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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915452/chronic-enalapril-treatment-increases-transient-outward-potassium-current-in-cardiomyocytes-isolated-from-right-ventricle-of-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
Luiz Fernando Rodrigues Junior, Ana Carolina de Azevedo Carvalho, Enildo Broetto Pimentel, José Geraldo Mill, José Hamilton Matheus Nascimento
It has been well established that chronic pressure overload resulting from hypertension leads to ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling. The transient outward potassium current (I to) reduction described in hypertensive animals delays ventricular repolarization, leading to complex ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Antihypertensive drugs, as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), can restore I to and reduce the incidence of arrhythmic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of long-term treatment with ACEi or direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant on the I to of left and right ventricle myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914791/aberrant-developmental-titin-splicing-and-dysregulated-sarcomere-length-in-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-knockout-mice
#2
Nicola Smart, Johannes Riegler, Cameron W Turtle, Craig A Lygate, Debra J McAndrew, Katja Gehmlich, Karina N Dubé, Anthony N Price, Vivek Muthurangu, Andrew M Taylor, Mark F Lythgoe, Charles Redwood, Paul R Riley
Sarcomere assembly is a highly orchestrated and dynamic process which adapts, during perinatal development, to accommodate growth of the heart. Sarcomeric components, including titin, undergo an isoform transition to adjust ventricular filling. Many sarcomeric genes have been implicated in congenital cardiomyopathies, such that understanding developmental sarcomere transitions will inform the aetiology and treatment. We sought to determine whether Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), a peptide that regulates the availability of actin monomers for polymerization in non-muscle cells, plays a role in sarcomere assembly during cardiac morphogenesis and influences adult cardiac function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909529/emergency-department-readmission-in-elderly-patients-after-acute-rhythm-or-rate-control-treatment-for-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Bonora Antonio, Turcato Gianni, Franchi Elena, Dilda Alice, Taioli Gabriele, Serafini Valentina, Sivero Valentina, Zannoni Massimo, Ricci Giorgio, Olivieri Oliviero
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an age-related increasing disease, characterized by a high number of relapses frequently leading the patients to Emergency Department (ED). Despite AF relapses may be clinically heterogeneous, a proper management requires either a fast and effective restore of the sinus rhythm or a satisfactory control of the ventricular rate. Whether the strategy adopted in the ED could affect the course of disease is still debated. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the number of ED readmission for AF related symptoms and the event-free period in patients older than 70 years previously treated in ED for an AF recurrence, in order to assess a possible relationship with the acute strategy...
August 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907103/tbx20-is-an-essential-regulator-of-embryonic-heart-growth-in-zebrafish
#4
Steffen Just, Linda Raphel, Ina M Berger, Anja Bühler, Mirjam Keßler, Wolfgang Rottbauer
The molecular mechanisms that regulate cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic heart growth are not completely deciphered yet. In a forward genetic N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen, we identified the recessive embryonic-lethal zebrafish mutant line weiches herz (whz). Homozygous mutant whz embryos display impaired heart growth due to diminished embryonic cardiomyocyte proliferation resulting in cardiac hypoplasia and weak cardiac contraction. By positional cloning, we found in whz mutant zebrafish a missense mutation within the T-box 20 (Tbx20) transcription factor gene leading to destabilization of Tbx20 protein...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903535/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-cardiac-strain-pattern-following-transplantation-of-human-tissue-engineered-heart-muscles
#5
Xulei Qin, Johannes Riegler, Malte Tiburcy, Xin Zhao, Tony Chour, Babacar Ndoye, Michael Nguyen, Jackson Adams, Mohamed Ameen, Thomas S Denney, Phillip C Yang, Patricia Nguyen, Wolfram H Zimmermann, Joseph C Wu
BACKGROUND: The use of tissue engineering approaches in combination with exogenously produced cardiomyocytes offers the potential to restore contractile function after myocardial injury. However, current techniques assessing changes in global cardiac performance after such treatments are plagued by relatively low detection ability. Since the treatment is locally performed, this detection could be improved by myocardial strain imaging that measures regional contractility. METHODS AND RESULTS: Tissue engineered heart muscles (EHMs) were generated by casting human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with collagen in preformed molds...
