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Claudio fiocchi

Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Charles N Bernstein, Dimitrios Iliopoulos, Andrew Macpherson, Markus F Neurath, Raja A Raja Ali, Stephan R Vavricka, Claudio Fiocchi
A number of environmental factors have been associated with the development of IBD. Alteration of the gut microbiota, or dysbiosis, is closely linked to initiation or progression of IBD, but whether dysbiosis is a primary or secondary event is unclear. Nevertheless, early-life events such as birth, breastfeeding and exposure to antibiotics, as well as later childhood events, are considered potential risk factors for IBD. Air pollution, a consequence of the progressive contamination of the environment by countless compounds, is another factor associated with IBD, as particulate matter or other components can alter the host's mucosal defences and trigger immune responses...
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Yeojung Kim, Gail A West, Greeshma Ray, Sean P Kessler, Aaron C Petrey, Claudio Fiocchi, Christine McDonald, Michelle S Longworth, Laura E Nagy, Carol A de la Motte
Tight junction proteins are critical in maintaining homeostatic intestinal permeability. Multiple intestinal inflammatory diseases are correlated with reduced expression of tight junction proteins. We have recently reported that oral treatment of mice with Hyaluronan 35kDa (HA35) increases colonic expression of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Here, we investigate whether HA35 treatment enhances ZO-1 expression by direct interaction with intestinal epithelium in vitro and have identified the HA receptor responsible for HA35-mediated ZO-1 induction in colonic epithelium in vitro and in vivo...
October 1, 2017: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi, Dimitrios Iliopoulos
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are prototypical complex diseases characterized by chronic and heterogeneous manifestations, induced by interacting environmental, genomic, microbial and immunological factors. These interactions result in an overwhelming complexity that cannot be tackled by studying the totality of each pathological component (an '-ome') in isolation without consideration of the interaction among all relevant -omes that yield an overall 'network effect'. The outcome of this effect is the 'IBD interactome', defined as a disease network in which dysregulation of individual -omes causes intestinal inflammation mediated by dysfunctional molecular modules...
December 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Andrea Fiocchi, Vincenzo Condello, Vincenzo Madonna, M Bonomo, Claudio Zorzi
Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) is a common procedure for the management of isolated osteoarthritis. UKA is considered less invasive compared to total knee arthroplasty, associated with less operative time, blood loss and faster recovery. Isolated lateral osteoarthritis is a relatively uncommon clinical problem, with an incidence about ten times lower than the medial compartment. In fact, lateral UKA are about 5-10% of the total amount of the UKAs. In addition, it's historically considered more challenging and with poorer results...
June 7, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Claudio Fiocchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Artin Soroosh, Sami Albeiroti, Gail A West, Belinda Willard, Claudio Fiocchi, Carol A de la Motte
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's Disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Fibrosis, a serious complication of CD, occurs when activated intestinal fibroblasts deposit excessive amounts of extracellular matrix (ECM) in affected areas. A major component of the ECM is high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) that, when depolymerized to low-molecular-weight fragments, becomes proinflammatory and profibrotic. Mechanisms for HA degradation are incompletely understood, but the novel protein KIAA1199 recently was discovered to degrade HA...
May 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Florian Rieder, Satya Kurada, David Grove, Frank Cikach, Rocio Lopez, Nishaben Patel, Amandeep Singh, Naim Alkhouri, Bo Shen, Aaron Brzezinski, Mark Baker, Claudio Fiocchi, Raed A Dweik
OBJECTIVES: The accuracy of available noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis, stratification, and prediction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) courses is limited. We analyzed volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath of IBD patients and controls for diagnosis and differentiation of IBD as well as their link with disease location, activity, and phenotype. METHODS: A prospective study of diagnostic testing was conducted, recruiting Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), other inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases (OGDs), and healthy controls (HCs), as well as subjects with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA)...
November 10, 2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Florian Rieder, Claudio Fiocchi, Gerhard Rogler
In the last 10 years, we have learned much about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of intestinal fibrosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Just a decade ago, intestinal strictures were considered to be an inevitable consequence of long-term inflammation in patients who did not respond to anti-inflammatory therapies. Inflammatory bowel diseases-associated fibrosis was seen as an irreversible process that frequently led to intestinal obstructions requiring surgical intervention. This paradigm has changed rapidly, due to the antifibrotic approaches that may become available...
