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Seizure and infant and treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764460/benign-and-severe-early-life-seizures-a-round-in-the-first-year-of-life
#1
REVIEW
Piero Pavone, Giovanni Corsello, Martino Ruggieri, Silvia Marino, Simona Marino, Raffaele Falsaperla
At the onset, differentiation between abnormal non-epileptic movements, and epileptic seizures presenting in early life is difficult as is clinical diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of the various seizure disorders presenting at this age. Seizures starting in the first year of life including the neonatal period might have a favorable course, such as in infants presenting with benign familial neonatal epilepsy, febrile seizures simplex or acute symptomatic seizures. However, in some cases, the onset of seizures at birth or in the first months of life have a dramatic evolution with severe cerebral impairment...
May 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716506/parechovirus-an-important-emerging-infection-in-young-infants
#2
Philip N Britton, Cheryl A Jones, Kristine Macartney, Allen C Cheng
Epidemics of human parechovirus (HPeV) causing disease in young children have occurred every 2 years in Australia since 2013. HPeV genotype 3 caused the epidemic from late 2017 to early 2018. Most HPeV infections cause no or mild symptoms including gastroenteritis or influenza-like illness. Characteristically, young infants present with fever, irritability and on occasions a diffuse rash ("red, hot and angry" babies). Severe disease can manifest as meningoencephalitis, seizures or sepsis-like presentations (including septic shock), or less common presentations including signs of surgical abdomen...
May 7, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696052/novel-imaging-finding-and-novel-mutation-in-an-infant-with-molybdenum-cofactor-deficiency-a-mimicker-of-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy
#3
Sangeetha Yoganathan, SniyaVALSA Sudhakar, Maya Thomas, Atanu Kumar Dutta, Sumita Danda, Mahalakshmi Chandran
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder manifesting with early onset seizures, developmental delay, microcephaly, and spasticity. In this report, we describe a three-month-old infant with neonatal onset, poorly controlled seizures, developmental delay, microcephaly, spastic quadriparesis and visual insufficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain had shown cystic encephalomalacia involving bilateral parieto-occipital lobe and elevated lactate in magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Restricted diffusion noted along the corticospinal tract in our case is a novel imaging finding in patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692307/seizures-as-a-complication-of-congenital-zika-syndrome-in-early-infancy
#4
Jamary Oliveira-Filho, Ridalva Felzemburgh, Federico Costa, Nivison Nery, Adriana Mattos, Daniele F Henriques, Albert I Ko, For The Salvador Zika Response Team
Zika virus transmission in Brazil was linked to a large outbreak of microcephaly but less is known about longer term anthropometric and neurological outcomes. We studied a cohort of infants born between October 31, 2015, and January 9, 2016, in a state maternity hospital, followed up for 101 ± 28 days by home visits. Microcephaly (< 2 standard deviations, Intergrowth standard) occurred in 62 of 412 (15%) births. Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) was diagnosed in 29 patients. Among CZS patients, we observed a significant gain in anthropometric measures ( P < 0...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691835/rufinamide-add-on-therapy-for-refractory-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Hemanshu Prabhakar, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder (neurological disorder). Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive and abnormal cortical nerve cell electrical activity in the brain. Despite the development of more than 10 new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) since the early 2000s, approximately a third of people with epilepsy remain resistant to pharmacotherapy, often requiring treatment with a combination of AEDs. In this review, we summarised the current evidence regarding rufinamide, a novel anticonvulsant medication, which, as a triazole derivative, is structurally unrelated to any other currently used anticonvulsant medication, when used as an add-on treatment for refractory epilepsy...
April 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663900/congenital-toxoplasmosis-in-tunisia-prenatal-and-neonatal-diagnosis-and-postnatal-follow-up-of-35-cases
#6
Boudaouara Yosr, Aoun Karim, Maatoug Rania, Souissi Olfa, Bouratbine Aïda, Ben Abdallah Rym
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627177/the-evolutionary-saga-of-circumcision-from-a-religious-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Venkatachalam Raveenthiran
Circumcision is the oldest surgical operation known to mankind. It probably originated as a less radical form of genital mutilation inflicted on prisoners of war. Over time it was adopted by the Egyptian priesthood and nobility, perhaps inspired by the mythology of Osiris. In turn, circumcision became part of the Jewish and Muslim religious cultures. In contrast, ancient Greeks valued an intact prepuce, as evident from the nude figures of Renaissance art. In the 19th century, circumcision was touted as a treatment for excessive masturbation, seizures, epilepsy, and paraplegia...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625812/scn2a-mutation-in-an-infant-presenting-with-migrating-focal-seizures-and-infantile-spasm-responsive-to-a-ketogenic-diet
#8
Da-Jyun Su, Jyh-Feng Lu, Li-Ju Lin, Jao-Shwann Liang, Kun-Long Hung
SCN2A mutations have been identified in various encephalopathy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial neonatal-infantile seizure (BFNIS) to more severe forms of epileptic encephalopathy such as Ohtahara syndrome or epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizure (EIMFS). Thus far, no particularly effective treatment is available for severe epileptic encephalopathy caused by SCN2A mutations in children. We present the case of a boy who developed seizures on the third day of life and received a diagnosis of EIMFS based on his clinical presentations and electroencephalography reports...
