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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351616/deficient-glucagon-response-to-hypoglycemia-during-a-mixed-meal-in-total-pancreatectomy-islet-autotransplantation-recipients
#1
L D Bogachus, M D Bellin, A Vella, R P Robertson
Context: Total pancreatectomy and intrahepatic islet autotransplantation (TP/IAT) is performed to alleviate severe abdominal pain, avoid narcotic use, maintain islet function, and avoid diabetes in patients with chronic pancreatitis. However, many TP/IAT recipients complain of post-prandial hypoglycemia. Objective: This study was designed to discover mechanisms of this problem. Design: Participants consumed a triple-isotope mixed meal. Setting: Hospital research unit...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351449/personalized-medicine-in-cf-from-modulator-development-to-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-rare-cftr-mutations
#2
Misak Harutyunyan, Yunjie Huang, Kyu-Shik Mun, Fanmuyi Yang, Kavisha Arora, Anjaparavanda P Naren
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 1 in 3500 of the Caucasian population. CF is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. To date, over 2000 CFTR mutations have been identified and produce a wide range of phenotypes. The CFTR protein, a chloride channel, is normally expressed on epithelial cells lining the lung, gut, and exocrine glands. Mutations in CFTR have led to pleiotropic effects in CF patients and have resulted in early morbidity and mortality...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351342/a-homozygous-missense-variant-in-vwa2-encoding-an-interactor-of-the-fraser-complex-in-a-patient-with-vesicoureteral-reflux
#3
Amelie T van der Ven, Birgit Kobbe, Stefan Kohl, Shirlee Shril, Hans-Martin Pogoda, Thomas Imhof, Hadas Ityel, Asaf Vivante, Jing Chen, Daw-Yang Hwang, Dervla M Connaughton, Nina Mann, Eugen Widmeier, Mary Taglienti, Johanna Magdalena Schmidt, Makiko Nakayama, Prabha Senguttuvan, Selvin Kumar, Velibor Tasic, Elijah O Kehinde, Shrikant M Mane, Richard P Lifton, Neveen Soliman, Weining Lu, Stuart B Bauer, Matthias Hammerschmidt, Raimund Wagener, Friedhelm Hildebrandt
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are the most common cause (40-50%) of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children. About 40 monogenic causes of CAKUT have so far been discovered. To date less than 20% of CAKUT cases can be explained by mutations in these 40 genes. To identify additional monogenic causes of CAKUT, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) and homozygosity mapping (HM) in a patient with CAKUT from Indian origin and consanguineous descent. We identified a homozygous missense mutation (c...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351332/impedance-spectroscopy-of-single-bacterial-nanofilament-reveals-water-mediated-charge-transfer
#4
Artem Grebenko, Vyacheslav Dremov, Petr Barzilovich, Anton Bubis, Konstantin Sidoruk, Tatiyana Voeikova, Zarina Gagkaeva, Timur Chernov, Evgeny Korostylev, Boris Gorshunov, Konstantin Motovilov
For decades respiratory chain and photosystems were the main firing field of the studies devoted to mechanisms of electron transfer in proteins. The concept of conjugated lateral electron and transverse proton transport during cellular respiration and photosynthesis, which was formulated in the beginning of 1960-s, has been confirmed by thousands of experiments. However, charge transfer in recently discovered bacterial nanofilaments produced by various electrogenic bacteria is regarded currently outside of electron and proton conjugation concept...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#5
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351144/cardiac-dysfunction-in-critical-illness
#6
Allison Dalton, Sajid Shahul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sepsis and septic shock are prevalent conditions that are likely to increase in prevalence in the future. Given the high mortality and morbidity associated with sepsis and sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction, we must continue to make advances in knowledge of the complex physiologic interactions and how we may target specific mediators for potential therapeutic options in the future. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple biomarkers have been discovered, which when assayed in sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy predict morbidity and mortality...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351105/stem-cell-modeling-of-lipid-genetics
#7
Kiran Musunuru
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances with respect to the use of human pluripotent stem cells to study the genetics of blood lipid traits. RECENT FINDINGS: Human pluripotent stem cell models have been used to elucidate the mechanisms by which genes contribute to dyslipidemia, to discover new lipid-related DNA variants and genes, and to perform drug screens. SUMMARY: In addition to enabling a better understanding of the genetic basis of lipid metabolism, human pluripotent stem cells are identifying potential therapeutic targets as well as potential therapies...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350967/chiral-topological-superconductors-enhanced-by-long-range-interactions
