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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786761/engineering-terpenoid-production-through-transient-expression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#1
REVIEW
James Reed, Anne Osbourn
Terpenoids are the most structurally diverse class of plant natural products with a huge range of commercial and medical applications. Exploiting this enormous potential has historically been hindered due to low levels of these compounds in their natural sources, making isolation difficult, while their structural complexity frequently makes synthetic chemistry approaches uneconomical. Engineering terpenoid biosynthesis in heterologous host production platforms provides a means to overcome these obstacles. In particular, plant-based production systems are attractive as they provide the compartmentalisation and cofactors necessary for the transfer of functional pathways from other plants...
May 21, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780371/comparative-metatranscriptomics-of-wheat-rhizosphere-microbiomes-in-disease-suppressive-and-non-suppressive-soils-for-rhizoctonia-solani-ag8
#2
Helen L Hayden, Keith W Savin, Jenny Wadeson, Vadakattu V S R Gupta, Pauline M Mele
The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778835/terpenoid-glycosides-from-the-root-s-barks-of-eriocoelum-microspermum-radlk-ex-engl
#3
David Pertuit, Anne-Claire Mitaine-Offer, Tomofumi Miyamoto, Chiaki Tanaka, Clément Delaude, Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois
Eight undescribed triterpenoid saponins together with a known one, and two undescribed sesquiterpene glycosides were isolated from root's barks of Eriocoelum microspermum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D experiments in combinaison with mass spectrometry as 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-α-L-arabinopyranosylhederagenin, 1-O-{β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)}-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2E,6E)-farnes-1-ol, 1-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)}-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2E,6E)-farnes-1-ol...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777759/plant-nutraceuticals-as-antimicrobial-agents-in-food-preservation-terpenoids-polyphenols-and-thiols
#4
REVIEW
Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Javier Fernández, Felipe Lombó
Synthetic food additives generate a negative perception in consumers. Therefore, food manufacturers search for safer natural alternatives as those involving phytochemicals and plant essential oils. These bioactives have antimicrobial activities widely proved in in vitro tests. Foodborne diseases cause thousands of deaths and millions of infections every year, mainly due to pathogenic bacteria as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774913/biosynthesis-of-the-teleocidin-type-terpenoid-indole-alkaloids
#5
REVIEW
Takayoshi Awakawa, Ikuro Abe
Teleocidin B is a terpenoid indole alkaloid with unique structures including indolactam and cyclic terpenoid, and is a strong protein kinase C activator. Its unique structure and bioactivity have drawn vast interest from chemists and biologists, and numerous isolation and bioactivity studies on this molecule have been performed. Recently, its biosynthetic enzymes were identified, and some of their crystal structures were reported. In this review, we describe the isolation of teleocidin derivatives, biosynthetic studies, and detailed analyses of biosynthetic enzymes, to clarify their biosynthetic reactions toward the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive teleocidin compounds...
May 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773014/investigations-of-phytochemical-constituents-and-their-pharmacological-properties-isolated-from-the-genus-urtica-critical-review-and-analysis
#6
Muhammad Ibrahim, Kanwal Rehman, Aneeza Razzaq, Iqbal Hussain, Tahir Farooq, Amjad Hussain, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
The genus Urtica belongs to the family Urticaceae. The plants of this genus are known as nettles or, quite often, as stinging nettles. These plants can be easily identified by the presence of stinging hairs. Urtica species have previously been used for various medicinal purposes. The history for the use of these plants for medicinal purposes starts from the Bronze Age (3000-2000 BC). Medicinally, the genus Urtica has been used to treat several disorders, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, diarrhea, sprains, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, high blood pressure, hemorrhoids, flu, cough, fever, and ulcers...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772685/the-emergence-of-endophytic-microbes-and-their-biological-promise
#7
Gary Strobel
As is true with animal species, plants also have an associated microflora including endophytes as well as microbes associated with the phyllosphere and rhizosphere (plant surfaces) and this is considered the plant microbiome. However, those organisms within virtually all tissues and organs of the plant are known as endophytes. Most often fungi are the most frequently recovered endophytes from plant tissues, but bacterial forms generally occur in greater numbers, but not in species varieties. The exact biological/biochemical role of the endophyte in the plant and how it interacts with the plant and other endophytes and plant associated organisms has not been intensely and carefully examined...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771946/in-vitro-comparison-of-three-common-essential-oils-mosquito-repellents-as-inhibitors-of-the-ross-river-virus
