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Simon Baeckens, Roberto García-Roa, José Martín, Raoul Van Damme
Lizards communicate with others via chemical signals, the composition of which may vary among species. Although the selective pressures and constraints affecting chemical signal diversity at the species level remain poorly understood, the possible role of diet has been largely neglected. The chemical signals of many lizards originate from the femoral glands that exude a mixture of semiochemicals, and may be used in a variety of contexts. We analyzed the lipophilic fraction of the glandular secretions of 45 species of lacertid lizard species by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sameh S M Soliman, Kareem A Mosa, Ali A El-Keblawy, Mohamed I Husseiny
Taxol is an anticancer identified in both endophytic fungus and its host plant. Plant Taxol is a diterpenoid with geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) mediates the biosynthesis of its terpenoid moiety. Previous report has suggested that fungal Taxol may require terpenoid pathway for its biosynthesis. Here in this study, feeding a Taxol-producing endophytic fungus (Paraconiothyrium SSM001) with terpenoid precursors including isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isoprene) and GGPP enhanced Taxol production threefold and fivefold, respectively, compared to the control...
September 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Govindasamy Rajakumar, Muthu Thiruvengadam, Govindarasu Mydhili, Thandapani Gomathi, Ill-Min Chung
Bio-mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was carried out by utilizing the reducing and capping potential of Andrographis paniculata leaf extract. The capped ZnO NPs were characterized using UV-Vis, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and SAED analyses. FTIR analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and proteins of A. paniculata leaf extract, in nucleation and stability of ZnO NPs. XRD pattern compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of zinc oxide particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values...
September 15, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Yingying Jiang, Hongwei Gao, Gulmira Turdu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting 25 million people worldwide, and cholinergic hypothesis is considered as an important hypotheses in the processes of improving cognitive function and recognition skills in recent years. For the long-term treatment of AD, traditional Chinese medicine are particularly suitable for drug discovery. In this review, we sum up six traditional Chinese medicinal herbs concerned with development of AChEIs, including Herba Epimedii, Coptis Chinensis Franch, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, Green tea, Ganoderma, Panax Ginseng...
September 6, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
Lisa C Kühnel, Bettina M Nestl, Bernhard Hauer
Squalene hopene cyclases (SHC) catalyze the polycyclization of squalene into a mixture of hopene and hopanol. Recently, amino acid residues lining the catalytic cavity of the SHC from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius were replaced by small and large hydrophobic amino acids. The alteration of leucine 607 to phenylalanine resulted in increased enzymatic activity towards the formation of an intermolecular farnesyl-farnesyl ether product from farnesol. Furthermore, the addition of small chain alcohols acting as nucleophiles led to the formation of non-natural ether-linked terpenoids and thus, to a significant alteration of the product pattern compared to wildtype...
September 12, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
Katarzyna Watychowicz, Katarzyna Janda, Karolina Jakubczyk, Jolanta Wolska
Chaenomeles is a genus of deciduous spiny in the family of Rosaceae (Pomoideae subfamily). For centuries, the plant was used for a treatment of anemia, rheumatism, gout and cardiovascular diseases. The chemical composition studies of Chaenomeles showed the presence of many biologically active compounds, such as: phenolic compounds, organic acids, terpenoids, alcohols, ketones or aldehydes. Fruit of Chaenomeles has the largest applying potential due to extensive use of medicinal and high concentration of vitamin C...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Wenjing Li, Yu Lin, Yuchun Wang, Bo Hong
A method based on a simplified extraction by matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) determination is validated for analysis of two phenolics and three terpenoids in Euphorbia fischeriana. The optimized experimental parameters of MSPD including dispersing sorbent (silica gel), ratio of sample to dispersing sorbent (1:2), elution solvent (water-ethanol: 30-70) and volume of the elution solvent (10 mL) were examined and set down...
September 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Suryendu Dutta, Rakesh C Mehrotra, Swagata Paul, R P Tiwari, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Gaurav Srivastava, V Z Ralte, C Zoramthara
Plants produce and release a large array of volatile organic compounds that play many ecological functions. These volatile plant metabolites serve as pollinator attractants, herbivore and pathogen repellents and protect plants from abiotic stresses. To date, the geological evolution of these organic compounds remains unknown. The preservation potential of these metabolites in the fossil record is very poor due to their low boiling points. Here we report a series of volatile sesquiterpenoids, including δ-elemene, α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D, δ-cadiene and spathunenol, from early Miocene (~17 million year) amber from eastern India...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
M F Akhtar, A Sharif, M Saleem, A Saleem, B Akhtar, M Raza, H Ijaz, M Shabbir, S Ali, A Sharif, M B Nasim, S Peerzada
The present study was carried out to investigate the mutagenic and cytotoxic potential of n-hexane and aqueous-methanolic whole plant extracts of Alternanthera bettzickiana. Aqueous-methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Alternanthera bettzickiana extracts were assessed for the mutagenic potential with Salmonella tester strains TA-100 and TA-102 in the presence and absence of the rodent enzyme activation system and cytotoxic potential was assessed by MTT assay. Aqueous-methanolic extract showed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycosides...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Karolina Dudzik, Jacek Wojcik, Andrzej Ejchart, Michał Nowakowski
Gibbs energies of complex formation between enantiomers of bicyclic terpenoid, fenchone, and naturally occurring cyclodextrins, βCD and γCD, were determined by means of (13) C and (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration data. These results were compared with the corresponding data obtained previously for the diastereomeric fenchone/αCD complexes. The size of the inner cavity of host molecules significantly influences stoichiometry, association constants, and enantiomeric differentiation of the studied complexes...
