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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892258/sitagliptin-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-modulate-insulin-secretion-via-regulation-of-intra-islet-pyy
#1
Claudia Guida, Laura J McCulloch, Mahdieh Godazgar, Sam D Stephen, Charlotte Baker, Davide Basco, Jiawen Dong, Duan Chen, Anne Clark, Reshma D Ramracheya
AIMS: The gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is critical for maintaining islet integrity and restoring islet function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The expression of PYY and its receptors (NPYRs) in islets has been documented but not fully characterized. Modulation of islet PYY by the proteolytic enzyme DPP-IV has not been investigated and the impact of DPP-IV inhibition on islet PYY function remains unexplored. Here we have addressed these gaps and their effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
September 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857333/mri-assessment-of-the-postprandial-gastrointestinal-motility-and-peptide-response-in-healthy-humans
#2
A Khalaf, C L Hoad, A Menys, A Nowak, S A Taylor, S Paparo, M Lingaya, Y Falcone, G Singh, R C Spiller, P A Gowland, L Marciani, G W Moran
BACKGROUND: Feeding triggers inter-related gastrointestinal (GI) motor, peptide and appetite responses. These are rarely studied together due to methodological limitations. Recent MRI advances allow pan-intestinal, non-invasive assessment of motility in the undisturbed gut. This study aimed to develop a methodology to assess pan-intestinal motility and transit in a single session using MRI and compare imaging findings to GI peptide responses to a test meal and symptoms in a healthy volunteer cohort...
August 31, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794470/endocrine-disruptors-induce-perturbations-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-mitochondria-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derivatives
#3
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Camille Ocampo, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We delineate the effects upon physiological low-dose exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals including, perfluoro-octanoic acid, tributyltin, and butylhydroxytoluene, in endocrine-active human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived foregut epithelial cells and hypothalamic neurons...
August 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792489/l-phenylalanine-modulates-gut-hormone-release-and-glucose-tolerance-and-suppresses-food-intake-through-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-rodents
#4
A Alamshah, E Spreckley, M Norton, J S Kinsey-Jones, A Amin, A Ramgulam, Y Cao, R Johnson, K Saleh, E Akalestou, Z Malik, N Gonzalez-Abuin, A Jomard, R Amarsi, A Moolla, P R Sargent, G W Gray, S R Bloom, K G Murphy
OBJECTIVE: High-protein diets (HPDs) are associated with greater satiety and weight loss than diets rich in other macronutrients. The exact mechanisms by which HPDs exert their effects are unclear. However, evidence suggests that the sensing of amino acids produced as a result of protein digestion may have a role in appetite regulation and satiety. We investigated the effects of l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on food intake and glucose homeostasis in rodents. METHODS: We investigated the effects of the aromatic amino-acid and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonist l-phenylalanine (L-Phe) on food intake and the release of the gastrointestinal (GI) hormones peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and ghrelin in rodents, and the role of the CaSR in mediating these effects in vitro and in vivo...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622905/discovery-of-novel-somatostatin-receptor-subtype-5-sstr5-antagonists-pharmacological-studies-and-design-to-improve-pharmacokinetic-profiles-and-human-ether-a-go-go-related-gene-herg-inhibition
#5
Takeshi Yamasaki, Hideki Hirose, Tohru Yamashita, Nobuyuki Takakura, Sachie Morimoto, Takashi Nakahata, Asato Kina, Yoshihide Nakano, Yumiko Okano Tamura, Jun Sugama, Tomoyuki Odani, Yuji Shimizu, Shinji Iwasaki, Masanori Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Maekawa, Shizuo Kasai
Somatostatin (SST) is a peptide hormone comprising 14 or 28 amino acids that inhibits endocrine and exocrine secretion via five distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). SSTR5 has an important role in inhibiting the secretion of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones (e.g., insulin, GLP-1, PYY) through the binding of SSTs; hence, SSTR5 antagonists are expected to be novel anti-diabetic drugs. In the course of our lead generation program of SSTR5 antagonists, we have discovered a novel spiroazetidine derivative 3a...