#8
Miora Ralambondrainy, Essia Belarbi, Wildriss Viranaicken, Renata Baranauskienė, Petras Rimantas Venskutonis, Philippe Desprès, Pierre Roques, Chaker El Kalamouni, Jimmy Sélambarom
BACKGROUND: The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Pelargonium graveolens (PG) and Vetiveria zizanioides (VZ) are commonly used topically to prevent mosquito bites and thus the risk of infection by their vectored pathogens such as arboviruses. However, since mosquito bites are not fully prevented, the effect of these products on the level of viral infection remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in vitro the essentials oils from Reunion Island against one archetypal arbovirus, the Ross River virus (RRV), and investigate the viral cycle step that was impaired by these oils...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769013/antidiabetic-effect-of-spearmint-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Omar Farid, A El Haidani, Mohamed Eddouks
In this work the effect of Mentha spicata (L.) (M. spicata) aerial part aqueous extract (A.P.A.E) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight on blood glucose levels has been demonstrated in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Additionally, a preliminary phytochemical screening for various bioactive constituents was realized and a dosage of polyphenols and flavonoid has been done. Moreover, the histopathological changes in liver and pancreas have been evaluated both in normal and STZ diabetic rats. The effect of M...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758027/single-generation-effects-on-terpenoid-defenses-in-lodgepole-pine-populations-following-mountain-pine-beetle-infestation
#10
Sharleen L Balogh, Dezene P W Huber, B Staffan Lindgren
The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in western Canada provides an opportunity to study the selection and heritability of tree defenses. We examined terpenoid-based defenses of seedling lodgepole pines which were offspring of mature trees subjected to high levels of mountain pine beetle selective pressure. Seedlings were grown from one of three types of cones: old cones on live trees; young cones on live trees; and cones on trees killed by beetles. Offspring thus represented crosses of non-surviving (NS) x surviving (S), S x S, and NS x NS parents, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748819/recent-advances-in-steroidal-saponins-biosynthesis-and-in-vitro-production
#11
REVIEW
Swati Upadhyay, Gajendra Singh Jeena, Shikha, Rakesh Kumar Shukla
Steroidal saponins exhibited numerous pharmacological activities due to the modification of their backbone by different cytochrome P450s (P450) and UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Plant-derived steroidal saponins are not sufficient for utilizing them for commercial purpose so in vitro production of saponin by tissue culture, root culture, embryo culture, etc, is necessary for its large-scale production. Saponin glycosides are the important class of plant secondary metabolites, which consists of either steroidal or terpenoidal backbone...
May 10, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748726/in-vitro-and-in-silico-studies-of-terpenes-terpenoids-and-related-compounds-with-larvicidal-and-pupaecidal-activity-against-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-diptera-culicidae
#12
S Andrade-Ochoa, J Correa-Basurto, L M Rodríguez-Valdez, L E Sánchez-Torres, B Nogueda-Torres, G V Nevárez-Moorillón
BACKGROUND: In order to develop new larvicidal agents derived from phytochemicals, the larvicidal activity of fifty molecules that are constituent of essential oils was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Terpenes, terpenoids and phenylpropanoids molecules were included in the in vitro evaluation, and QSAR models using genetic algorithms were built to identify molecular and structural properties of biological interest. Further, to obtain structural details on the possible mechanism of action, selected compounds were submitted to docking studies on sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) as possible target...
May 10, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747507/biological-profiling-based-systematic-analysis-of-rhizoma-coptidis-from-different-growing-regions-and-its-anti-cholesterol-biosynthesis-activity-on-hepg2-cells
#13
Juan Feng, Haoxun Li, Wenlong Zhao, Honglei Dang, Ruijun Wang, Kun Luo, Hongyan Guo, Wanli Xing, Jing Cheng, Weifang Song, Yimin Sun, Lan Xie
Rhizoma Coptidis is a widely cultivated traditional Chinese herb. Although the chemical profiles of Rhizoma Coptidis have been established previously, the biological profiling of Rhizoma Coptidis has not been conducted yet. In this study, we collected Rhizoma Coptidis varieties from four distinct growing regions and performed genome-wide biological response fingerprinting (BioReF) on HepG2 cells using a gene expression array. Similar biological pathways were affected by extracts of all four Rhizoma Coptidis varieties but not by their analogue, Mahoniae Caulis...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746128/identification-functional-characterization-and-seasonal-expression-patterns-of-five-sesquiterpene-synthases-in-liquidambar-formosana
#14
Ling Chuang, Chi-Hsiang Wen, Yi-Ru Lee, Yan-Liang Lin, Li-Ren Hsu, Sheng-Yang Wang, Fang-Hua Chu