#8
Oscar Viyuela, Liang Fu, Miguel Angel Martin-Delgado
We study the phase diagram and edge states of a two-dimensional p-wave superconductor with long-range hopping and pairing amplitudes. New topological phases and quasiparticles different from the usual short-range model are obtained. When both hopping and pairing terms decay with the same exponent, one of the topological chiral phases with propagating Majorana edge states gets significantly enhanced by long-range couplings. On the other hand, when the long-range pairing amplitude decays more slowly than the hopping, we discover new topological phases where propagating Majorana fermions at each edge pair nonlocally and become gapped even in the thermodynamic limit...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350635/magnetic-resonance-imaging-correlates-of-benign-and-malignant-alterations-of-the-spinal-bone-marrow
#9
Ferdinando Caranci, Enrico Tedeschi, Lorenzo Ugga, Alessandra D'Amico, Serena Schipani, Silvia Bartollino, Claudio Russo, Alessandra Splendiani, Francesco Briganti, Marcello Zappia, Mariarosa A B Melone, Carlo Maschiocchi, Luca Brunese
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Bone marrow (BM) abnormalities in the spine are a common, sometimes unexpected, finding on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is the most sensitive imaging modality to evaluate the marrow, and their interpretation can be difficult for the unexperienced radiologist. In this review, the MRI appearance of normal age-related BM changes, as well as the imaging features of benign and malignant diseases, are presented. DISCUSSION: A large variety of BM signal alterations has been identified and described, including normal variants, BM reconversion,  degenerative changes, infections, spondyloarthritis and osteonecrosis, trauma, neoplastic lesions (both primary or metastatic), post-radiation and chemotherapy sequelae...
January 19, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350244/autophagy-related-atg-11-atg9-and-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-control-atg2-mediated-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-arabidopsis
#10
Sangwoo Kang, Kwang Deok Shin, Jeong Hun Kim, Taijoon Chung
Using quantitative assays for autophagy, we analyzed 4 classes of atg mutants, discovered new atg2 phenotypes and ATG gene interactions, and proposed a model of autophagosome formation in plants. Plant and other eukaryotic cells use autophagy to target cytoplasmic constituents for degradation in the vacuole. Autophagy is regulated and executed by a conserved set of proteins called autophagy-related (ATG). In Arabidopsis, several groups of ATG proteins have been characterized using genetic approaches. However, the genetic interactions between ATG genes have not been established and the relationship between different ATG groups in plants remains unclear...
January 19, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350225/visible-light-induced-multicomponent-cascade-cycloaddition-involving-n-propargyl-aromatic-amines-diaryliodonium-salts-and-sulfur-dioxide-rapid-access-to-3-arylsulfonylquinolines
#11
Deli Sun, Kun Yin, Ronghua Zhang
A visible-light-induced, Eosin Y catalyzed three-component synthesis of 3-arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives through N-propargyl aromatic amines, diaryliodonium salts and sulfur dioxide has been discovered. This transformation represents an efficient and attractive method for the straightforward synthesis of 3-arylsulfonylquinoline derivatives via the formation of C-S bonds and quinolines in one step. In addition, it exhibits good substrate scope and functional group tolerance. The use of easy-to-handle diaryliodonium salts, sulfur dioxide sources and the cheap photocatalyst Eosin Y together with facile operation at room temperature makes this protocol very practical...
January 19, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350033/impact-of-backbone-pattern-and-residue-substitution-on-helicity-in-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-peptides
#12
Young-Hee Shin, Samuel H Gellman
We have evaluated the impact of changes in the chemical structure of peptidic oligomers containing α-, β-, and γ-amino acid residues (α/β/γ-peptides) on the propensities of these oligomers to adopt helical conformations in aqueous and alcoholic solutions. These studies were inspired by our previous discovery that α/β/γ-peptides containing a regular αγααβα hexad repeat adopt an α-helix-like conformation in which the β and γ residues are aligned in a stripe along one side, and the remainder of the helix surface is defined by the α residues...
