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Terpenoid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198089/a-comprehensive-proteome-map-of-glandular-trichomes-of-hop-humulus-lupulus-l-female-cones-identification-of-biosynthetic-pathways-of-the-major-terpenoid-related-compounds-and-possible-transport-proteins
#1
Antoine Champagne, Marc Boutry
Female flowers of hop (Humulus lupulus) are an essential source of terpenoid-related compounds, which are mainly used as flavoring in the beer brewing process. The compounds involved are bitter acids, terpenophenolics, as well as mono- and sesquiterpenoids. In this work, we analyzed the proteome of purified glandular trichomes (lupulin glands) from female flowers, which produce and accumulate these compounds. An extensive 2D-LC-MS/MS analysis identified 1,015 proteins. Of these, most correspond to housekeeping and primary metabolism-related proteins, albeit predominantly including amino acid and lipid metabolism, which feeds the specialized (secondary) metabolism...
February 15, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197158/overexpression-and-suppression-of-artemisia-annua-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate-reductase-1-gene-aahdr1-differentially-regulate-artemisinin-and-terpenoid-biosynthesis
#2
Dongming Ma, Gui Li, Yue Zhu, De-Yu Xie
4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase (HDR) catalyzes the last step of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4- phosphate (MEP) pathway to synthesize isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). To date, little is known regarding effects of an increase or a decrease of a HDR expression on terpenoid and other metabolite profiles in plants. In our study, an Artemisia annua HDR cDNA (namely AaHDR1) was cloned from leaves. Expression profiling showed that it was highly expressed in leaves, roots, stems, and flowers with different levels...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196976/biosynthetic-studies-on-terpenoids-produced-by-streptomyces
#3
REVIEW
Tomohisa Kuzuyama
Terpenoids are a large and highly diverse group of natural products. All terpenoids are biosynthesized from isoprenyl diphosphate formed by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two distinct biosynthetic pathways produce the essential primary metabolites IPP and DMAPP: the 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the mevalonate pathway. The isoprenyl substrates can be cyclized by terpene cyclase into single-ring or multi-ring products, which can be further diversified by subsequent modification reactions, such as hydroxylation and glycosylation...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195390/self-assembly%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-renewable%C3%A2-nano-sized-triterpenoids
#4
REVIEW
Braja Gopal Bag, Rakhi Majumdar
Studies on plant metabolites have gained renewed interest in recent years because these can serve as renewable chemicals for the development of a sustainable society.Among various plant secondary metabolites, terpenoids constitute the major component and triterpenoids are the 30C subset of it.In recent years, triterpenoids have drawn the attention of scientific community due to many of its potential and realized applications in medicine, drug delivery, thermochromic materials, pollutant capture, catalysis, liquid crystals, etc...
February 14, 2017: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191951/rearranged-terpenoids-from-the-marine-sponge-darwinella-cf-oxeata-and-its-predator-the-nudibranch-felimida-grahami
#5
Maria Camila A Ramirez, David E Williams, Juliana R Gubiani, Lizbeth L L Parra, Mario F C Santos, Daiane D Ferreira, Juliana T Mesquita, Andre G Tempone, Antonio G Ferreira, Vinícius Padula, Eduardo Hajdu, Raymond J Andersen, Roberto G S Berlinck
Marine sponges are a rich source of terpenoids with rearranged spongian carbon skeletons. Investigation of extracts from the sponge Darwinella cf. oxeata yielded four new rearranged diterpenoids, oxeatine (2) and oxeatamides H-J (3-5), as well as the known metabolites oxeatamide A (6), oxeatamide A methyl ester (7), and membranolide (1). Oxeatine (2) has a new heterocyclic skeleton, while oxeatamide J (5) has an N-methyl urea group included in a γ-lactam moiety. UPLC-QTOF analysis of the extract obtained from the mantle of the nudibranch Felimida grahami indicated the presence of 1 and 4...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186695/a-novel-class-of-natural-fxr-modulators-with-a-unique-mode-of-selective-coregulator-assembly
#6
Weili Zheng, Yi Lu, Shengchen Lin, Rui Wang, Lin Qiu, Yanlin Zhu, Benqiang Yao, Fusheng Guo, Shikai Jin, Lihua Jin, Yong Li
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important target for drug discovery. Small molecules induce the conformational change of FXR that modulates its binding to coregulators, resulting in distinctive functional profiles of FXR. However, the mechanisms for selectively recruiting coregulators by FXR remain elusive, partly due to the lack of FXR selective modulators. We report here the identification of two natural terpenoids, tschimgine and feroline, as a novel class of FXR modulators. Remarkably, crystal structures uncover a secondary binding-induced pocket important for ligand binding...