June 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604591/influence-of-hot-and-cold-environments-on-the-regulation-of-energy-balance-following-a-single-exercise-session-a-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Keyne Charlot, Cécile Faure, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
Understanding the regulation of human food intake in response to an acute exercise session is of importance for interventions with athletes and soldiers, as well as overweight individuals. However, the influence of hot and cold environments on this crucial function for the regulation of body mass and motor performance has not been summarized. The purpose of this review was to exhaustively search the literature on the effect of ambient temperature during an exercise session on the subsequent subjective feeling of appetite, energy intake (EI) and its regulation...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#7
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#8
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#9
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413860/distribution-and-characterisation-of-cck-containing-enteroendocrine-cells-of-the-mouse-small-and-large-intestine
#10
Josiane Fakhry, Joyce Wang, Patricia Martins, Linda J Fothergill, Billie Hunne, Pierre Prieur, Arthur Shulkes, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
There is general consensus that enteroendocrine cells, EEC, containing the enteric hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) are confined to the small intestine and predominate in the duodenum and jejunum. Contrary to this, EEC that express the gene for CCK have been isolated from the large intestine of the mouse and there is evidence for EEC that contain CCK-like immunoreactivity in the mouse colon. However, the human and rat colons do not contain CCK cells. In the current study, we use immunohistochemistry to investigate CCK peptide presence in endocrine cells, PCR to identify cck transcripts and chromatography to identify CCK peptide forms in the mouse small and large intestine...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371338/oral-administration-of-nasturtium-affects-peptide-yy-secretion-in-male-subjects
#11
Sonja Schiess, Stefanie Platz, Margrit Kemper, Monika Schreiner, Inga Mewis, Sascha Rohn, Christiane Bumke-Vogt, Olga Pivovarova, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
SCOPE: Nasturtium plants contain the glucosinolate glucotropaeolin and its corresponding breakdown product benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), the latter being intensively studied with regard to cancer chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, recent research has shown that isothiocyanates are able to activate the release of several gut hormones in vitro and in rodent studies. Here, we tested the effects of a dietary nasturtium administration on circulating levels of gut hormones in humans...
August 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272464/the-effect-of-diurnal-distribution-of-carbohydrates-and-fat-on-glycaemic-control-in-humans-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Katharina Kessler, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Margrit Kemper, Achim Kramer, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Olga Pivovarova, Natalia Rudovich
Diurnal carbohydrate and fat distribution modulates glycaemic control in rodents. In humans, the optimal timing of both macronutrients and its effects on glycaemic control after prolonged consumption are not studied in detail. In this cross-over trial, 29 non-obese men were randomized to two four-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13.30 and fat-rich meals between 16.30 and 22.00 (HC/HF) versus (2) inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). After each trial period two meal tolerance tests were performed, at 09...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#14
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995402/does-the-ileal-brake-contribute-to-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-pancreatoduodenectomy
#15
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, John A Windsor
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents a significant cause for morbidity following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). At a time when no specific and universally effective therapy exists to treat these patients, elucidating other potential (preventable or treatable) mechanisms for DGE is important. The aim of the manuscript was to test the hypothesis that ileal brake contributes to DGE in PD patients receiving jejunal tube feeding by systematically reviewing experimental and clinical literature. A series of clinically relevant questions were framed related to the potential role of the ileal brake in development of DGE post-PD and formed the basis of targeted literature searches...
February 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966574/acute-increases-in-serum-colonic-short-chain-fatty-acids-elicited-by-inulin-do-not-increase-glp-1-or-pyy-responses-but-may-reduce-ghrelin-in-lean-and-overweight-humans
#16
S Rahat-Rozenbloom, J Fernandes, J Cheng, T M S Wolever
BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans...
August 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934480/a-mechanistic-study-on-nanoparticle-mediated-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#17
Ana Beloqui, Mireille Alhouayek, Dario Carradori, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Véronique Préat
L cells have attracted particular interest because of the pleiotropic effects of their secreted peptides (i.e., glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and 2, peptide YY (PYY)). L cells express different G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be activated by endogenous ligands found in the gut lumen. We herein hypothesized that lipid-based nanoparticles could mimic endogenous ligands and thus activate GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. To assess this hypothesis, lipid-based nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), lipid nanocapsules (LNC), and liposomes) and PLGA nanoparticles were added to the L cells and GLP-1 secretion was quantified...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844204/analysis-of-enteroendocrine-cell-populations-in-the-human-colon
#19
Patricia Martins, Josiane Fakhry, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Billie Hunne, Linda J Fothergill, Mitchell Ringuet, Débora d'Ávila Reis, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Recent studies have shown that patterns of colocalisation of hormones in enteroendocrine cells are more complex than previously appreciated and that the patterns differ substantially between species. In this study, the human sigmoid colon is investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones and their colocalisation. The segments of colon were distant from the pathology that led to colectomy and appeared structurally normal. Only four hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and somatostatin, were common in enteroendocrine cells of the human colon...
February 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811949/small-intestinal-protein-infusion-in-humans-evidence-for-a-location-specific-gradient-in-intestinal-feedback-on-food-intake-and-gi-peptide-release
#20
M van Avesaat, D Ripken, H F J Hendriks, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND: Protein infusion in the small intestine results in intestinal brake activation: a negative feedback mechanism that may be mediated by the release of gastrointestinal peptides resulting in a reduction in food intake. It has been proposed that duodenum, jejunum and ileum may respond differently to infused proteins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in ad libitum food intake, feelings of hunger and satiety and the systemic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose and insulin after intraduodenal, intrajejunal and intraileal protein infusion...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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