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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149598/harnessing-bet-inhibitor-sensitivity-reveals-amigo2-as-a-melanoma-survival-gene
#1
Barbara Fontanals-Cirera, Dan Hasson, Chiara Vardabasso, Raffaella Di Micco, Praveen Agrawal, Asif Chowdhury, Madeleine Gantz, Ana de Pablos-Aragoneses, Ari Morgenstern, Pamela Wu, Dan Filipescu, David Valle-Garcia, Farbod Darvishian, Jae-Seok Roe, Michael A Davies, Christopher R Vakoc, Eva Hernando, Emily Bernstein
Bromodomain and extraterminal domain inhibitors (BETi) represent promising therapeutic agents for metastatic melanoma, yet their mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we interrogated the transcriptional effects of BETi and identified AMIGO2, a transmembrane molecule, as a BET target gene essential for melanoma cell survival. AMIGO2 is upregulated in melanoma cells and tissues compared to human melanocytes and nevi, and AMIGO2 silencing in melanoma cells induces G1/S arrest followed by apoptosis. We identified the pseudokinase PTK7 as an AMIGO2 interactor whose function is regulated by AMIGO2...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149060/epigenetic-regulation-of-viral-biological-processes
#2
REVIEW
Lata Balakrishnan, Barry Milavetz
It is increasingly clear that DNA viruses exploit cellular epigenetic processes to control their life cycles during infection. This review will address epigenetic regulation in members of the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B, and herpes viruses. For each type of virus, what is known about the roles of DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, and regulatory RNA in epigenetic regulation of the virus infection will be discussed. The mechanisms used by certain viruses to dysregulate the host cell through manipulation of epigenetic processes and the role of cellular cofactors such as BRD4 that are known to be involved in epigenetic regulation of host cell pathways will also be covered...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142067/jq1-induces-dna-damage-and-apoptosis-and-inhibits-tumor-growth-in-a-patient-derived-xenograft-model-of-cholangiocarcinoma
#3
Patrick L Garcia, Aubrey L Miller, Tracy L Gamblin, Leona N Council, John D Christein, J Pablo Arnoletti, Marty J Heslin, Sushanth Reddy, Joseph H Richardson, Xiangqin Cui, Robert C A M van Waardenburg, James E Bradner, Eddy S Yang, Karina J Yoon
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal disease with a five-year survival of <30%. For a majority of patients chemotherapy is the only therapeutic option, and virtually all patients relapse. Gemcitabine is the frontline agent for treatment of CCA. Patients treated with gemcitabine monotherapy survive ~8 months. Combining this agent with cisplatin increases survival by ~3 months, but neither regimen produces durable remissions. The molecular etiology of this disease is poorly understood. To facilitate molecular characterization and development of effective therapies for CCA, we established a panel of patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of CCA...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139214/a-theoretical-insight-into-selectivity-of-inhibitors-toward-two-domains-of-bromodomain-containing-protein-4-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#4
Jing Su, Xinguo Liu, Shaolong Zhang, Fangfang Yan, Qinggang Zhang, Jianzhong Chen
Bromodomains (BRDs) have been an attractive candidate for development of efficient inhibitors toward gene transcription. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations followed by principal component (PC) analysis were performed to investigate binding selectivity of inhibitors RVX297, BSP, JQ1, SF2523 and CPD2 toward two domains (BD1 and BD2) of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4). The results show that inhibitor bindings exert different effect on motions of the BC-loops in BD1 and BD2. The rank of binding free energies calculated by using molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method agrees with the one determined by experiment...