September 6, 2017: Chirality
Alexis Marsol-Vall, Mercè Balcells, Jordi Eras, Ramon Canela-Garayoa
Peach juices of distinct varieties, namely yellow- and red-fleshed, and commercial and freshly blended were analyzed. The method used was based on Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) involving a polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bar with thermal desorption (TD), followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The resulting analytical data included 41 compounds belonging to several chemical classes, such as aldehydes, alcohols, lactones, terpenoids, fatty aldehydes, fatty acids and hydrocarbons...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Natalia Naranjo-Guevara, Maria Fernanda G V Peñaflor, Milton F Cabezas-Guerrero, José Maurício S Bento
Numerous studies have demonstrated that entomophagous arthropods use herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) blends to search for their prey or host. However, no study has yet focused on the response of nocturnal predators to volatile blends emitted by prey damaged plants. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of the night-active generalist predatory earwig Doru luteipes Scudder (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) to diurnal and nocturnal volatile blends emitted by maize plants (Zea mays) attacked by either a stem borer (Diatraea saccharalis) or a leaf-chewing caterpillar (Spodoptera frugiperda), both suitable lepidopteran prey...
September 4, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
Mingxue Wang, Jiaojiao Cao, Jian-Yong Zhu, Jun Qiu, Yan Zhang, Bing Shu, Tian-Miao Ou, Jia-Heng Tan, Lian-Quan Gu, Zhi-Shu Huang, Sheng Yin, Ding Li
Telomeric repeat factor 2 (known as TRF2 or TERF2) is a key component of telomere protection protein complex named as Shelterin. TRF2 helps the folding of telomere to form T-loop structure and the suppression of ATM-dependent DNA damage response activation. TRF2 has been recognized as a potentially new therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In our routine screening of small molecule libraries, we found that Curcusone C had significant effect in disrupting the binding between TRF2 and telomeric DNA, with potent antitumor activity against cancer cells...
September 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Yang Huang, Guangyun Tang, Tingting Zhang, Marianne Fillet, Jacques Crommen, Zhengjin Jiang
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are gaining increasing popularity throughout the world due to their long historical clinical practices. Highly efficient analytical separation tools are essential for investigating the mysterious properties of TCMs and their quality control. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) showed a great potential in TCM analysis for both nonpolar and polar components. In this paper, an overview of the experimental conditions (i.e. detection mode, stationary phase, mobile phase composition, pressure and temperature) used in SFC for achiral separations of TCM components is presented and recent applications to the analysis of different classes of compounds extracted from TCMs, such as lipids, terpene and terpenoids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and carbohydrates, will be briefly described...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dorota Adamczyk-Szabela, Zdzisława Romanowska-Duda, Katarzyna Lisowska, Wojciech M Wolf
Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is extensively cultivated as either an important spice and food additive or a source of essential oil crucial for the production of natural phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. It is frequently attacked by fungal diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the impact of thiuram contact time on the uptake of manganese, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, and lead by Ocimum basilicum L. The relevant plant physiological parameters were also investigated. Two farmland soils typical for the Polish rural environment were used...
2017: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Jelena Lazarević, Ana Kolarević, Aleksandra Đorđević, Gordana Stojanović, Andrija Šmelcerović, Pierangela Ciuffreda, Enzo Santaniello
Derivatisation of parent structure in terpenoids often results in enhancement of biological activity of newly obtained compounds. Thymol, a naturally occurring phenol biosynthesized through the terpene pathway, is a well known biocide with strong antimicrobial attributes and diverse therapeutic activities. We have aimed our study on a single modification of phenolic functionality in thymol in order to obtain a small focused library of twenty thymyl esters, ten of which were new compounds. All compounds were involved in in vitro antimicrobial testing...
September 2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Yanfang Sun, Zhangqi Wang, Boqi Li, Farukh S Sharopov, Pan Wang, Yang Suen, Zongsuo Liang
Edgeworthia tomentosa (Thunb.) Nakai belongs to Thymelaeaceae family, its alabastrum is used as the traditional Chinese medicine 'Buddleja Officinalis Maxim'. The present study was to elucidate the ultrastructure characteristics of the flower, the phytochemical composition of the aroma essential oils (EOs) and the relevant antimicrobial properties. There were exclusive characters of calyx, ovule, anther and pollen grain of the flowers under scanning electron microscopy. A total of 40 phytochemical components representing 98% of the EOs were successfully identified: monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the dominant terpenoids according to Kovats retention index and MS database...
September 1, 2017: Natural Product Research
Justin T Fischedick
Introduction: With laws changing around the world regarding the legal status of Cannabis sativa (cannabis) it is important to develop objective classification systems that help explain the chemical variation found among various cultivars. Currently cannabis cultivars are named using obscure and inconsistent nomenclature. Terpenoids, responsible for the aroma of cannabis, are a useful group of compounds for distinguishing cannabis cultivars with similar cannabinoid content. Methods: In this study we analyzed terpenoid content of cannabis samples obtained from a single medical cannabis dispensary in California over the course of a year...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
Juan Chen, Xu Zeng, Yan Long Yang, Yong Mei Xing, Qi Zhang, Jia Mei Li, Ke Ma, Hong Wei Liu, Shun Xing Guo
The lion's mane mushroom Hericium erinaceus is a famous traditional medicinal fungus credited with anti-dementia activity and a producer of cyathane diterpenoid natural products (erinacines) useful against nervous system diseases. To date, few studies have explored the biosynthesis of these compounds, although their chemical synthesis is known. Here, we report the first genome and tanscriptome sequence of the medicinal fungus H. erinaceus. The size of the genome is 39.35 Mb, containing 9895 gene models. The genome of H...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
Aécio L de S Dias, Barbara Pachikian, Yvan Larondelle, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. RECENT FINDINGS: Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice...
August 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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