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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995402/does-the-ileal-brake-contribute-to-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-pancreatoduodenectomy
#3
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, John A Windsor
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents a significant cause for morbidity following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). At a time when no specific and universally effective therapy exists to treat these patients, elucidating other potential (preventable or treatable) mechanisms for DGE is important. The aim of the manuscript was to test the hypothesis that ileal brake contributes to DGE in PD patients receiving jejunal tube feeding by systematically reviewing experimental and clinical literature. A series of clinically relevant questions were framed related to the potential role of the ileal brake in development of DGE post-PD and formed the basis of targeted literature searches...
December 19, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966574/acute-increases-in-serum-colonic-short-chain-fatty-acids-elicited-by-inulin-do-not-increase-glp-1-or-pyy-responses-but-may-reduce-ghrelin-in-lean-and-overweight-humans
#4
S Rahat-Rozenbloom, J Fernandes, J Cheng, T M S Wolever
BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934480/a-mechanistic-study-on-nanoparticle-mediated-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#5
Ana Beloqui, Mireille Alhouayek, Dario Carradori, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Véronique Préat
L cells have attracted particular interest because of the pleiotropic effects of their secreted peptides (i.e., glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and 2, peptide YY (PYY)). L cells express different G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be activated by endogenous ligands found in the gut lumen. We herein hypothesized that lipid-based nanoparticles could mimic endogenous ligands and thus activate GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. To assess this hypothesis, lipid-based nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), lipid nanocapsules (LNC), and liposomes) and PLGA nanoparticles were added to the L cells and GLP-1 secretion was quantified...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844204/analysis-of-enteroendocrine-cell-populations-in-the-human-colon
#7
Patricia Martins, Josiane Fakhry, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Billie Hunne, Linda J Fothergill, Mitchell Ringuet, Débora d'Ávila Reis, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Recent studies have shown that patterns of colocalisation of hormones in enteroendocrine cells are more complex than previously appreciated and that the patterns differ substantially between species. In this study, the human sigmoid colon is investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones and their colocalisation. The segments of colon were distant from the pathology that led to colectomy and appeared structurally normal. Only four hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and somatostatin, were common in enteroendocrine cells of the human colon...
November 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811949/small-intestinal-protein-infusion-in-humans-evidence-for-a-location-specific-gradient-in-intestinal-feedback-on-food-intake-and-gi-peptide-release
#8
M van Avesaat, D Ripken, H F J Hendriks, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND: Protein infusion in the small intestine results in intestinal brake activation: a negative feedback mechanism that may be mediated by the release of gastrointestinal peptides resulting in a reduction in food intake. It has been proposed that duodenum, jejunum and ileum may respond differently to infused proteins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in ad libitum food intake, feelings of hunger and satiety and the systemic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose and insulin after intraduodenal, intrajejunal and intraileal protein infusion...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#9
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779708/enteroendocrine-cells-stem-cells-and-differentiation-progenitors-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#10
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi, Kazuo Umezawa, Odd Helge Gilja
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group)...
December 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580096/human-brain-responses-to-gastrointestinal-nutrients-and-gut-hormones
#11
REVIEW
John T McLaughlin, Shane McKie
Functional mapping of human brain activation has made it possible to understand how different nutrients in the gut impact on homeostatic and appetitive brain responses. Current data are limited, but nutrient-specific effects are observed, with differential responses to lipid and sugars. Responses are not a simple function of calorie intake. Gut hormones such as CCK, PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin are implicated in these responses, but may not exert effects directly on the brain. Research is now addressing how these homeostatic signalling states (fasting/fed) interact with hedonic responses, such as those evoked by images of appealing food...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465830/islet-distribution-of-peptide-yy-and-its-regulatory-role-in-primary-mouse-islets-and-immortalised-rodent-and-human-beta-cell-function-and-survival
#12
Dawood Khan, Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Nigel Irwin, Peter R Flatt
Recent evidence suggests that the classic gut peptide, Peptide YY (PYY), could play a fundamental role in endocrine pancreatic function. In the present study expression of PYY and its NPY receptors on mouse islets and immortalised rodent and human beta-cells was examined together with the effects of both major circulating forms of PYY, namely PYY(1-36) and PYY(3-36), on beta-cell function, murine islet adaptions to insulin deficiency/resistance, as well as direct effects on cultured beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis...
November 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447725/angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-dependent-glp-1-and-pyy-secretion-in-mice-and-humans
#13
Ramona Pais, Juraj Rievaj, Pierre Larraufie, Fiona Gribble, Frank Reimann
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the key hormone mediator of the renin angiotensin system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Here we report that in the colonic epithelium, the Ang II type 1 receptor is highly and exclusively expressed in enteroendocrine L cells, which produce the gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY (PYY). Ang II stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 and PYY release from primary cultures of mouse and human colon, which was antagonized by the specific Ang II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan...
October 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27405092/tlr-ligands-and-butyrate-increase-pyy-expression-through-two-distinct-but-inter-regulated-pathways
#14
Pierre Larraufie, Joël Doré, Nicolas Lapaque, Hervé M Blottière
The intestinal epithelium is an active barrier separating the host from its microbiota. It senses microbial compounds through expression of a wide range of receptors including the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs have been shown to regulate epithelium permeability or secretion of defensin by Paneth cells. However, the expression and function of TLRs in enteroendocrine L-cells, a specific subtype of intestinal cells secreting PYY and GLP-1, have not yet been assessed. PYY and GLP-1 are implicated in regulation of gut motility, food intake and insulin secretion, and are of great interest regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes...
