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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811871/do-all-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-need-long-term-anticoagulation
#1
Munish Sharma, Rohit Masih, Daniel A N Mascarenhas
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide with an estimated number of 2.7-6.1 million cases in the United States (US) alone. The incidence of AF is expected to increase 2.5 fold over the next 50 years in the US. The management of AF is complex and includes mainly three aspects; restoration of sinus rhythm, control of ventricular rate and prevention of systemic thromboembolism. AF as a cause of systemic embolization has been well known for many years, and majority of patients are on oral anticoagulants (OACs) to prevent this...
June 7, 2017: Clinics and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805198/severe-reversible-hypocalcemic-cardiomyopathy-diagnosed-36-years-after-subtotal-thyroidectomy-a-case-report
#2
Waldemar Elikowski, Małgorzata Małek-Elikowska, Patrycja Lachowska-Kotowska
Chronic hypocalcemia, irrespectively of its etiology, can lead to severe impairment of the left ventricular (LV) contractility manifesting as dilated cardiomyopathy, usually defined as hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy (hypocaCM). This rarely diagnosed type of heart failure (HF), can be completely reversible, when treated properly with calcium and vitamin D supplementation or, in some subjects, with human recombinant parathormone. A CASE REPORT: The authors present a case of a 60-year-old male admitted with advanced pulmonary congestion, recurrent pulmonary edema and pleural effusion...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804458/induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-cigarette-smoke-induced-cardiac-remodeling-and-dysfunction
#3
Yingmin Liang, Xiang Li, Yuelin Zhang, Sze Chun Yeung, Zhe Zhen, Mary S M Ip, Hung Fat Tse, Qizhou Lian, Judith C W Mak
The strong relationship between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been well-documented, but the mechanisms by which smoking increases CVD risk appear to be multifactorial and incompletely understood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are regarded as an important candidate for cell-based therapy in CVD. We hypothesized that MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs) might alleviate cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cardiac injury. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs or iPSC-MSCs on CS-induced changes in serum and cardiac lipid profiles, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as cardiac function in a rat model of passive smoking...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803350/comparison-of-mitral-competence-after-mitral-repair-with-papillary-muscle-approximation-versus-papillary-muscle-relocation-for-functional-mitral-regurgitation
#4
Koji Furukawa, Mitsuhiro Yano, Eisaku Nakamura, Masakazu Matsuyama, Masanori Nishimura, Katsuya Kawagoe, Kunihide Nakamura
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical results of papillary muscle approximation (PMA) and papillary muscle relocation (PMR) for functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and to compare the effects of both procedures on the change in mitral regurgitation (MR) and echocardiogram parameters associated with tethering. Eighteen patients with moderate-to-severe FMR (MR grade ≥2) who underwent PMA or PMR were retrospectively analyzed. Underlying diseases were ischemic cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and aortic valve disease for seven, six, and five patients, respectively...
August 12, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801076/early-development-of-right-ventricular-ischemic-lesions-in-a-novel-large-animal-model-of-acute-right-heart-failure-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#5
David Boulate, Jennifer Arthur Ataam, Andrew J Connolly, Genevieve Giraldeau, Myriam Amsallem, Benoit Decante, Lilia Lamrani, Elie Fadel, Peter Dorfmuller, Frederic Perros, Francois Haddad, Olaf Mercier
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to develop a model of acute right heart failure (ARHF) in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and to characterize acute right ventricular lesions that develop early after hemodynamic restoration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a described piglet model of chronic pulmonary hypertension (cPH) induced by pulmonary artery occlusions. We induced ARHF in animals with cPH (ARHF-cPH group, n=9) by volume loading and iterative acute pulmonary embolisms until hemodynamic compromise followed by dobutamine infusion for hemodynamic restoration prior to sacrifice for right ventricular tissue evaluation...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801040/extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-for-blunt-cardiac-rupture-a-case-report
#6
Shunsuke Kudo, Keiji Tanaka, Kunihiko Okada, Takahiro Takemura
Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) followed by operating room sternotomy, rather than resuscitative thoracotomy, might be life-saving for patients with blunt cardiac rupture and cardiac arrest who do not have multiple severe traumatic injuries. A 49-year-old man was injured in a vehicle crash and transferred to the emergency department. On admission, he was hemodynamically stable, but a plain chest radiograph revealed a widened mediastinum, and echocardiography revealed hemopericardium. A computed tomography scan revealed hemopericardium and mediastinal hematoma, without other severe traumatic injuries...