November 15, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133788/regulation-of-angiotensin-ii-actions-by-enhancers-and-super-enhancers-in-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Sadhan Das, Parijat Senapati, Zhuo Chen, Marpadga A Reddy, Rituparna Ganguly, Linda Lanting, Varun Mandi, Anita Bansal, Amy Leung, Selena Zhang, Ye Jia, Xiwei Wu, Dustin E Schones, Rama Natarajan
Angiotensin II (AngII) promotes hypertension and atherosclerosis by activating growth-promoting and pro-inflammatory gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Enhancers and super-enhancers (SEs) play critical roles in driving disease-associated gene expression. However, enhancers/SEs mediating VSMC dysfunction remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that AngII alters vascular enhancer and SE repertoires in cultured VSMCs in vitro, ex vivo, and in AngII-infused mice aortas in vivo. AngII-induced enhancers/SEs are enriched in binding sites for signal-dependent transcription factors and dependent on key signaling kinases...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133261/dual-inhibition-of-brd4-and-pi3k-by-sf2523-suppresses-human-prostate-cancer-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Gang Shen, Minjun Jiang, Jinxian Pu
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) are both key oncogenic proteins in human prostate cancer. In the current study, we examined the anti-prostate cancer cell activity by SF2523, a BRD4 and PI3K dual inhibitor. We showed that SF2523 potently inhibited survival and proliferation of the primary human prostate cancer cells. SF2523 induced profound apoptosis activation in prostate cancer cells. The dual inhibitor was yet non-cytotoxic to the prostate epithelial cells...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121538/therapeutic-options-for-leukemic-transformation-in-patients-with-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#7
REVIEW
Maliha Khan, Rabbia Siddiqi, Naseema Gangat
Approximately 5-10% of patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) comprising of essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis) experience transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML, ≥20% blasts). Treatment options for post-MPN AML patients are limited, as conventional approaches like standard chemotherapy, fail to offer long-term benefit. Median survival for secondary AML is ∼2.4 months. Post-MPN AML therefore represents an area of urgent clinical need...
October 27, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113963/gain-of-function-of-asxl1-truncating-protein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-myeloid-malignancies
#8
Hui Yang, Stefan Kurtenbach, Ying Guo, Ines Lohse, Michael A Durante, Jianping Li, Zhaomin Li, Hassan Al-Ali, Lingxiao Li, Zizhen Chen, Matthew G Field, Peng Zhang, Shi Chen, Shohei Yamamoto, Zhuo Li, Yuan Zhou, Stephen D Nimer, J William Harbour, Claes Wahlestedt, Mingjiang Xu, Feng-Chun Yang
Additional Sex Combs-Like 1 (ASXL1) is mutated at a high frequency in all forms of myeloid malignancies associated with poor prognosis. We generated a Vav1 promoter driven Flag-Asxl1(Y588X) transgenic mouse model, Asxl1(Y588X) Tg, to express a truncated FLAG-ASXL1(aa1-587) protein in the hematopoietic system. The Asxl1(Y588X) Tg mice had an enlarged hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, shortened survival, and predisposition to a spectrum of myeloid malignancies, thereby recapitulating the characteristics of myeloid malignancy patients with ASXL1 mutations...
November 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113796/the-bet-brd-inhibitor-jq1-attenuates-diabetes-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-rats-by-targeting-nox4-nrf2-redox-imbalance
#9
Ershun Liang, Min Ma, Lei Wang, Xue Liu, Jinfeng Xu, Mingxiang Zhang, Ruixue Yang, Yuxia Zhao
Diabetes-induced oxidative damage is believed to play an important role in the development of cognitive dysfunction. In this study, the involvement of the Nox4-Nrf2 redox imbalance was investigated. STZ-induced diabetic rats exhibited obvious oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus assessed by augmentation of lipid peroxidation, positive TUNEL staining, elevated ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and increased caspase 3 activity. Furthermore, hyperglycemia markedly increased Nox4 activity and reduced the activation of Nrf2 by suppressing its up-stream regulatory Akt as well as down-stream target HO-1...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108467/spop-mediated-degradation-of-brd4-dictates-cellular-sensitivity-to-bet-inhibitors
#10
Xiangpeng Dai, Zhiwei Wang, Wenyi Wei
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are frequently overexpressed in various human cancers, therefore have been clinically pursed as attractive therapeutic anti-cancer targets. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism(s) underlying aberrant BET overexpression in human cancers. Recently, we reported that prostate cancer-derived SPOP mutants fail to interact with and promote BRD4 degradation, leading to accumulation of BRD4 in prostate cancer cells. As a result, prostate cancer cells harboring SPOP mutations are more resistant to BET inhibitors...
