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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919864/%C3%AE-subunits-control-the-effects-of-human-kv4-3-potassium-channel-phosphorylation
#1
Geoffrey W Abbott
The transient outward K(+) current, Ito, activates early in the cardiac myocyte action potential, to begin repolarization. Human Ito is generated primarily by two Kv4.3 potassium channel α subunit splice variants (Kv4.3L and Kv4.3S) that diverge only by a C-terminal, membrane-proximal, 19-residue stretch unique to Kv4.3L. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of threonine 504 within the Kv4.3L-specific 19-residues mediates α-adrenergic inhibition of Ito in human heart. Kv4.3 is regulated in human heart by various β subunits, including cytosolic KChIP2b and transmembrane KCNEs, yet their impact on the functional effects of human Kv4...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901167/effect-of-ischemic-postconditioning-on-myocardial-function-and-infarct-size-following-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-rats-pretreated-with-vildagliptin
#2
Goltaj Bayrami, Pouran Karimi, Fariba Agha-Hosseini, Saeid Feyzizadeh, Reza Badalzadeh
BACKGROUND: Cardioprotective actions of ischemic postconditioning (IPostC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are abolished in diabetic hearts. This study has investigated the combined effects of IPostC and vildagliptin (Vilda) on myocardial function and infarct size (IS) against I/R injury in diabetic myocardium. METHODS: Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet/low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg; intraperitoneally) in Wistar rats (200-250 g) and lasted for 12 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895094/fluid-loading-and-norepinephrine-infusion-mask-the-left-ventricular-preload-decrease-induced-by-pleural-effusion
#3
Kristian Borup Wemmelund, Viktor Kromann Ringgård, Simon Tilma Vistisen, Janus Adler Hyldebrandt, Erik Sloth, Peter Juhl-Olsen
BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic determinants of cardiac function obtained by ultrasonography during PLE. METHODS: In this randomised, blinded, controlled laboratory study, 30 piglets (21.9 ± 1.3 kg) had bilateral PLE (75 mL/kg) induced...
September 11, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892643/comparison-of-the-effects-of-i-sub-k-ach-sub-i-sub-kr-sub-and-i-sub-na-sub-block-in-conscious-dogs-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-on-action-potentials-in-remodeled-atrial-trabeculae
#4
Viktor Juhász, Tibor Hornyik, Attila Benák, Norbert Nagy, Zoltan Husti, Robert Pap, László Sághy, László Virág, András Varró, István Baczkó
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional antiarrhythmic agents used for restoration of sinus rhythm have limited efficacy in long-term AF and they may possess ventricular proarrhythmic adverse effects, especially in patients with structural heart disease. The acetylcholin receptor-activated potassium channel (I<sub>K,ACh</sub>) represents an atrial-selective target for future AF management. We investigated the effects of the I<sub>K,ACh</sub> blocker tertiapin-Q (TQ), a derivative of the honeybee toxin tertiapin, on chronic atrial tachypacing induced AF in conscious dogs, without the influence of anesthetics that modulate a number of cardiac ion channels...
September 11, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875931/transient-hypothyroidism-favors-oligodendrocyte-generation-providing-functional-remyelination-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#5
Sylvie Remaud, Fernando C Ortiz, Marie Perret-Jeanneret, Marie-Stéphane Aigrot, Jean-David Gothié, Csaba Fekete, Zsuzsanna Kvárta-Papp, Balázs Gereben, Dominique Langui, Catherine Lubetzki, Maria Cecilia Angulo, Bernard Zalc, Barbara Demeneix
In the adult brain, both neurons and oligodendrocytes can be generated from neural stem cells located within the Sub-Ventricular Zone (SVZ). Physiological signals regulating neuronal versus glial fate are largely unknown. Here we report that a thyroid hormone (T3)-free window, with or without a demyelinating insult, provides a favorable environment for SVZ-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. After demyelination, oligodendrocytes derived from these newly-formed progenitors provide functional remyelination, restoring normal conduction speed...
September 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874182/long-term-neurologic-and-cardiac-correction-by-intrathecal-gene-therapy-in-pompe-disease
#6
J Hordeaux, L Dubreil, C Robveille, J Deniaud, Q Pascal, B Dequéant, J Pailloux, L Lagalice, M Ledevin, C Babarit, P Costiou, F Jamme, M Fusellier, Y Mallem, C Ciron, C Huchet, C Caillaud, M-A Colle
Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by acid-α-glucosidase (GAA) deficiency, leading to glycogen storage. The disease manifests as a fatal cardiomyopathy in infantile form. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has recently prolonged the lifespan of these patients, revealing a new natural history. The neurologic phenotype and the persistence of selective muscular weakness in some patients could be attributed to the central nervous system (CNS) storage uncorrected by ERT. GAA-KO 6neo/6neo mice were treated with a single intrathecal administration of adeno-associated recombinant vector (AAV) mediated gene transfer of human GAA at 1 month and their neurologic, neuromuscular, and cardiac function was assessed for 1 year...