February 2017: Gastroenterology
Dalin Li, Jean-Paul Achkar, Talin Haritunians, Jonathan P Jacobs, Ken Y Hui, Mauro D'Amato, Stephan Brand, Graham Radford-Smith, Jonas Halfvarson, Jan-Hendrik Niess, Subra Kugathasan, Carsten Büning, L Philip Schumm, Lambertus Klei, Ashwin Ananthakrishnan, Guy Aumais, Leonard Baidoo, Marla Dubinsky, Claudio Fiocchi, Jürgen Glas, Raquel Milgrom, Deborah D Proctor, Miguel Regueiro, Lisa A Simms, Joanne M Stempak, Stephan R Targan, Leif Törkvist, Yashoda Sharma, Bernie Devlin, James Borneman, Hakon Hakonarson, Ramnik J Xavier, Mark Daly, Steven R Brant, John D Rioux, Mark S Silverberg, Judy H Cho, Jonathan Braun, Dermot P B McGovern, Richard H Duerr
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies have identified 200 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) loci, but the genetic architecture of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis remain incompletely defined. Here, we aimed to identify novel associations between IBD and functional genetic variants using the Illumina ExomeChip (San Diego, CA). METHODS: Genotyping was performed in 10,523 IBD cases and 5726 non-IBD controls. There were 91,713 functional single-nucleotide polymorphism loci in coding regions analyzed...
October 2016: Gastroenterology
Silvio Danese, Claudio Fiocchi, Julián Panés
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Gut
Silvio Danese, Claudio Fiocchi
The proper delivery of immune cells throughout the host's various tissues and organs is essential to health, and abnormalities in the type and quantity of leukocyte distribution is usually associated with disease. Because of its size and presence of a very large amount of immunocytes in the mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes, the gut is the recipient of a constant influx of leukocytes, a process tightly regulated by multiple factors. These include cell adhesion molecules on the leukocytes and their counter-receptors on the microvascular endothelial cells in the bowel wall, a number of chemokines and cytokines that help attracting immune cells, platelets, bacterial products, danger signals, the size of the vascular and lymphatic beds and the process of leukocyte exit and circulation in the blood and lymphatic fluid...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Heitor S P de Souza, Claudio Fiocchi
IBD is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract encompassing two main clinical entities: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Although Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have historically been studied together because they share common features (such as symptoms, structural damage and therapy), it is now clear that they represent two distinct pathophysiological entities. Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are associated with multiple pathogenic factors including environmental changes, an array of susceptibility gene variants, a qualitatively and quantitatively abnormal gut microbiota and a broadly dysregulated immune response...
January 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Claudio Fiocchi
Personalized medicine is variably defined as a new system aimed at providing optimal medical care by using comprehensive pathophysiology-based information on all aspects and components of a disease process to prevent, diagnose and treat in ways that are custom-made for the individual patient. The need for personalized medicine derives from the realization that today's most challenging medical conditions are chronic complex diseases with multiple pathogenic components that interact with each other. Complexity and interaction together create unique molecular pathways that are only relevant to certain disease subtypes, but not to the entire population of patients with the same diagnosis...
September 14, 2015: Digestive Diseases
Elodie Mintet, Emilie Rannou, Valérie Buard, Gail West, Olivier Guipaud, Georges Tarlet, Jean-Christophe Sabourin, Marc Benderitter, Claudio Fiocchi, Fabien Milliat, Agnès François
The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a crucial cellular process during heart development necessary to the formation of cardiac valves. This embryonic process reappears in several pathological situations, such as vascular injury or organ fibrosis of various etiologies, as a mediator of extracellular matrix-producing cells. Because radiation induces both vascular damage and fibrosis, we investigated whether radiation exposure induces EndoMT in primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) and whether EndoMT contributes to radiation-induced rectal damage in humans and in a preclinical model of radiation proctitis in mice...
