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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935170/ultrasound-of-oral-and-masticatory-muscles-why-every-neuromuscular-swallow-team-should-have-an-ultrasound-machine
#1
Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Marloes Lagarde, Nens van Alfen
Patients with neuromuscular disorders often present with swallowing difficulties due to oral phase problems and pharyngeal residue after swallow. It is important to assess the underlying pathology and cause of the swallowing disturbance in this patient group, such as dystrophic changes in oral and masticatory muscles. This allows for more patient-tailored recommendations, for example optimal compensation strategies to maintain function for longer. Ultrasound can show structural changes caused by dystrophy or denervation of muscles, detect involuntary movements such as fasciculations, and provide dynamic video images of tongue motion during swallowing attempts...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935024/risk-factors-for-dental-caries-among-children-with-cerebral-palsy-in-a-low-resource-setting
#2
Rahena Akhter, Nur Mohammad Monsur Hassan, Elizabeth F Martin, Mohammad Muhit, Raziur Rahman, Hayley Smithers-Sheedy, Cheryl Jones, Nadia Badawi, Gulam Khandaker
AIM: To describe the oral health status and investigate factors affecting dental caries experience among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in rural Bangladesh. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among children with CP who are part of the Bangladesh Cerebral Palsy Register (BCPR) study. Caries experience was measured by identifying decayed, missing, and filled teeth for deciduous and permanent teeth (dmft/DMFT). Clinical periodontal index, body mass index, oral hygiene behaviour, masticatory ability, and dietary habits were recorded...
December 9, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928114/thorough-mastication-prior-to-swallowing-increases-postprandial-satiety-and-the-thermic-effect-of-a-meal-in-young-women
#3
Naho Komai, Naoko Motokubota, Maki Suzuki, Ikuyo Hayashi, Toshio Moritani, Narumi Nagai
There is evidence to support that mastication may contribute to the prevention of weight gain via reduction of appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. However, the metabolic effect of mastication after consumption of a daily meal, composed of the staple food (rice), soup, main and side dishes, is limited. Therefore, the effect of thorough mastication on greater satiety and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM) was investigated in young women. In study 1, energy expenditure (EE) derived from masticatory muscle activity for 20 min was measured while chewing hard, tasteless, non-caloric gum in seven subjects...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914670/comparison-of-masticatory-efficacy-among-complete-denture-wearers-with-two-adhesives-and-dentate-individuals-a%C3%A2-randomized-crossover-double-blind-clinical-trial
#4
Carlos Torres-Sánchez, Vanessa Montoya-Salazar, Daniel Torres-Lagares, Jose Luis Gutierrez-Pérez, Emilio Jimenez-Castellanos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The masticatory efficacy between dentate and edentulous individuals with and without the use of dental adhesives has been little studied. A comparative study of the addition of various agents of synthetic adhesion (vinyl methyl ether versus polyvinyl acetate) to these adhesives is needed. PURPOSE: The purpose of this randomized, crossover, double-blind clinical trial was to compare the masticatory efficacy of wearers of complete dentures with and without dental adhesives of 2 different compositions and that of dentate controls...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908709/surgical-intervention-for-oromandibular-dystonia-related-limited-mouth-opening-long-term-follow-up
#5
Kazuya Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Oromandibular dystonia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary masticatory and/or lingual muscle contracture. Jaw closing dystonia, the most common subtype of this condition, can cause trismus and is frequently misdiagnosed as temporomandibular joint disorder or masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This report describes the long-term results of 18 patients with limited mouth opening (mean maximal mouth opening: 12...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904090/effect-of-bidirectional-loading-on-contact-and-force-characteristics-under-a-newly-developed-masticatory-simulator-with-a-dual-direction-loading-system
#6
Weerachai Singhatanadgit, Puttiporn Junkaew, Pairod Singhatanadgid
Mechanical responses of the test specimen under bidirectional and unidirectional loading were investigated using a newly developed masticatory simulator. The simulator adopted a four-bar linkage mechanism to create both loading patterns. Scratch/occlusal contact characteristics, contact force profiles and the fracture of restored tooth samples were investigated. With bidirectional loading, which imitates the nature of human chewing cycle closer than the unidirectional loading does, the occlusal contact was ovoid in shape whereas a small circular area was observed from the test with unidirectional loading...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892717/dental-implants-modified-with-drug-releasing-titania-nanotubes-therapeutic-potential-and-developmental-challenges
#7
Karan Gulati, Sašo Ivanovski
The transmucosal nature of dental implants presents a unique therapeutic challenge, requiring not only rapid establishment and subsequent maintenance of osseointegration, but also the formation of resilient soft tissue integration. Key challenges in achieving long-term success are sub-optimal bone integration in compromised bone conditions and impaired trans-mucosal tissue integration in the presence of a persistent oral microbial biofilm. These challenges can be targeted by employing a drug-releasing implant modification such as TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), engineered on titanium surfaces via electrochemical anodization...