November 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902477/astragalus-polysaccharide-restores-autophagic-flux-and-improves-cardiomyocyte-function-in-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#6
Yuan Cao, Tao Shen, Xiuqing Huang, Yajun Lin, Beidong Chen, Jing Pang, Guoping Li, Que Wang, Sylvia Zohrabian, Chao Duan, Yang Ruan, Yong Man, Shu Wang, Jian Li
Doxorubicin (adriamycin), an anthracycline antibiotic, is commonly used to treat many types of solid and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, clinical usage of doxorubicin is limited due to the associated acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Previous studies demonstrated that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the extracts of Astragalus membranaceus, had strong anti-tumor activities and anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether APS could mitigate chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear thus far. We used a doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and a mouse heart failure model to explore the function of APS...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899394/stress-activated-kinase-mkk7-governs-epigenetics-of-cardiac-repolarization-for-arrhythmia-prevention
#7
Sanjoy K Chowdhury, Wei Liu, Min Zi, Yatong Li, Shunyao Wang, Hoyee Tsui, Sukhpal Prehar, Simon J Castro, Henggui Zhang, Yong Ji, Xiuqin Zhang, Rui-Ping Xiao, Rongli Zhang, Ming Lei, Lukas Cyganek, Kaomei Guan, Catherine B Millar, Xudong Liao, Mukesh K Jain, Mark R Boyett, Elizabeth J Cartwright, Holly A Shiels, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: -Ventricular arrhythmia is a leading cause of cardiac mortality. Most antiarrhythmics present paradoxical pro-arrhythmic side effects, culminating in a greater risk of sudden death. METHODS: -We describe a new regulatory mechanism linking mitogen-activated kinase kinase-7 (MKK7) deficiency with increased arrhythmia vulnerability in hypertrophied and failing hearts using mouse models harbouring MKK7 knockout or overexpression. The human relevance of this arrhythmogenic mechanism is evaluated in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs)...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894810/na-ca-2-exchanger-1-inhibition-abolishes-ischemic-tolerance-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-in-different-cardiac-models
#8
Pasqualina Castaldo, Maria Loredana Macrì, Vincenzo Lariccia, Alessandra Matteucci, Marta Maiolino, Santo Gratteri, Salvatore Amoroso, Simona Magi
Ca(2+)-handling disturbances play an important role in the genesis of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a powerful strategy to induce tolerance against subsequent ischemic episodes. IPC signaling pathways may be triggered by Ca(2+) ion. Since Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) participates in modulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, here we further defined its role in I/R and investigated its potential involvement in IPC-induced cardioprotection. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, perfused rat heart and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, I/R produced a significant cell injury, assessed by measuring extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and, for the whole heart, also by estimating myocardial infarct size area...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893754/cyp26-enzymes-facilitate-second-heart-field-progenitor-addition-and-maintenance-of-ventricular-integrity
#9
Ariel B Rydeen, Joshua S Waxman
Although retinoic acid (RA) teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT) malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF) progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs), and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF) ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889753/renal-denervation-attenuates-multi-organ-fibrosis-and-improves-vascular-remodeling-in-rats-with-transverse-aortic-constriction-induced-cardiomyopathy
#10
Kai Wang, Dasheng Lu, Bin Zhang, Shengchan Wang, Qian Liu, Qi Zhang, Jie Geng, Qijun Shan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on multi-organ fibrosis and vascular remodeling in cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Five weeks later, 28 surviving TAC rats were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) RDN, (2) Sham, (3) Carvedilol. Six male Sham TAC rats served as the Control. Ten weeks after TAC, samples were collected. RESULTS: TAC rats showed an increased diastolic interventricular septal thickness at week 5...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886226/functional-improvement-and-regression-of-medial-hypertrophy-in-the-remodeled-pulmonary-artery-after-correction-of-systemic-left-to-right-shunt
#11
Chih-Hsin Hsu, Jun-Neng Roan, Jyh-Hong Chen, Chen-Fuh Lam
The presence of systemic left-to-right shunt and increased pulmonary blood flow can result in right heart failure and pulmonary arteriopathy. Correction of left-to-right shunt has been shown to improve cardiac function and physical performance. However, the cardiopulmonary remodeling processes following cessation of left-to-right shunt have yet to be reported. In this experimental study, excessive pulmonary flow was restored through ligation of the aortocaval fistula in rats with flow-induced pulmonary hypertension...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882158/functional-characterization-of-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-systolic-heart-failure
#12
Zhihua Fang, Xiaoguang Yin, Jianzhong Wang, Na Tian, Qiang Ao, Yongquan Gu, Ying Liu
Congestive heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although advances in medical therapy, mechanical support and heart transplantation have been made, almost half of all patients with HF succumb to the disease within five years of the initial diagnosis. Therefore, treatment methods need to be identified to restore the structure and function of cardiac muscle. Three patients with HF caused by ischemic cardiomyopathy received human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HUC-MSC) intravenous infusion were included in the present study...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872214/effects-of-prolonged-anoxia-on-electrical-activity-of-the-heart-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius
#13
Elisa Tikkanen, Jaakko Haverinen, Stuart Egginton, Minna Hassinen, Matti Vornanen
The effects of sustained anoxia on cardiac electrical excitability were examined in the anoxia-tolerant Crucian carp (Carassius carassius). The electrocardiogram (ECG) and expression of excitation-contraction coupling genes were studied in fish acclimatised to normoxia in summer (+18°C) or winter (+2°C), and in winter fish after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of anoxia. Anoxia induced a sustained bradycardia from a heart rate of 10.3±0.77 to 4.1±0.29 bpm (P<0.05) after 5 weeks, and heart rate slowly recovered to control levels when oxygen was restored...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861177/iatrogenic-right-coronary-artery-occlusion-following-tricuspid-valve-repair-case-report-of-a-rare-but-recognized-complication
#14
Bradford B Smith, Mark M Smith, Kent H Rehfeldt
Iatrogenic occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA) is a rare complication after tricuspid valve surgery. We review the case of a 74-year-old female who presented for mitral and tricuspid valve annuloplasty. Unanticipated postcardiopulmonary bypass biventricular hypokinesis was encountered, necessitating extracorporeal support. Emergent coronary angiography demonstrated near-complete RCA occlusion from a taut periarterial suture near the RCA. Deployment of a drug-eluting stent restored normal flow, and the patient made a full recovery...
