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Frank Günther, Uta Merle, Uwe Frank, Matthias M Gaida, Nico T Mutters
BACKGROUND: Achromobacter xylosoxidans (AX) is known for intrinsic resistance to disinfectants. Our laboratory routine surveillance system detected an unexpected rise in AX bloodstream infections in a 2200-bed hospital. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to find the source and disrupt further transmission. METHODS: Outbreak cases were defined as patients with at least one positive blood culture positive for AX from May 2014 to May 2015. Medical records were reviewed, affected wards, as well as the microbiology laboratory were audited...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Farah Ben Tanfous, Carla Andrea Alonso, Wafa Achour, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Carmen Torres, Assia Ben Hassen
The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular features among Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains showing a resistant/intermediate-resistant phenotype to ertapenem (R/IR-ERT), implicated in colonization/infection in patients of the Hematology and Graft Units of the National Bone Marrow Transplant Center of Tunisia (3-year period, 2011-2014). The major carbapenemase, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and plasmidic AmpC beta-lactamase genes were analyzed and characterized by PCR and sequencing...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Yancheng Yang, Zhen Hu, Weilong Shang, Qiwen Hu, Junmin Zhu, Jie Yang, Huagang Peng, Xiaopeng Zhang, Hui Liu, Yanguang Cong, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Renjie Zhou, Xiancai Rao
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) accounts for ∼40% of staphylococcal infections in China. However, the molecular characterization of MSSA is not well described. In this study, 124 MSSA strains collected in 2013 from a comprehensive teaching hospital in Chongqing, Southwestern China, were subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing and molecular typing, including multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal protein A (spa) gene typing, accessory gene regulator (agr) typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) gene detection, and antibiotic-resistant gene detection...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
E Wardal, A Kuch, I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Tomasz Wołkowicz, Jan Andrzej Patzer, Wanda Kamińska, Rafał Gierczyński, Danuta Dzierżanowska
This study aimed to analyse the distribution of carbapenem resistance mechanisms among Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. Fifty-five P. aeruginosa isolates, resistant both to imipenem and meropenem, from children hospitalised in 2009-2010 were studied. All strains were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Mutations in the oprD gene and the occurrence of insertion sequences (ISs) were determined by DNA sequencing. Mex efflux systems were determined by analysis using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg β-naphthylamide...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Dipankar Ghosh, Malabika Chakrabarti, Giovanni Gherardi, Luca Agostino Vitali, Ersilia Fiscarelli, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present study was carried out to understand the adaptive strategies developed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia for chronic colonization of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. For this purpose, 13 temporally isolated strains from a single CF patient chronically infected over a 10-year period were systematically characterized for growth rate, biofilm formation, motility, mutation frequencies, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenicity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed over time the presence of two distinct groups, each consisting of two different pulsotypes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yong Yang, Hua Gu, Xiaofeng Yu, Li Zhan, Jiancai Chen, Yun Luo, Yunyi Zhang, Yanjun Zhang, Yiyu Lu, Jianmin Jiang, Lingling Mei
Emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus (emetic B. cereus) is the third member of B. cereus group whose toxins are encoded by megaplasmids, beside anthrax and insecticidal toxins of B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis respectively. 18 emetic isolates collected from food poisoning events, clinical and non-random food samples in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed by plasmid screening, pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), as well as toxic gene identification to investigate their genotypic diversity...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Mu-Ya Chen, Felipe Lira, Hua-Qing Liang, Rui-Ting Wu, Jia-Hong Duan, Xiao-Ping Liao, José L Martínez, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun
In this study we isolated 109 Enterococcus faecalis from chicken faecal samples in 6 provinces of China to investigate the prevalence and transmission mechanism of the bacitracin resistance locus bcrABDR in E. faecalis. Thirty-seven bcrABDR-positive E. faecalis were detected with 26 different PFGE clusters. The MLST of 14 positive strains belonged to ST16 and we also detected three new sequence types. S1-PFGE analysis indicated that the locus was located on plasmids presenting different sizes, with the most prevalent size being ~50 kb (13/37)...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Yuko Yoshikawa, Yoshitsugu Ochiai, Mariko Mochizuki, Osamu Fujita, Takashi Takano, Ryo Hondo, Fukiko Ueda
Pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is widely used for listeriosis surveillance. Although this technique is effective for epidemiology, the data among laboratories are inconsistent. We previously reported a method for L. monocytogenes subtyping combined with sequence analysis of partial iap and whole genome restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using XbaI, ClaI (BanIII) and PstI. However, distinguishing subtypes was challenging, because the output comprised complicated fragment patterns. In this study, we aimed to establish a simple genotyping method that does not depend on visual observation, rather it focuses on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) using three genes, iap, sigB and actA...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
S Bertrand, P J Ceyssens, M Yde, K Dierick, F Boyen, J Vanderpas, R Vanhoof, W Mattheus
Listeriosis is a rare but severe disease, mainly caused by Listeria monocytogenes. This study shows the results of the laboratory-based surveillance of Listeriosis in Belgium over the period 1985-2014. Besides the incidence and some demographic data we present also more detailed microbiological and molecular characteristics of human strains isolated since 2000. The strains from the latter period were compared to food and animal strains from the same period. Our study shows that different food matrices were commonly contaminated with L...