December 8, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889908/self-reported-masticatory-dysfunction-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-elderly-adults-a-9-year-follow-up
#8
Alice Laudisio, Antonella Gemma, Davide O Fontana, Chiara Rivera, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association, if any, between masticatory dysfunction (MD) and mortality in older adults. DESIGN: The Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) Study, a cohort study with 9-year follow-up. SETTING: Tuscany, Italy. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older (N = 1,155). MEASUREMENTS: MD was self-reported; Cox regression was used to assess the association between self-reported MD and 9-year all-cause mortality...
November 27, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888491/twist-removal-of-healed-vs-nonhealed-implants-a-mechanical-and-histological-study-in-mini-pigs
#9
Ricardo de Oliveira Silva, Fabrício Passador, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Caria
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of removal torque (reverse torque) of titanium implants in peri-implant bone. METHODS: The P1-M1 teeth were extracted bilaterally of 6 mini pigs (BR-1). Each animal received 6 titanium implants, three for each side of mandible. On the right side of mandible, 3 implants reminded 9 months (9M) under masticatory activity and on the left side, other 3 implants were placed and immediately removed (IR). All 36 implants were removed by removal torque, and the recorded values were statistically analyzed...
December 2016: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879421/loss-of-notch3-signaling-enhances-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-mandibular-torus
#10
X W Dou, W Park, S Lee, Q Z Zhang, L R Carrasco, A D Le
Mandibular torus (MT) is a common intraoral osseous outgrowth located on the lingual surface of the mandible. Histologic features include hyperplastic bone consisting of mature cortical and trabecular bone. Some theories on the etiology of MT have been postulated, such as genetic factors, masticatory hyperfunction, trauma, and continued growth, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human MT in the pathogenesis of bone outgrowth...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878942/morphological-evolution-of-the-mammalian-jaw-adductor-complex
#11
Stephan Lautenschlager, Pamela Gill, Zhe-Xi Luo, Michael J Fagan, Emily J Rayfield
The evolution of the mammalian jaw during the transition from non-mammalian synapsids to crown mammals is a key event in vertebrate history and characterised by the gradual reduction of its individual bones into a single element and the concomitant transformation of the jaw joint and its incorporation into the middle ear complex. This osteological transformation is accompanied by a rearrangement and modification of the jaw adductor musculature, which is thought to have allowed the evolution of a more-efficient masticatory system in comparison to the plesiomorphic synapsid condition...
November 23, 2016: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875513/post-traumatic-trigeminal-neuropathy-caused-by-an-orbital-stab-wound
#12
Shinpei Matsuda, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Tadanori Hamano, Kazuo Sano
Sensory and motor neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve due to trauma is quite rare. Furthermore, there have been no detailed reports on occlusal abnormalities and trismus associated with post-traumatic trigeminal motor neuropathy. Here, the authors report a case of trigeminal motor neuropathy and trigeminal sensory neuropathy in all 3 divisions caused by an orbital stab wound. During kendo practice, a 61-year-old man was injured in his right medial canthus with the splinter of a broken bamboo sword. Imaging examinations did not show a brain injury or orbital bone fracture...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870346/divided-zygomatic-bone-in-primates-with-implications-of-skull-morphology-and-biomechanics
#13
Qian Wang, Paul C Dechow
Typically the zygoma is a single bone in the facial skeleton whose shape uniquely copes with loads associated with mastication. Rarely but naturally, the zygoma is divided into two or more parts by supernumerary sutures. These extra intrazygomatic sutures are located at an area of critical morphological and biomechanical importance, yet their impacts have not been studied. In this study, the morphological and possible biomechanical consequences of the divided zygoma (DZ) were investigated in primates including rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), orangutans (Pongo abelii and P...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870345/betwixt-and-between-intracranial-perspective-on-zygomatic-arch-plasticity-and-function-in-mammals
#14
Erin M Franks, Nathan E Holton, Jeremiah E Scott, Kevin R McAbee, Jason T Rink, Kazune C Pax, Adam C Pasquinelly, Joseph P Scollan, Meghan M Eastman, Matthew J Ravosa