November 17, 2016: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860272/endovascular-repair-of-ventricular-assist-device-outflow-cannula-stenosis
#15
Faraz S Ahmad, Andrew J Sauer, Mark J Ricciardi
This report describes a case of endovascular repair of an outflow cannula obstruction in a heart failure patient with biventricular assist devices. The patient presented with cardiogenic shock and was diagnosed via multimodality imaging with outflow cannula obstruction of the left ventricular assist device, likely from a hematoma. A transesophageal echocardiogram-guided endovascular approach was undertaken. A 10.0 mm × 38 mm covered stent was successfully deployed and post-dilated. Normal flow in the outflow cannula was restored...
November 17, 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849803/160-volume-and-norepinephrine-restore-left-ventricular-preload-otherwise-decreased-by-pleural-effusion
#16
Kristian Wemmelund, Viktor Ringgård, Erik Sloth, Peter Juhl-Olsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849257/effects-of-nitrate-intake-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-rats
#17
Sajad Jeddi, Saeedeh Khalifi, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Fatemeh Bageripour, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats...
October 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837305/rate-control-by-transoesophageal-atrial-overdrive-pacing-for-refractory-supraventricular-tachycardia-with-severe-ventricular-dysfunction-a-bridge-to-recovery
#18
C Paech, J Janousek, F Wagner, R A Gebauer
Tachyarrhythmia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is a rare, yet life-threatening phenomenon in children. TIC has been defined as myocardial dysfunction that is entirely or partially reversible after control of the responsible tachyarrhythmia and is typically caused by an incessant supraventricular tachycardia. In cases of unsuccessful termination of the tachycardia, cardiogenic shock may occur. Several authors favour the use of mechanical circulatory support in such cases. Particularly with regard to these partly severe cases, the authors would like to present the option of transoesophageal overdrive pacing (TOP) as a tool for initial heart rate control and hemodynamic stabilization of patients with TIC refractory to conventional strategies of tachycardia termination...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825852/osm-mitigates-post-infarction-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction-by-up-regulating-autophagy-through-mst1-suppression
#19
Jianqiang Hu, Lei Zhang, Zhijing Zhao, Mingming Zhang, Jie Lin, Jiaxing Wang, Wenjun Yu, Wanrong Man, Congye Li, Rongqing Zhang, Erhe Gao, Haichang Wang, Dongdong Sun
The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in the world are rapidly rising possibly attributed to the worsened HF following myocardial infarction (MI) in recent years. Here we examined the effects of oncostatin M (OSM) on postinfarction cardiac remodeling and the underlying mechanisms involved. MI model was induced using left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation. In addition, cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated MI. Our results revealed that OSM alleviated left ventricular remodeling, promoted cardiac function, restored mitochondrial cristae density and architecture disorders after 4weeks of MI...
November 4, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817007/contrast-enhanced-shunt-series-shuntography-compare-favorably-to-other-shunt-imaging-modalities-in-detecting-shunt-occlusion
#20
Kajetan L von Eckardstein, Kai Kallenberg, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Bawarjan Schatlo, Veit Rohde, Hans Christoph Ludwig, Hans Christoph Bock
BACKGROUND: Obstruction is a common cause of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt failure. Head computed tomography and plain x-ray examinations of shunt tubing ("shunt series") are routinely used in patients readmitted for reemerging symptoms but are of limited value. The validity of shunt series can be improved by applying contrast agent into the system (contrast-enhanced shunt series, a.k.a. a "shuntogram" or "shuntography"). We hypothesized that contrast-enhanced shunt series have a high predictive value for shunt revision surgeries...
November 5, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
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