Terpenoids are a large group of important secondary metabolites that are involved in a variety of physiological mechanisms, and many are used commercially in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. During the past decade, the topic of seasonal variation in terpenoid biosynthesis has garnered increasing attention. Formosan sweet gum ( Liquidambar formosana Hance) is a deciduous tree species. The expression of terpene synthase and accumulation of terpenoids in leaves may vary in different seasons. Here, four sesquiterpene synthases (i...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745662/eucommia-ulmoides-oliver-a-potential-feedstock-for-bioactive-products
#15
Ming-Qiang Zhu, Run-Cang Sun
Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EUO), a traditional Chinese herb, contains a variety of bioactive chemicals including lignans, iridoids, phenolics, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, etc. These bioactive chemicals possess the effective function in nourishing liver and kidney and regulating blood pressure. The composition of bioactive chemicals extracted from EUO vary to the different functional parts (leaves, seeds, bark and staminate flower) and planting models. The bioactive parts of EUO are widely utilized as raw materials for medicine and food, powdery extracts, herbal foumulations and tinctured extracts...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745202/-transcriptome-analysis-of-response-to-heavy-metal-cd-stress-in-soybean-root
#16
Xiao Na Zhang, Chun Lan Piao, You Kui Dong, Min Long Cui
Cadmium (Cd) is a common pollutant not required for life activities, which can have extremely strong toxicity to organisms and affect the growth of crops at a low concentration in soil. To investigate the molecular mechanism of soybean root responding to Cd stress, 7-day old soybean seedlings were stressed by Cd (75 Μmol·L-1 ) for 0 , 4 , 8, 12 and 48 h. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed 244, 1545, 442 and 1401 of genes responded to the four Cd treatments, respectively, and total 2670 differential expression genes were obtained...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744736/compounds-from-african-medicinal-plants-with-activities-against-selected-parasitic-diseases-schistosomiasis-trypanosomiasis-and-leishmaniasis
#17
REVIEW
Conrad V Simoben, Fidele Ntie-Kang, Sergi H Akone, Wolfgang Sippl
Parasitic diseases continue to represent a threat on a global scale, particularly among the poorest countries in the world. This is particularly because of the absence of vaccines, and in some cases, resistance against available drugs, currently being used for their treatment. In this review emphasis is laid on natural products and scaffolds from African medicinal plants (AMPs) for lead drug discovery and possible further development of drugs for the treatment of parasitic diseases. In the discussion, emphasis has been laid on alkaloids, terpenoids, quinones, flavonoids and narrower compound classes of compounds with micromolar range activities against Schistosoma, Trypanosoma and Leishmania species...
May 9, 2018: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742810/metabolic-reconstructions-identify-plant-3-methylglutaconyl-coa-hydratase-that-is-crucial-for-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-in-mitochondria
#18
Scott Latimer, Yubing Li, Thuong T H Nguyen, Eric Soubeyrand, Abdelhak Fatihi, Christian G Elowsky, Anna Block, Eran Pichersky, Gilles J Basset
The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, BCAAs double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, the actual architecture of the degradation pathways of BCAAs is not well understood. In this study, gene network modeling in Arabidopsis and rice, and plant-prokaryote comparative genomics detected candidates for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase (4...
May 9, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740738/role-of-plant-volatiles-in-host-plant-recognition-by-listronotus-maculicollis-coleoptera-curculionidae
#19
Olga S Kostromytska, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Hans T Alborn, Albrecht M Koppenhöfer
The annual bluegrass weevil (ABW), Listronotus maculicollis Kirby, is an economically important pest of short cut turfgrass. Annual bluegrass, Poa annua L., is the most preferred and suitable host for ABW oviposition, larval survival and development. We investigated the involvement of grass volatiles in ABW host plant preference under laboratory and field conditions. First, ovipositional and feeding preferences of ABW adults were studied in a sensory deprivation experiment. Clear evidence of involvement of olfaction in host recognition by ABW was demonstrated...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739390/a-terpenoid-isolated-from-sarang-semut-myrmecodia-pendans-bulb-and-its-potential-for-the-inhibition-and-eradication-of-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm
#20
Meirina Gartika, Hening T Pramesti, Dikdik Kurnia, Mieke H Satari
BACKGROUND: Dental caries remains a serious problem due to its detrimental effects on individual health and quality of life. The bulbs of Myrmecodia pendans (Merr & Perry), native plants of Papua, have been used as natural remedies for tumours, gout, diarrhoea, and fever. In this study, one of the active compounds of M. pendans was isolated, and its biological activity against the formation of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 biofilm was tested. METHODS: M. pendans was extracted with ethyl acetate using a Soxhlet apparatus...
May 9, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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