September 2015: American Journal of Pathology
Frederick A Masoudi, Alan S Go, David J Magid, Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Jerry H Gurwitz, Taylor I Liu, Kristi Reynolds, David H Smith, Liza M Reifler, Karen A Glenn, Frances Fiocchi, Robert Goldberg, Nigel Gupta, Pamela N Peterson, Claudio Schuger, Humberto Vidaillet, Stephen C Hammill, Robert T Greenlee
BACKGROUND: Patient sex and age may influence rates of death after receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention. Differences in outcomes other than mortality and whether these differences vary by heart failure symptoms, etiology, and left ventricular ejection fraction are not well characterized. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 2954 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤0.35 undergoing first-time implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention within the Cardiovascular Research Network; 769 patients (26%) were women, and 2827 (62%) were aged >65 years...
June 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Melania Scarpa, Sean Kessler, Tammy Sadler, Gail West, Craig Homer, Christine McDonald, Carol de la Motte, Claudio Fiocchi, Eleni Stylianou
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death is typical of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We investigated: i) whether IEC-released necrotic cell products (proinflammatory mediators) amplify mucosal inflammation, ii) the capacity of necrotic cell lysates from HT29 cells or human IECs to induce human intestinal fibroblasts' (HIF) production of IL-6 and IL-8, and iii) whether IL-1α, released by injured colonocytes, exacerbated experimental IBD. Necrotic cell lysates potently induced HIF IL-6 and IL-8 production independent of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, receptor for advanced glycation end-products, high-mobility group box 1, uric acid, IL-33, or inflammasome activation...
June 2015: American Journal of Pathology
Claudio Fiocchi
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is presently one of the most investigated human disorders. Expansion of knowledge of its pathophysiology has helped in developing novel medications to combat gut inflammation with a considerably degree of success. Despite this progress, much more remains to be done in regard to gaining a more profound understanding of IBD pathogenesis, detecting inflammation before it clinically manifests, implementing lifestyle modifications, and developing agents that can modify the natural course of the disease...
March 2015: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jun Hwan Yoo, Samantha Ho, Deanna Hoang-Yen Tran, Michelle Cheng, Kyriaki Bakirtzi, Yuzu Kukota, Ryan Ichikawa, Bowei Su, Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Tressia C Hing, Irene Chang, David Q Shih, Richard E Issacson, Richard L Gallo, Claudio Fiocchi, Charalabos Pothoulakis, Hon Wai Koon
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cathelicidin (LL-37 in human and mCRAMP in mice) represents a family of endogenous antimicrobial peptides with anti-inflammatory effects. LL-37 also suppresses collagen synthesis, an important fibrotic response, in dermal fibroblasts. Here we determined whether exogenous cathelicidin administration modulates intestinal fibrosis in two animal models of intestinal inflammation and in human colonic fibroblasts. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice (n=6 per group) were administered intracolonically with a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) enema to induce chronic (6-7 weeks) colitis with fibrosis...
January 2015: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andrew T Schuster, Craig R Homer, Jacqueline R Kemp, Kourtney P Nickerson, Emily Deutschman, Yeojung Kim, Gail West, Tammy Sadler, Eleni Stylianou, Dawid Krokowski, Maria Hatzoglou, Carol de la Motte, Brian P Rubin, Claudio Fiocchi, Christine McDonald, Michelle S Longworth
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Defects in colonic epithelial barrier defenses are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The proteins that regulate bacterial clearance in the colonic epithelium have not been completely identified. The Drosophila chromosome-associated protein D3 (dCAP-D3) regulates responses to bacterial infection. We examined whether CAP-D3 promotes bacterial clearance in human colonic epithelium. METHODS: Clearance of Salmonella or adherent-invasive Escherichia coli LF82 was assessed by gentamycin protection assays in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells expressing small hairpin RNAs against CAP-D3...
June 2015: Gastroenterology
Claudio Fiocchi
The complexity of IBD is well recognized as are the putative four major components of its pathogenesis, i.e. environment, genetic makeup, gut microbiota and mucosal immune response. Each of these components is extremely complex on its own, and at present should be more appropriately defined by the terms 'exposome', 'genome', 'microbiome' and 'immunome', respectively, based on the 'ome' suffix that refers to a totality of some sort. None of these 'omes' is apparently capable of causing IBD by itself; it is instead the intricate and reciprocal interaction among them, through the so-called 'IBD interactome', that results in the emergence of IBD, or more appropriately the 'IBD integrome'...
2014: Digestive Diseases
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