August 5, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800746/artery-of-percheron-infarction-a-case-report
#7
Axel Sandvig, Sandra Lundberg, Jiri Neuwirth
BACKGROUND: The artery of Percheron is a rare anatomic variant of arterial supply to the paramedian thalamus and rostral midbrain, and occlusion of the artery of Percheron results in bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts with or without midbrain involvement. Acute artery of Percheron infarcts represent 0.1 to 2% of total ischemic stroke. However, of thalamic strokes, occlusion of artery of Percheron is the cause in 4 to 35% of cases. Early diagnosis of artery of Percheron infarction can be challenging because it is infrequent and early computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be negative...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795283/effects-of-epinephrine-exposure-on-contractile-performance-of-compact-and-spongy-myocardium-from-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-during-hypoxia
#8
Jordan C Roberts, Douglas A Syme
Hypoxia results in elevated circulating epinephrine for many fish species, and this is likely important for maintaining cardiac function. The aims of this study were to assess how hypoxia impacts contractile responses of ventricular compact and spongy myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to assess how and if epinephrine may protect myocardial performance from a depressive effect of hypoxia. Work output and maximum contraction rate of isolated preparations of spongy and compact ventricular myocardium from rainbow trout were measured...
August 9, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743804/paracrine-effects-of-the-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiac-myocytes-salvage-the-injured-myocardium
#9
Atsushi Tachibana, Michelle R Santoso, Morteza Mahmoudi, Praveen Shukla, Lei Wang, Mihoko Bennett, Andrew B Goldstone, Mouer Wang, Masahiro Fukushi, Antje Ebert, Y Joseph Woo, Eric Rulifson, Phillip C Yang
Rationale: Cardiac myocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells have demonstrated the potential to mitigate damage of the infarcted myocardium and improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). However, the mechanism underlying the functional benefit is unclear. Objective: To evaluate whether the transplantation of cardiac lineage differentiated derivatives enhance myocardial viability and restore LVEF more effectively than undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells after a myocardial injury (MI). Herein, we utilize novel multimodality evaluation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hESC-derived cardiac myocytes (hCMs), human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes (iCMs) in a murine MI model...
July 25, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741841/pulmonary-valve-opening-with-two-rotary-left-ventricular-assist-devices-for-biventricular-support
#10
Eric L Wu, Frank Nestler, Matthias Kleinheyer, Michael C Stevens, Jo P Pauls, John F Fraser, Shaun D Gregory
Right ventricular failure is a common complication associated with rotary left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. Currently, there is no clinically approved long-term rotary right ventricular assist device (RVAD). Instead, clinicians have implanted a second rotary LVAD as RVAD in biventricular support. To prevent pulmonary hypertension, the RVAD must be operated by either reducing pump speed or banding the outflow graft. These modes differ in hydraulic performance, which may affect the pulmonary valve opening (PVO) and subsequently cause fusion, valvular insufficiency, and thrombus formation...
July 25, 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740718/papillary-muscle-approximation-in-mitral-valve-repair-for-secondary-mr
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Nappi, Cristiano Spadaccio, Massimo Chello, Christos G Mihos
Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is a complex disorder occurring after a myocardial infarction and affecting both the mitral valvular and subvalvular apparati. Several abnormalities can be detected in IMR as annular dilatation, leaflet tethering with impaired coaptation and papillary muscle (PM) displacement along a posterior, apical or lateral vectors. Treatments available include, beside myocardial revascularization, mitral-valve repair or chordal-sparing replacement. Repair is normally achieved downsizing the mitral valve annulus with a rigid or semirigid ring...
June 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727746/atorvastatin-reduces-%C3%AE-adrenergic-dysfunction-in-rats-with-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#12
Aude Carillion, Sarah Feldman, Na Na, Matthieu Biais, Wassila Carpentier, Aurélie Birenbaum, Nicolas Cagnard, Xavier Loyer, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Stéphane Hatem, Bruno Riou, Julien Amour
BACKGROUND: In the diabetic heart the β-adrenergic response is altered partly by down-regulation of the β1-adrenoceptor, reducing its positive inotropic effect and up-regulation of the β3-adrenoceptor, increasing its negative inotropic effect. Statins have clinical benefits on morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients which are attributed to their "pleiotropic" effects. The objective of our study was to investigate the role of statin treatment on β-adrenergic dysfunction in diabetic rat cardiomyocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726929/sesamin-prevents-apoptosis-and-inflammation-after-experimental-myocardial-infarction-by-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#13
Di Fan, Zheng Yang, Yuan Yuan, Qing-Qing Wu, Man Xu, Ya-Ge Jin, Qi-Zhu Tang
Myocardial infarction is a devastating event, especially when reperfusion is not performed. The inflammatory response has been associated with the pathogenesis of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. This study focused on the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin on ligation of the left anterior descending artery in an experimental mouse model and the potential mechanism underlying the activation of JNK and NF-κB pathways. Mice with MI induced by surgical left anterior descending coronary artery ligation were treated with sesamin by gavage for 1 week...