September 6, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855643/a-new-chimeric-natriuretic-peptide-cnaac-for-the-treatment-of-left-ventricular-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarction
#7
Shu-Miao Zhang, Hong-Lin Zhao, Xiao-Ming Gu, Juan Li, Na Feng, Yue-Min Wang, Rong Fan, Wen-Sheng Chen, Jian-Ming Pei
An innovative natriuretic peptide analog named CNAAC (structurally consisting of the C-terminus and ring of ANP and the N-terminus of CNP) that has been shown to exhibit potent vasodilatory, diuretic, and hypotensive effects in our previous study was evaluated for the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction. The temporal relaxation effect and metabolic status of CNAAC were determined. A myocardial ischemic model was established. Rats were randomly divided into Sham, MI, MI-ANP, MI-CNP, MI-VNP, and MI-CNAAC groups...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855597/dynamics-and-implications-of-circulating-anti-angiogenic-vegf-a165b-isoform-in-patients-with-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction
#8
Luisa Hueso, Cesar Rios-Navarro, Amparo Ruiz-Sauri, Francisco Javier Chorro, Julio Nunez, Maria Jesus Sanz, Vicente Bodi, Laura Piqueras
Angiogenesis is crucial to restore microvascular perfusion in the jeopardized myocardium in the weeks following reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). (VEGF)-A165b, an anti-angiogenic factor, has been identified as a regulator of vascularization; however, it has not been previously implicated in acute myocardial infarction. We sought to investigate the dynamics of circulating VEGF-A165b and its association with cardiac magnetic resonance-derived infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855115/catheter-ablation-versus-medical-rate-control-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-systolic-dysfunction-camera-mri
#9
Sandeep Prabhu, Andrew J Taylor, Ben T Costello, David M Kaye, Alex Aj McLellan, Aleksandr Voskoboinik, Hariharan Sugumar, Siobhan M Lockwood, Michael B Stokes, Bhupesh Pathik, Chrishan J Nalliah, Geoff R Wong, Sonia M Azzopardi, Sarah Gutman, Geoffrey Lee, Jamie Layland, Justin A Mariani, Liang-Han Ling, Jonathan M Kalman, Peter M Kistler
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) frequently co-exist despite adequate rate-control. Existing randomized studies of AF and LVSD of varying etiologies have demonstrated modest benefits with a rhythm control strategy. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether catheter ablation (CA) for AF could improve LVSD compared to medical rate-control (MRC) where the etiology of the LVSD was unexplained, apart from the presence of AF...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819303/automated-segmentation-of-light-sheet-fluorescent-imaging-to-characterize-experimental-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-injury-and-repair
#10
René R Sevag Packard, Kyung In Baek, Tyler Beebe, Nelson Jen, Yichen Ding, Feng Shi, Peng Fei, Bong Jin Kang, Po-Heng Chen, Jonathan Gau, Michael Chen, Jonathan Y Tang, Yu-Huan Shih, Yonghe Ding, Debiao Li, Xiaolei Xu, Tzung K Hsiai
This study sought to develop an automated segmentation approach based on histogram analysis of raw axial images acquired by light-sheet fluorescent imaging (LSFI) to establish rapid reconstruction of the 3-D zebrafish cardiac architecture in response to doxorubicin-induced injury and repair. Input images underwent a 4-step automated image segmentation process consisting of stationary noise removal, histogram equalization, adaptive thresholding, and image fusion followed by 3-D reconstruction. We applied this method to 3-month old zebrafish injected intraperitoneally with doxorubicin followed by LSFI at 3, 30, and 60 days post-injection...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817542/safety-of-transesophageal-echocardiography%C3%A2-guided-electrical-cardioversion-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-and-inadequate-anticoagulation
#11
Joanna Zaprutko, Artur Baszko, Michał Michalak, Karol Kochman, Radosław Szymański, Jan Kłopocki, Anna Nowicka, Rafał Dankowski, Marek Michalski, Piotr Kałmucki, Andrzej Szyszka
INTRODUCTION    Restoring sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial flutter (AFl) requires adequate oral anticoagulation prior to direct current cardioversion (DCC). Some patients eligible for DCC are not properly anticoagulated. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to assess risk factors for thrombus and spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) in the left atrium (LA) as well as the safety profile of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-guided DCC in patients with inadequate anticoagulation...
