocular muscles on imaging. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is an extremely rare cause of the disease in the elderly and has never been reported in a patient younger than forty-five years old such as the adolescent described herein. We present this case to raise awareness of an entity that will likely become more prevalent due to current vaccine strategies. Observation: We present the case of a 13-year-old girl with VZV-associated orbital myositis and meningitis that had a quick and complete recovery following IV acyclovir and oral steroids...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Rumiko Okamoto, Katsuyoshi Mizukami
AIM: Although it is well documented that exercising is good for the mental health and cognitive function as well as the physical condition in elderly people, exercising is difficult in elderly individuals with a low motor function. To develop an exercise program targeting elderly individuals unsuited for whole-body exercises, we assessed the effects of facial exercises on the mental health in healthy elderly people. METHODS: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 75, age range = 65-87 years) were randomly divided into a facial exercises group and a wait-listed control group...
2018: Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Geriatrics
Priyanka Tater, Sanjay Pandey
Botulinum toxin has gained immense popularity since its introduction for therapeutic use. It is used in a variety of movement disorders like hemi-facial spasm, focal dystonias like blepharospasm, cervical dystonia, oromandibular dystonia, limb dystonias. It is also being used in patients with tremors, tics and for a variety of indications in Parkinson's disease as well. There are eight subtypes of toxins available, but type A and B are the ones used in movement disorder clinics. The toxin mainly acts by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and causing weakness...
March 2018: Neurology India
Vykuntaraju K Gowda, Tamilarasan Udhayabanu, Perumal Varalakshmi, Varunvenkat M Srinivasan, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar
BACKGROUND: Fazio-Londe syndrome also called progressive bulbar palsy of childhood is a very rare motor neuron disease of pediatric age group characterized by progressive paralysis of lower cranial nerves. OBJECTIVE: To describe Fazio-Londe syndrome in sibling with different phenotype. METHODS: A 6 years old female child presented with inability to close eyes, difficulty in swallowing, respiratory muscle weakness and voice change since 5 yr of age...
February 28, 2018: Brain & Development
Michael G Sun, Duangmontree Rojdamrongratana, Mark I Rosenblatt, Vinay K Aakalu, Charles Q Yu
Blepharoptosis or ptosis is a common and potentially debilitating clinical problem. Long-term surgical treatment for ptosis caused by progressive myopathies can be challenging due to potential recurrence and complications associated with facial muscle weakness. When surgical treatment is no longer effective, an eyelid crutch can be used as an alternative intervention. This report demonstrates how 3D printing was used to rapidly design, prototype, and manufacture new custom-fit eyelid crutches at a low cost.
March 2, 2018: Orbit
Y Nilipour, S Nafissi, A E Tjust, G Ravenscroft, H Hossein-Nejad, R Taylor, V Varasteh, F Pedrosa Domellöf, M Zangi, S H Tonekaboni, M Olivé, K Kiiski, L Sagath, Davis, N Laing, H Tajsharghi
BACKGROUND: Nemaline myopathy has been associated with mutations in twelve genes to date. However, for some patients diagnosed with nemaline myopathy, definitive mutations are not identified in the known genes, suggesting there are other genes involved. This study describes compound heterozygosity for rare variants in RYR3 in one such patient. RESULTS: Clinical examination of the patient at 22 years of age revealed a long-narrow face, high arched palate and bilateral facial weakness...
March 2, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Eman M Khedr, Noha Abo El-Fetoh, Dina H El-Hammady, Abeer M Ghandour, Khaled Osama, Ahmed F Zaki, Ayman Gamea
OBJECTIVE: Recovery from acute Bell's palsy (BP) is variable and there are few predictors of response. We evaluated the usefulness of a range of neurophysiological parameters to predict outcome in BP. METHODS: Fifty-nine patients (age: 33.7±15.4 years) with acute unilateral BP were recruited within 3-7 days of onset. They were evaluated with electroneurography, facial nerve excitability, and the blink reflex. House-Brackmann (HB) clinical scores were obtained at the same time and three months later...
February 26, 2018: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
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