August 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705664/complete-atrioventricular-canal-defect-towards-a-more-physiological-repair
#14
A Boutayeb
We describe a more physiological technique of complete atrioventricular septal defect repair which restores normal heart anatomy with the offset between the insertions of the mitral and tricuspid valves. This technique overcomes the drawbacks of the previous approaches, and may improve surgical outcomes, particularly in small infants with high ventricular septal defect component or dextroposed aorta.
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704260/%C3%AE-solanine-reverses-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-vascular-angiogenesis-in-experimental-pulmonary-artery-hypertension
#15
Xiaowei Nie, Youai Dai, Jianxin Tan, Yuan Chen, Guowei Qin, Wenjun Mao, Jian Zou, Yanhua Chang, Qian Wang, Jingyu Chen
OBJECTIVE: Similar to cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular remodeling, which leads to obliteration of the small pulmonary arteriole, with marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and/or endothelial cells dysfunction. Aberrant expression of tumor suppressor genes is closely associated with susceptibility to PAH. We hypothesized that α-solanine, a glycoalkaloid found in members of the nightshade family known to have antitumor activity in different cancers, reverses experimental PAH by activating the tumor suppressor-axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698769/high-intensity-exercise-reduces-cardiac-fibrosis-and-hypertrophy-but-does-not-restore-the-nitroso-redox-imbalance-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#16
Ulises Novoa, Diego Arauna, Marisol Moran, Madelaine Nuñez, Sebastián Zagmutt, Sergio Saldivia, Cristian Valdes, Jorge Villaseñor, Carmen Gloria Zambrano, Daniel R Gonzalez
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to the manifestations in the heart as a result of altered glucose homeostasis, reflected as fibrosis, cellular hypertrophy, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, leading to ventricular dysfunction. Since physical exercise has been indicated as cardioprotective, we tested the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise training could reverse the cardiac maladaptations produced by diabetes. For this, diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of alloxan. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or submitted to a program of exercise on a treadmill for 4 weeks at 80% of maximal performance...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684968/effects-of-total-flavone-from-rhododendron-simsii-planch-flower-on-postischemic-cardiac-dysfunction-and-cardiac-remodeling-in-rats
#17
Xinqi Cheng, Jie Zhang, Zhiwu Chen
This study investigated the effect of total flavone from Rhododendron simsii Planch. flower (TFR) on postischemic cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling and was to test the hypothesis that TFR has an antiventricular remodeling effect through inhibition of urotensin-II receptor- (UTR-) mediated activation of RhoA-ROCK pathways. Twenty-four hours after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive 4-week treatment with saline (model group) or TFR...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683966/%C3%AE-1-blockade-prevents-post-ischemic-myocardial-decompensation-via-%C3%AE-3ar-dependent-protective-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling
#18
Alessandro Cannavo, Giuseppe Rengo, Daniela Liccardo, Andres Pun, Ehre Gao, Alvin J George, Giuseppina Gambino, Antonio Rapacciuolo, Dario Leosco, Borja Ibanez, Nicola Ferrara, Nazareno Paolocci, Walter J Koch
BACKGROUND: Although β-blockers increase survival in patients with heart failure (HF), the mechanisms behind this protection are not fully understood, and not all patients with HF respond favorably to them. We recently showed that, in cardiomyocytes, a reciprocal down-regulation occurs between β1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) and the cardioprotective sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor-1 (S1PR1). OBJECTIVES: The authors hypothesized that, in addition to salutary actions due to direct β1AR-blockade, agents such as metoprolol (Meto) may improve post-myocardial infarction (MI) structural and functional outcomes via restored S1PR1 signaling, and sought to determine mechanisms accounting for this effect...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683206/changes-in-mitochondrial-properties-may-contribute-to-enhanced-resistance-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-diabetic-rat-heart
#19
Martina Muráriková, Miroslav Ferko, Iveta Waczulíková, Magdaléna Jašová, Ivana Kancirová, Jana Murínová, Táňa Ravingerová
Diabetes mellitus, besides having deleterious effects, induces cardiac adaptation that may reduce the heart's susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in mitochondrial properties are involved in the mechanisms of increased resistance of the diabetic heart to IR. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg·kg(-1), i.p.), and on the day 8, Langendorff-perfused hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia and 40 min reperfusion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680577/hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#20
Minglin Pan, Ying Han, Rui Si, Rui Guo, Ankit Desai, Ayako Makino
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a progressive disease that is mainly caused by chronic exposure to high altitude, chronic obstructive lung disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. The increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased pulmonary arterial pressure result in increased right ventricular afterload, leading to right heart failure and increased morbidity. There are several clinical reports suggesting a link between PH and diabetes, insulin resistance, or obesity; however, it is unclear whether HPH is associated with diabetes as a progressive complication in diabetes...
March 2017: Pulmonary Circulation
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