February 10, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183269/transcriptome-profilings-of-two-tall-fescue-festuca-arundinacea-cultivars-in-response-to-lead-pb-stress
#7
Huiying Li, Tao Hu, Erick Amombo, Jinmin Fu
BACKGROUND: Lead (Pb) is one of the most toxic heavy metal environmental pollutants. Tall fescue is an important cold season turf grass which can tolerate and accumulate substantial amount of Pb. To estimate genes related to Pb response and the molecular mechanism associated with Pb tolerance and accumulation, we analyzed the transcriptome of tall fescue in response to Pb treatment. RESULTS: RNA-sequencing was performed in two tall fescue cultivars, Pb tolerant Silverado and Pb sensitive AST7001...
February 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181580/penetration-enhancement-underlies-synergy-of-plant-essential-oil-terpenoids-as-insecticides-in-the-cabbage-looper-trichoplusia-ni
#8
Jun-Hyung Tak, Murray B Isman
Many plant essential oils and their terpenoid constituents possess bioactivities including insecticidal activity, and they sometimes act synergistically when mixed. Although several hypotheses for this have been proposed, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated thus far. In the present study, we report that in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, most synergistic or antagonistic insecticidal activities among mixtures of plant essential oil constituents are pharmacokinetic effects, owing to changes in solubility as well as spreadability on a wax layer...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178952/study-of-phytochemical-anti-microbial-anti-oxidant-and-anti-cancer-properties-of-allium-wallichii
#9
Jaya Bhandari, BushraTaj Muhammad, Pratiksha Thapa, Bhupal Govinda Shrestha
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. METHODS: The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii...
February 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173866/opuntia-ficus-indica-cladodes-as-a-functional-ingredient-bioactive-compounds-profile-and-their-effect-on-antioxidant-quality-of-bread
#10
Lotfi Msaddak, Ola Abdelhedi, Amani Kridene, Mostafa Rateb, Lassaâd Belbahri, Emna Ammar, Moncef Nasri, Nacim Zouari
BACKGROUND: In the context of a balanced diet, the antioxidant-rich food consumption is a preventive way of many degenerative diseases. Consequently, improving the nutraceutical quality of traditional foods such as bakery products is an interesting approach. Considering the present consumer's demand, cladodes from prickly pear that were traditionally used as a valuable food as well as in folk medicine for the treatment of several chronic diseases were investigated for their use in bread production to improve its functionality...
February 7, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169358/physiological-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-a-response-mechanism-to-cold-stress-in-santalum-album-l-leaves
#11
Xinhua Zhang, Jaime A Teixeira da Silva, Meiyun Niu, Mingzhi Li, Chunmei He, Jinhui Zhao, Songjun Zeng, Jun Duan, Guohua Ma
Santalum album L. (Indian sandalwood) is an economically important plant species because of its ability to produce highly valued perfume oils. Little is known about the mechanisms by which S. album adapts to low temperatures. In this study, we obtained 100,445,724 raw reads by paired-end sequencing from S. album leaves. Physiological and transcriptomic changes in sandalwood seedlings exposed to 4 °C for 0-48 h were characterized. Cold stress induced the accumulation of malondialdehyde, proline and soluble carbohydrates, and increased the levels of antioxidants...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167035/enzymatic-production-and-emission-of-floral-scent-volatiles-in-jasminum-sambac
#12
Paramita Bera, Chiranjit Mukherjee, Adinpunya Mitra
Floral scent composed of low molecular weight volatile organic compounds. The sweet fragrance of any evening blooming flower is dominated by benzenoid and terpenoid volatile compounds. Floral scent of Jasminum sambac (Oleaceae) includes three major benzenoid esters - benzylacetate, methylbenzoate, and methylsalicylate and three major terpene compounds viz. (E)-β-ocimene, linalool and α-farnesene. We analyzed concentrations and emission rates of benzenoids and terpenoids during the developmental stages of J...
March 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165379/in-vitro-lipophilic-antioxidant-capacity-antidiabetic-and-antibacterial-activity-of-citrus-fruits-extracts-from-aceh-indonesia
#13
Ernawita, Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Jana Hesse, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner, Volker Böhm
This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin...
February 3, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164790/phytochemicals-for-human-disease-an-update-on-plant-derived-compounds-antibacterial-activity
#14
REVIEW
Ramona Barbieri, Erika Coppo, Anna Marchese, Maria Daglia, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
In recent years, many studies have shown that phytochemicals exert their antibacterial activity through different mechanisms of action, such as damage to the bacterial membrane and suppression of virulence factors, including inhibition of the activity of enzymes and toxins, and bacterial biofilm formation. In this review, we summarise data from the available literature regarding the antibacterial effects of the main phytochemicals belonging to different chemical classes, alkaloids, sulfur-containing phytochemicals, terpenoids, and polyphenols...