November 6, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103140/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-indazole-4-7-dione-derivatives-as-novel-brd4-inhibitors
#11
Minjin Yoo, Miyoun Yoo, Ji Eun Kim, Heung Kyoung Lee, Chong Ock Lee, Chi Hoon Park, Kwan-Young Jung
Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is known to regulate the expression of c-Myc to control the proliferation of cancer cells. Therefore, development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting the bromodomain has been widely studied. However, some clinical trials on BRD4 inhibitors have shown its drawbacks such as toxicity including the loss of organ weight. Here, we report the development of the novel and promising scaffold, 1H-indazol-4,7-dione, as a bromodomain inhibitor and synthesized derivatives for the inhibition of binding of bromodomain to acetylated histone peptide...
November 4, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083896/filling-blank-spots-on-the-map-identification-of-ligand-binding-modes-and-interacting-water-molecules-for-brd4-bd1-by-waterlogsy-titrations
#12
Ann-Christin Pöppler
Fragment-based drug discovery and continuous improvement of existing protein inhibitors rely on the knowledge of exactly how and how strongly a range of small molecules bind to their respective protein targets. By increasing the (perdeuterated) protein concentration, WaterLOGSY titration experiments give access to ligand binding modes even in the case of weak binders as well as to the location of protein-bound water in the surroundings of the ligand. On the basis of these findings, specific chemical modifications of the ligand could be shown to yield significantly enhanced binding affinities...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082752/chemical-constituents-of-the-fermentative-extracts-of-marine-fungi-phoma-sp-czd-f11-and-aspergillus-sp-czd-f18-from-zhoushan-archipelago-china
#13
Xiaomei Wu, Zhe Chen, Wanjing Ding, Yu Liu, Zhongjun Ma
A new diphenyl ether (1) as well as 20 other compounds were identified from the fermentative extracts of marine-derived fungi Phoma sp. CZD-F11 (Compounds 1-8) and Aspergillus sp. CZD-F18(Compounds 9-21). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extracts of the fungi exhibited very good anticancer activity against H1975 cells with 5.62 and 25.8% viability at concentration of 10 μg/mL for Phoma sp. CZD-F11 and Aspergillus sp. CZD-F18, respectively. The inhibitory activity of all compounds against PC-3 cell lines, BRD4 and aromatase were evaluated...
October 29, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082287/flow-cytometric-analysis-of-hiv-1-transcriptional-activity-in-response-to-shrna-knockdown-in-a2-and-a72-j-lat-cell-lines
#14
Daniela Boehm, Melanie Ott
The main obstacle to eradicating HIV-1 from patients is post-integration latency (Finzi et al., 1999). Antiretroviral treatments target only actively replicating virus, while latent infections that have low or no transcriptional activity remain untreated (Sedaghat et al., 2007). To eliminate viral reservoirs, one strategy focuses on reversing HIV-1 latency via 'shock and kill' (Deeks, 2012). The basis of this strategy is to overcome the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 latency by therapeutically inducing viral gene and protein expression under antiretroviral therapy and to cause selective cell death via the lytic properties of the virus, or the immune system now recognizing the infected cells...
June 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079177/sinonasal-nut-carcinoma-clinicopathological-and-cytogenetic-analysis-with-autopsy-findings
#15
Hiroshi Minato, Eriko Kobayashi, Satoko Nakada, Nozomu Kurose, Mio Tanaka, Yukichi Tanaka, Shioto Suzuki, Fumihiko Tanioka, Yutaka Saikawa, Takaki Miwa, Takayuki Nojima
Nuclear protein in testis (NUT) carcinoma is a rare malignant neoplasm with an undifferentiated morphology. Its diagnosis is often difficult, especially as the sinonasal tract gives rise to many tumors with undifferentiated morphologies. Not many cases of sinonasal NUT carcinomas have been reported, and its clinicopathological features have not been sufficiently clarified. In this study, we performed a clinicopathological study of 4 patients with sinonasal NUT carcinoma, including wide-ranging immunohistochemical tests and cytogenetic analyses using fluorescence in situ hybridization and DNA sequencing...