January 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349942/ancient-soil-transmitted-parasite-eggs-detected-from-the-sixth-century-three-kingdom-period-silla-tomb
#13
Min Seo, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Jong Yil Chai, Jin Og Ju, Dong Hoon Shin
The parasitic infection patterns of the Joseon period have begun to be revealed in a series of paleoparasitological studies. However, parasitism prevailing during or before the Three Kingdom period is still relatively unexplored. In the present study, we therefore conducted parasitological examinations of soil and organic-material sediments precipitated upon human hipbone and sacrum discovered inside an ancient Mokgwakmyo tomb dating to the Silla Dynasty (57 BCE-660 CE). Within the samples, we discovered ancient Ascaris lumbricoides (eggs per gram [EPG], 46...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349905/would-you-like-to-add-a-weight-after-this-blood-pressure-doctor-discovery-of-potentially-actionable-associations-between-the-provision-of-multiple-screens-in-primary-care
#14
Sumeet Kalia, Michelle Greiver, Xu Zhao, Christopher Meaney, Rahim Moineddin, Babak Aliarzadeh, Eva Grunfeld, Frank Sullivan
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVE: Guidelines recommend screening for risk factors associated with chronic diseases but current electronic prompts have limited effects. Our objective was to discover and rank associations between the presence of screens to plan more efficient prompts in primary care. METHODS: Risk factors with the greatest impact on chronic diseases are associated with blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemic and lipid levels, smoking, alcohol use, diet, and exercise...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349785/a-novel-mlph-variant-in-dogs-with-coat-colour-dilution
#15
A Bauer, A Kehl, V Jagannathan, T Leeb
Coat colour dilution may be the result of altered melanosome transport in melanocytes. Loss-of-function variants in the melanophilin gene (MLPH) cause a recessively inherited form of coat colour dilution in many mammalian and avian species including the dog. MLPH corresponds to the D locus in many domestic animals, and recessive alleles at this locus are frequently denoted with d. In this study, we investigated dilute coloured Chow Chows whose coat colour could not be explained by their genotype at the previously known MLPH:c...
January 19, 2018: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349685/solute-transport-in-the-bone-lacunar-canalicular-system-lcs
#16
REVIEW
Liyun Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Solute transport in the lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) plays important roles in osteocyte metabolism and cell-cell signaling. This review will summarize recent studies that establish pericellular matrix (PCM), discovered inside the LCS, as a crucial regulator of solute transport in bone. RECENT FINDINGS: Utilizing confocal imaging and mathematical modeling, recent studies successfully quantified molecular diffusion and convection in the LCS as well as the size-dependent sieving effects of the PCM, leading to the quantification of the effective PCM fiber spacing (10 to 17 nm) in murine adult bones...
January 18, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349533/hendra-virus-spillover-is-a-bimodal-system-driven-by-climatic-factors
#17
Gerardo Martin, Carlos Yanez-Arenas, Raina K Plowright, Carla Chen, Billie Roberts, Lee F Skerratt
Understanding environmental factors driving spatiotemporal patterns of disease can improve risk mitigation strategies. Hendra virus (HeV), discovered in Australia in 1994, spills over from bats (Pteropus sp.) to horses and thence to humans. Below latitude - 22°, almost all spillover events to horses occur during winter, and above this latitude spillover is aseasonal. We generated a statistical model of environmental drivers of HeV spillover per month. The model reproduced the spatiotemporal pattern of spillover risk between 1994 and 2015...
January 18, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348878/identification-of-cancer-prognosis-associated-functional-modules-using-differential-co-expression-networks
#18
Wenshuai Yu, Shengjie Zhao, Yongcui Wang, Brian Nlong Zhao, Weiling Zhao, Xiaobo Zhou
The rapid accumulation of cancer-related data owing to high-throughput technologies has provided unprecedented choices to understand the progression of cancer and discover functional networks in multiple cancers. Establishment of co-expression networks will help us to discover the systemic properties of carcinogenesis features and regulatory mechanisms of multiple cancers. Here, we proposed a computational workflow to identify differentially co-expressed gene modules across 8 cancer types by using combined gene differential expression analysis methods and a higher-order generalized singular value decomposition...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348873/impaired-epidermal-langerhans-cell-maturation-in-tgf%C3%AE-inducible-early-gene-1-tieg1-knockout-mice
#19
Xilin Zhang, Yi Yao, Wei-Zen Wei, Zeng-Quan Yang, Jun Gu, Li Zhou
TGF-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1), also known as Krüppel-like factor 10 (Klf10), represents a major downstream transcription factor of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), a unique subpopulation of dendritic cells (DC), essentially mediates immune surveillance and tolerance. TGF-β1 plays a pivotal role in LC maintenance and function after birth, although the underpinning mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we hypothesized that TIEG1 might be involved in TGF-β1-mediated LC homeostasis and function...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348816/development-of-a-predictive-mirna-signature-for-breast-cancer-risk-among-high-risk-women
#20
Nicholas H Farina, Jon E Ramsey, Melissa E Cuke, Thomas P Ahern, David J Shirley, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein, Jane B Lian, Marie E Wood
Significant limitations exist in our ability to predict breast cancer risk at the individual level. Circulating microRNAs (C-miRNAs) have emerged as measurable biomarkers (liquid biopsies) for cancer detection. We evaluated the ability of C-miRNAs to identify women most likely to develop breast cancer by profiling miRNA from serum obtained long before diagnosis. 24 breast cancer cases and controls (matched for risk and age) were identified from women enrolled in the High-Risk Breast Program at the UVM Cancer Center...
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
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