August 9, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816745/restoration-of-normal-sympathetic-neural-function-in-heart-failure-following-baroreflex-activation-therapy-final-43-month-study-report
#12
Raffaella Dell'Oro, Edoardo Gronda, Gino Seravalle, Giuseppe Costantino, Luca Alberti, Barbara Baronio, Tiziana Staine, Emilio Vanoli, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi
BACKGROUND: Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) exerts in severe heart failure sympathoinhibitory effects, improving clinical variables and reducing hospitalization rate. The current follow-up study was aimed at determining the long-term effects of BAT, assessing whether BAT in heart failure allows to restore physiological levels of sympathetic function. METHODS: Seven patients out of the 11 heart failure patients aged 66.5 ± 3 years (mean ± SEM) in New York Heart Association Class III with left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or less and impaired functional capacity recruited in the study survived at the final follow-up (43...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811871/do-all-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-need-long-term-anticoagulation
#13
Munish Sharma, Rohit Masih, Daniel A N Mascarenhas
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide with an estimated number of 2.7-6.1 million cases in the United States (US) alone. The incidence of AF is expected to increase 2.5 fold over the next 50 years in the US. The management of AF is complex and includes mainly three aspects; restoration of sinus rhythm, control of ventricular rate and prevention of systemic thromboembolism. AF as a cause of systemic embolization has been well known for many years, and majority of patients are on oral anticoagulants (OACs) to prevent this...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805198/severe-reversible-hypocalcemic-cardiomyopathy-diagnosed-36-years-after-subtotal-thyroidectomy-a-case-report
#14
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Patrycja Lachowska-Kotowska
Chronic hypocalcemia, irrespectively of its etiology, can lead to severe impairment of the left ventricular (LV) contractility manifesting as dilated cardiomyopathy, usually defined as hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy (hypocaCM). This rarely diagnosed type of heart failure (HF), can be completely reversible, when treated properly with calcium and vitamin D supplementation or, in some subjects, with human recombinant parathormone. A CASE REPORT: The authors present a case of a 60-year-old male admitted with advanced pulmonary congestion, recurrent pulmonary edema and pleural effusion...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#15
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803350/comparison-of-mitral-competence-after-mitral-repair-with-papillary-muscle-approximation-versus-papillary-muscle-relocation-for-functional-mitral-regurgitation
#16
Koji Furukawa, Mitsuhiro Yano, Eisaku Nakamura, Masakazu Matsuyama, Masanori Nishimura, Katsuya Kawagoe, Kunihide Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of papillary muscle approximation (PMA) and papillary muscle relocation (PMR) for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and to compare the effects of both procedures on the change in mitral regurgitation (MR) and echocardiogram parameters associated with tethering. Eighteen patients with moderate-to-severe FMR (MR grade ≥2) who underwent PMA or PMR were retrospectively analyzed. Underlying diseases were ischemic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and aortic valve disease for seven, six, and five patients, respectively...
August 12, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801076/early-development-of-right-ventricular-ischemic-lesions-in-a-novel-large-animal-model-of-acute-right-heart-failure-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#17
David Boulate, Jennifer Arthur Ataam, Andrew J Connolly, Genevieve Giraldeau, Myriam Amsallem, Benoit Decante, Lilia Lamrani, Elie Fadel, Peter Dorfmuller, Frederic Perros, Francois Haddad, Olaf Mercier
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to develop a model of acute right heart failure (ARHF) in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and to characterize acute right ventricular lesions that develop early after hemodynamic restoration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a described piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH) induced by pulmonary artery occlusions. We induced ARHF in animals with cPH (ARHF-cPH group, n = 9) by volume loading and iterative acute pulmonary embolism until hemodynamic compromise followed by dobutamine infusion for hemodynamic restoration before sacrifice for right ventricular tissue evaluation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801040/extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-for-blunt-cardiac-rupture-a-case-report
#18
Shunsuke Kudo, Keiji Tanaka, Kunihiko Okada, Takahiro Takemura
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) followed by operating room sternotomy, rather than resuscitative thoracotomy, might be life-saving for patients with blunt cardiac rupture and cardiac arrest who do not have multiple severe traumatic injuries. A 49-year-old man was injured in a vehicle crash and transferred to the emergency department. On admission, he was hemodynamically stable, but a plain chest radiograph revealed a widened mediastinum, and echocardiography revealed hemopericardium. A computed tomography scan revealed hemopericardium and mediastinal hematoma, without other severe traumatic injuries...
August 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800746/artery-of-percheron-infarction-a-case-report
#19
Axel Sandvig, Sandra Lundberg, Jiri Neuwirth
BACKGROUND: The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomic variant of arterial supply to the paramedian thalamus and rostral midbrain, and occlusion of the artery of Percheron results in bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts with or without midbrain involvement. Acute artery of Percheron infarcts represent 0.1 to 2% of total ischemic stroke. However, of thalamic strokes, occlusion of artery of Percheron is the cause in 4 to 35% of cases. Early diagnosis of artery of Percheron infarction can be challenging because it is infrequent and early computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be negative...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795283/effects-of-epinephrine-exposure-on-contractile-performance-of-compact-and-spongy-myocardium-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-during-hypoxia
#20
Jordan C Roberts, Douglas A Syme
Hypoxia results in elevated circulating epinephrine for many fish species, and this is likely important for maintaining cardiac function. The aims of this study were to assess how hypoxia impacts contractile responses of ventricular compact and spongy myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to assess how and if epinephrine may protect myocardial performance from a depressive effect of hypoxia. Work output and maximum contraction rate of isolated preparations of spongy and compact ventricular myocardium from rainbow trout were measured...
August 9, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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