March 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163076/new-terpenoids-from-resina-commiphora
#15
Lu Dong, Qi Luo, Li-Zhi Cheng, Yong-Ming Yan, Yong-Xian Cheng, Shu-Mei Wang
Three new eudesmane sesquiterpenoids, commiphoranes E1-E3 (1-3), a new podocarpane diterpenoid, commiphorane F (4), three new triterpenoids, commiphoranes G1-G3 (5-7), and fourteen known terpenoids (8-21) were isolated from Resina Commiphora. The structures and relative configurations of new compounds were mainly assigned by spectroscopic methods. In particular, the absolute configuration of 3 was clarified by computational methods. Renoprotective effects of all these isolates were evaluated by using an ELISA assay in TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells...
February 2, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162767/transcriptome-profiling-of-the-australian-arid-land-plant-eremophila-serrulata-a-dc-druce-scrophulariaceae-for-the-identification-of-monoterpene-synthases
#16
Octavia Natascha Kracht, Ann-Christin Ammann, Julia Stockmann, Daniel Wibberg, Jörn Kalinowski, Markus Piotrowski, Russell Kerr, Thomas Brück, Robert Kourist
Plant terpenoids are a large and highly diverse class of metabolites with an important role in the immune defense. They find wide industrial application as active pharmaceutical ingredients, aroma and fragrance compounds. Several Eremophila sp. derived terpenoids have been documented. To elucidate the terpenoid metabolism, the transcriptome of juvenile and mature Eremophila serrulata (A.DC.) Druce (Scrophulariaceae) leaves was sequenced and a transcript library was generated. We report on the first transcriptomic dataset of an Eremophila plant...
February 2, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160774/positive-selection-and-functional-divergence-of-farnesyl-pyrophosphate-synthase-genes-in-plants
#17
Jieying Qian, Yong Liu, Naixia Chao, Chengtong Ma, Qicong Chen, Jian Sun, Yaosheng Wu
BACKGROUND: Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPS) belongs to the short-chain prenyltransferase family, and it performs a conserved and essential role in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, its classification, evolutionary history, and the forces driving the evolution of FPS genes in plants remain poorly understood. RESULTS: Phylogeny and positive selection analysis was used to identify the evolutionary forces that led to the functional divergence of FPS in plants, and recombinant detection was undertaken using the Genetic Algorithm for Recombination Detection (GARD) method...
February 4, 2017: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159216/recent-advances-in-plant-mediated-engineered-gold-nanoparticles-and-their-application-in-biological-system
#18
REVIEW
Khwaja Salahuddin Siddiqi, Azamal Husen
For biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles different parts of a plant are used as they contain metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, alcohols, sugars and proteins which act as reducing agents to produce nanoparticles. They also act as capping agent and stabilizer for them. They are used in medicine, agriculture and many other technologies. The attention is therefore focussed on all plant species which have either aroma or colour in their leaves, flowers or roots for the synthesis of nanoparticles because they all contain such chemicals which reduce the metal ions to metal nanoparticles...
March 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158965/largely-different-contents-of-terpenoids-in-beef-red-flesh-tangerine-and-its-wild-type
#19
Wenyun Li, Cuihua Liu, Min He, Jinqiang Li, Yongqiang Cai, Yuhua Ma, Juan Xu
BACKGROUND: Niurouhong (Citrus reticulata Blanco. Niurouhong) (NRH) is a spontaneous beef-red flesh mutant with distinctive flavor compared with its wild type orange-red flesh Zhuhongju (ZHJ). To illustrate the biochemical mechanism of its special flesh color and flavor, fruits at commercial mature stage were used to profile the volatiles in the flavedo and determine the levels of carotenoids, limonoid aglycones and phytohormones in the juice sacs in two seasons. RESULTS: Our results showed the content of total volatile terpenoids in NRH was 1...
February 3, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146358/multiple-enone-directed-reactivity-modes-lead-to-the-selective-photochemical-fluorination-of-polycyclic-terpenoid-derivatives
#20
Cody Ross Pitts, Desta Doro Bume, Stefan Andrew Harry, Maxime A Siegler, Thomas Lectka
In the realm of aliphatic fluorination, the problem of reactivity has been very successfully addressed in recent years. In contrast, the associated problem of selectivity, that is, directing fluorination to specific sites in complex molecules, remains a great, fundamental challenge. In this report, we show that the enone functional group, upon photoexcitation, provides a solution. Based solely on orientation of the oxygen atom, site-selective photochemical fluorination is achieved on steroids and bioactive polycycles with up to 65 different sp(3) C-H bonds...
February 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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