2016: PloS One
Giovanni Gherardi, Claudio Palmieri, Emanuela Marini, Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Giovanni Di Bonaventura, Roberta Creti, Bruna Facinelli
This study aimed to retrospectively identify 22Streptococcus bovis clinical strains based on the new taxonomy, as well as to investigate their antibiotic-resistance and clonality. Strains were identified by Phoenix100 system, 16S rRNA sequencing, and two MALDI-TOF MS platforms (Bruker Biotyper, Vitek MS). Antibiotic resistance was determined both phenotypically and genotypically, and clonality was assessed by PFGE. Most of strains (63.6%) were isolated from urine, and diabetes was the most common underlying disease (31...
September 24, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Surya Paudel, Beatrix Stessl, Claudia Hess, Angelika Zloch, Michael Hess
BACKGROUND: Various information about the genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from chickens are available but a detailed epidemiological investigation based upon isolates obtained from interrelated pullet and layer flocks is still missing. Therefore, in the course of a longitudinal epidemiological study on pullets and layers, 144 E. coli isolates from chickens with or without pathological lesions of the reproductive tract were serotyped and genotyped with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)...
October 7, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Velma Rebic, Ana Budimir, Mufida Aljicevic, Sabaheta Bektas, Sabina Mahmutovic Vranic, Damir Rebic
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. METHODS: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
C Katvoravutthichai, K Boonbumrung, R Tiyawisutsri
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infection and it has increasing resistance to many antimicrobial agents. β-lactamase production is the most frequent mechanism for β-lactam resistance in P. aeruginosa. We evaluated the prevalence of β-lactamase genes in P. aeruginosa for classes A, C, and D by polymerase chain reaction, and investigated clonal diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We used the disk diffusion method to test 118 non-duplicate clinical isolates of P...
September 23, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Yi Chen, Laurel S Burall, Yan Luo, Ruth Timme, David Melka, Tim Muruvanda, Justin Payne, Charles Wang, George Kastanis, Anna Maounounen-Laasri, Antonio J De Jesus, Phillip E Curry, Robert Stones, Okumu KAluoch, Eileen Liu, Monique Salter, Thomas S Hammack, Peter S Evans, Mickey Parish, Marc W Allard, Atin Datta, Errol A Strain, Eric W Brown
: In 2014, identification of stone fruits contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes led to the subsequent identification of a multistate outbreak. Simultaneous detection and enumeration of L. monocytogenes was performed on 105 fruits, each weighing 127 to 145 g, collected from 7 contaminated lots. The results showed that 53.3% of the fruits yielded L. monocytogenes (lower limit of detection, 5 colony-forming units [CFU]/fruit) and the levels ranged from 5 to 2,850 CFU/fruit with a geometric mean of 10...
September 30, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
M Krull, I Klare, B Ross, R Trenschel, D W Beelen, D Todt, E Steinmann, J Buer, P-M Rath, J Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has increased in Germany. Here, we report the cluster of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LVRE) in a German department for hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In this retrospective analysis we included all patients with LVRE in a university-based department for HSCT in 2014 and 2015. Patients chart reviews were used to investigate the epidemiology and clinical outcome...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Aurélie Jayol, Laurent Poirel, Laurent Dortet, Patrice Nordmann
From January 2014 to December 2014, 972 consecutive non-replicate carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from colonised or infected patients were collected at the Associated French National Reference Centre as part of the French national survey on antimicrobial resistance. It included 577 Klebsiella spp. (59%), 236 Escherichia coli (24%), 108 Enterobacter spp. (11%), 50 Citrobacter spp. (5%), and a single Salmonella spp. isolate (0.1%). Of 561 K. pneumoniae isolates, 35 were found to be resistant to colistin (6...
September 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Cinzia Germinario, Alfredo Caprioli, Mario Giordano, Maria Chironna, Maria Serena Gallone, Silvio Tafuri, Fabio Minelli, Antonella Maugliani, Valeria Michelacci, Luisa Santangelo, Onofrio Mongelli, Cosimo Montagna, Gaia Scavia
In summer 2013, an excess of paediatric cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in a southern region of Italy prompted the investigation of a community-wide outbreak of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26:H11 infections. Case finding was based on testing patients with HUS or bloody diarrhoea for STEC infection by microbiological and serological methods. A case-control study was conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. STEC O26 infection was identified in 20 children (median age 17 months) with HUS, two of whom reported severe neurological sequelae...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Cai-Xia Liu, Chun Yan, Pan Zhang, Fang-Qu Li, Jing-Hong Yang, Xiang-Yang Li
BACKGROUND: Ralstonia mannitolilytica is an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Hospital outbreaks of Ralstonia spp. are mainly associated with contaminated treatment water or auxiliary instruments. OBJECTIVES: In this report, we summarize the clinical infection characteristics of R. mannitolilytica, the drug-susceptibility testing of the bacterial strains, and the results of related infection investigations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical information of 3 patients with R...
July 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
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