October 24, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077715/protein-dynamics-and-structural-waters-in-bromodomains
#16
Xiaoxiao Zhang, Kai Chen, Yun-Dong Wu, Olaf Wiest
Bromodomains are epigenetic readers of acetylated lysines that are integral parts of histone tails. The 61 bromodomains in humans are structurally highly conserved but specifically bind to widely varying recognition motifs, suggesting that dynamic rather than static factors are responsible for recognition selectivity. To test this hypothesis, the dynamics of the binding sites and structural water molecules of four bromodomains (ATAD2, BAZ2B, BRD2(1) and CREBBP) representing four different subtypes is studied with 1 μs MD simulations using the RSFF2 force field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077030/dietary-compound-resveratrol-is-a-pan-bet-bromodomain-inhibitor
#17
Luiz Antonio Dutra, David Heidenreich, Gabriel Dalio Bernardes da Silva, Chung Man Chin, Stefan Knapp, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
The chemopreventive and anticancer effects of resveratrol (RSV) are widely reported in the literature. Specifically, mechanisms involving epigenetic regulation are promising targets to regulate tumor development. Bromodomains act as epigenetic readers by recognizing lysine acetylation on histone tails and boosting gene expression in order to regulate tissue-specific transcription. In this work, we showed that RSV is a pan-BET inhibitor. Using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF), we showed that RSV at 100 µM increased the melting temperature (∆Tm) of BET bromodomains by around 2...
October 27, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075615/pharmacologic-targeting-of-chromatin-modulators-as-therapeutics-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#18
REVIEW
Rui Lu, Gang Greg Wang
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a common hematological cancer of myeloid lineage cells, generally exhibits poor prognosis in the clinic and demands new treatment options. Recently, direct sequencing of samples from human AMLs and pre-leukemic diseases has unveiled their mutational landscapes and significantly advanced the molecular understanding of AML pathogenesis. The newly identified recurrent mutations frequently "hit" genes encoding epigenetic modulators, a wide range of chromatin-modifying enzymes and regulatory factors involved in gene expression regulation, supporting aberration of chromatin structure and epigenetic modification as a main oncogenic mechanism and cancer-initiating event...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074567/image-based-drug-screen-identifies-hdac-inhibitors-as-novel-golgi-disruptors-synergizing-with-jq1
#19
Mathieu Gendarme, Jan Baumann, Tatiana I Ignashkova, Ralph K Lindemann, Jan H Reiling
The Golgi apparatus is increasingly recognized as a major hub for cellular signaling and is involved in numerous pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The study of Golgi stress-induced signaling pathways relies on the selectivity of the available tool compounds of which currently only a few are known. To discover novel Golgi-fragmenting agents, transcriptomic profiles of cells treated with brefeldin A, golgicide A or monensin were generated and compared to a database of gene expression profiles from cells treated with other bioactive small molecules...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070704/bivalent-complexes-of-prc1-with-orthologs-of-brd4-and-moz-morf-target-developmental-genes-in-drosophila
#20
Hyuckjoon Kang, Youngsook L Jung, Kyle A McElroy, Barry M Zee, Heather A Wallace, Jessica L Woolnough, Peter J Park, Mitzi I Kuroda
Regulatory decisions in Drosophila require Polycomb group (PcG) proteins to maintain the silent state and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins to oppose silencing. Since PcG and TrxG are ubiquitous and lack apparent sequence specificity, a long-standing model is that targeting occurs via protein interactions; for instance, between repressors and PcG proteins. Instead, we found that Pc-repressive complex 1 (PRC1) purifies with coactivators Fs(1)h [female sterile (1) homeotic] and Enok/Br140 during embryogenesis. Fs(1)h is a TrxG member and the ortholog of BRD4, a bromodomain protein that binds to acetylated histones and is a key transcriptional coactivator in mammals...
October 1, 2017: Genes & Development
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