July 12, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169834/increased-colonic-propionate-reduces-anticipatory-reward-responses-in-the-human-striatum-to-high-energy-foods
#15
Claire S Byrne, Edward S Chambers, Habeeb Alhabeeb, Navpreet Chhina, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Catriona Tedford, Julie Fitzpatrick, Cherag Irani, Albert Busza, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Sofia Fountana, Elaine Holmes, Anthony P Goldstone, Gary S Frost
BACKGROUND: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites produced through the microbial fermentation of nondigestible dietary components, have key roles in energy homeostasis. Animal research suggests that colon-derived SCFAs modulate feeding behavior via central mechanisms. In humans, increased colonic production of the SCFA propionate acutely reduces energy intake. However, evidence of an effect of colonic propionate on the human brain or reward-based eating behavior is currently unavailable...
July 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055279/ghrelin-impairs-prandial-glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-secretion-in-healthy-humans-despite-increasing-glp-1
#16
Jenny Tong, Harold W Davis, Amalia Gastaldelli, David D'Alessio
OBJECTIVES: Administration of ghrelin inhibits the acute insulin response to glucose and worsens IV glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that ghrelin may have differential effects on glucose metabolism during fasting and feeding. Our objective was to test the effects of ghrelin on glucose and insulin responses during a meal tolerance test. DESIGN: Acyl ghrelin (0.26 and 2.0 μg/kg/h) or saline was infused in 13 healthy subjects on three separate occasions in randomized order...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27037495/role-of-enteroendocrine-l-cells-in-arginine-vasopressin-mediated-inhibition-of-colonic-anion-secretion
#17
Ramona Pais, Juraj Rievaj, Claire Meek, Gayan De Costa, Samanthie Jayamaha, R Todd Alexander, Frank Reimann, Fiona Gribble
KEY POINTS: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates the release of enteroendocrine L-cell derived hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) in vitro from mouse and human colons. This is mediated by the AVP receptor 1B, which is highly enriched in colonic L-cells and linked to the elevation of L-cell calcium and cAMP concentrations. By means of Ussing chambers, we show that AVP reduced colonic anion secretion, although this was blocked by a specific neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that L-cell-released PYY acts locally on the epithelium to modulate fluid balance...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26988064/identifying-neuropeptide-y-npy-as-the-main-stress-related-substrate-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp4-in-blood-circulation
#18
Leona Wagner, Florian Kaestner, Raik Wolf, Harald Stiller, Ulrich Heiser, Susanne Manhart, Torsten Hoffmann, Jens-Ulrich Rahfeld, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Matthias Rothermundt, Stephan von Hörsten
BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; EC 3.4.14.5; CD26) is a membrane-bound or shedded serine protease that hydrolyzes dipeptides from the N-terminus of peptides with either proline or alanine at the penultimate position. Substrates of DPP4 include several stress-related neuropeptides implicated in anxiety, depression and schizophrenia. A decline of DPP4-like activity has been reported in sera from depressed patient, but not fully characterized regarding DPP4-like enzymes, therapeutic interventions and protein...
June 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866366/expression-of-the-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r38-in-enteroendocrine-cells-of-the-colonic-mucosa-of-overweight-obese-vs-lean-subjects
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Rocco Latorre, Jennifer Huynh, Maurizio Mazzoni, Arpana Gupta, Elena Bonora, Paolo Clavenzani, Lin Chang, Emeran A Mayer, Roberto De Giorgio, Catia Sternini
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are expressed in the mammalian gastrointestinal mucosa. In the mouse colon, T2R138 is localized to enteroendocrine cells and is upregulated by long-term high fat diet that induces obesity. The aims of this study were to test whether T2R38 expression is altered in overweight/obese (OW/OB) compared to normal weight (NW) subjects and characterize the cell types expressing T2R38, the human counterpart of mouse T2R138, in human colon. Colonic mucosal biopsies were obtained during colonoscopy from 35 healthy subjects (20 OW/OB and 15 NW) and processed for quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry using antibodies to T2R38, chromogranin A (CgA), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), or peptide YY (PYY)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844206/incretin-like-effects-of-small-molecule-trace-amine-associated-receptor-1-agonists
#20
Susanne Raab, Haiyan Wang, Sabine Uhles, Nadine Cole, Ruben Alvarez-Sanchez, Basil Künnecke, Christoph Ullmer, Hugues Matile, Marc Bedoucha, Roger D Norcross, Nickki Ottaway-Parker, Diego Perez-Tilve, Karin Conde Knape, Matthias H Tschöp, Marius C Hoener, Sabine Sewing
OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are emerging pandemics in the 21st century creating worldwide urgency for the development of novel and safe therapies. We investigated trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as a novel target contributing to the control of glucose homeostasis and body weight. METHODS: We investigated the peripheral human tissue distribution of TAAR1 by immunohistochemistry and tested the effect of a small molecule TAAR1 agonist on insulin secretion in vitro using INS1E cells and human islets and on glucose tolerance in C57Bl6, and db/db mice...
January 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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