The zygomatic arch is morphologically complex, providing a key interface between the viscerocranium and neurocranium. It also serves as an attachment site for masticatory muscles, thereby linking it to the feeding apparatus. Though morphological variation related to differential loading is well known for many craniomandibular elements, the adaptive osteogenic response of the zygomatic arch remains to be investigated. Here, experimental data are presented that address the naturalistic influence of masticatory loading on the postweaning development of the zygoma and other cranial elements...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870341/development-structure-and-function-of-the-zygomatic-bones-what-is-new-and-why-do-we-care
#15
Paul C Dechow, Qian Wang
This issue of The Anatomical Record is the first of a two-volume set on the zygoma (also called the cheek bone, the zygomatic bone, the malar, or the jugal, the latter term being used in vertebrates other than mammals). The zygoma is an important component of the craniofacial skeleton, in which the zygoma is a connection between the midfacial and the cranial skeletons; has a functional role as the origin of one of the masticatory muscles, the masseter muscle, and several facial muscles; has been considered as an essential buttress of the facial skeleton for resisting masticatory forces; and has importance for determining phylogenetic relationships...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870339/zygomatic-arch-cortical-area-and-diet-in-haplorhines
#16
Hallie Edmonds
The influence that various types of ingested foods have on the form (size and shape) of specific features of the masticatory system is an area in which many questions remain unanswered. The bony zygomatic arch, the focus of this study, is directly linked to the masticatory system because it serves as the anchor for the masseter muscle, a primary muscle of chewing and source of masticatory force. However, the influence of diet and the forces associated with different diet types on the arch's internal bone architecture is not well understood...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866879/differences-in-bite-force-between-dolichofacial-and-brachyfacial-individuals-side-of-mastication-gender-weight-and-height
#17
Paulo Roberto Quiudini, Daniel Humberto Pozza, Ary Dos Santos Pinto, Mauricio Ferraz de Arruda, Antonio Sergio Guimarães
PURPOSE: Due to the bite force importance in functionality of the masticatory system, this study aimed to characterize it in dolichofacial and brachyfacial individuals. METHODS: A sample comprised by 190 patients was divided into two groups: 90 severe dolichofacial, and 100 severe brachyfacial individuals classified according to the VERT index and the face height ratio (Jarabak quotient). Bite force was measured by using an adjusted digital dynamometer and proper methodology...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861664/comparison-of-treatment-outcomes-in-partially-edentulous-patients-with-implant-supported-fixed-prostheses-and-removable-partial-dentures
#18
Toshifumi Nogawa, Yoshiyuki Takayama, Keita Ishida, Atsuro Yokoyama
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare masticatory performance, occlusal force, and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in patients with mandibular distal-extension edentulism between those with implant-supported fixed prostheses (ISFPs) and those with removable partial dentures (RPDs), and to evaluate relationships among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects were recruited from patients using ISFPs or RPDs for mandibular distal-extension edentulism...
November 2016: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857913/addition-of-resection-of-temporal-muscle-and-fascia-in-decompressive-craniectomy-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Seung Han Yu, Byung Chul Kim, Jae Young Choi, Jae Il Lee, Won Ho Cho, Hyuk Jin Choi
OBJECTIVE: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a widely used surgical procedure for control of severely increased intracranial pressure in various conditions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the addition of resection of temporalis muscle and fascia in DC particularly in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. METHODS: Twenty patients underwent temporalis muscle and fascia resection in addition to conventional DC and duroplasty due to massive brain swelling in a single tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2015 were enrolled...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851745/testing-dietary-hypotheses-of-east-african-hominines-using-buccal-dental-microwear-data
#20
Laura Mónica Martínez, Ferran Estebaranz-Sánchez, Jordi Galbany, Alejandro Pérez-Pérez
There is much debate on the dietary adaptations of the robust hominin lineages during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. It has been argued that the shift from C3 to C4 ecosystems in Africa was the main factor responsible for the robust dental and facial anatomical adaptations of Paranthropus taxa, which might be indicative of the consumption of fibrous, abrasive plant foods in open environments. However, occlusal dental microwear data fail to provide evidence of such dietary adaptations and are not consistent with isotopic evidence that supports greater C4 food intake for the robust clades than for the gracile australopithecines...
2016: PloS One
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