April 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610033/ketogenic-diet-therapy-in-infants-efficacy-and-tolerability
#9
Elaine Wirrell, Susan Eckert, Lily Wong-Kisiel, Eric Payne, Katherine Nickels
PURPOSE: This study evaluated tolerability and efficacy of the ketogenic diet in infants less than 12 months of age. METHODS: Infants <12 months of age, commencing the ketogenic diet between September 2007 and July 2016 were identified. Records were reviewed for epilepsy details, diet initiation details, efficacy and tolerability. RESULTS: Twenty-seven infants commenced the ketogenic diet (56% male, median age seven months). Median age at seizure onset was 1...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602053/eeg-findings-and-outcomes-of-continuous-video-eeg-monitoring-started-prior-to-initiation-of-seizure-treatment-in-the-perinatal-stroke
#10
José R Castro Conde, Itziar Quintero Fuentes, Candelaria González Campo, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa, Beatriz Reyes Millán, Sergio Hernández Expósito
BACKGROUND: To analyze the findings in the background EEG activity of infants who suffered perinatal stroke. METHODS: Eleven neonates born 2009-2014 diagnosed of ischemic stroke by MRI (three of them with multistroke) underwent continuous video-EEG monitoring. Visual and spectral (power spectrum and coherence) analyses of the background EEG was performed in three moments: 1) Onset of EEG recording (prior to initiate seizure treatment), 2) Post-ictal epoch (1-2 h after the last seizure), and 3) one-two days after seizure control...
March 27, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538366/prenatal-perinatal-and-neonatal-risk-factors-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
BackgroundWe explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal, and prenatal conditions, and exposures with later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large sample of children followed over multiple years.MethodsA retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013, and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time frame...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530119/-clinical-features-of-enterococcus-faecium-meningitis-in-children
#12
Li-Yuan Wang, Xiao-Tang Cai, Zhi-Ling Wang, Shun-Li Liu, Yong-Mei Xie, Hui Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical features of Enterococcus faecium meningitis in children. METHODS: The clinical data of nine children with Enterococcus faecium meningitis were analyzed. RESULTS: In all the nine children, Enterococcus faecium was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or peripherally inserted central catheters; 6 (67%) patients were neonates, 2 (22%) patients were younger than 6 months, and 1 (11%) patient was three years and four months of age...
March 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525234/syndrome-of-inappropriate-antidiuretic-hormone-secretion-in-a-mini-breed-puppy-associated-with-aspiration-pneumonia
#13
Rocío Martínez, Carlos Torrente
A 3-month-old intact male Prague ratter was presented to the emergency service for evaluation of progressive lethargy, weakness, coughing and labour breathing after an episode of resistance to oral deworming. The patient exhibited depression, increased respiratory effort and cyanosis at initial presentation. Results of first diagnostic work-up (complete blood cell count, biochemistry panel and thoracic x-rays) were all consistent with aspiration pneumonia. The puppy was initially treated with balanced isotonic crystalloids, broad spectrum antibiotics, nebulization with thoracic coupage and was transferred to an infant incubator with a sustained FiO2 of 40-50%...
December 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524777/ketogenic-diet-therapy-in-infants-less-than-two-years-of-age-for-medically-refractory-epilepsy
#14
Naila Ismayilova, Mary-Anne Leung, Ravi Kumar, Martin Smith, Ruth E Williams
PURPOSE: The Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a well-established treatment for epilepsy in children and adults. We describe our 10-year KD experience in children less than two years of age diagnosed with medically refractory epilepsy. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-note review of infants managed with KD at our centre between 2006 and 2016. RESULTS: Twenty-nine children between 2½ weeks and 23 months of age were identified, with mixed epilepsy aetiologies...
April 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523004/cystic-encephalomalacia-following-vasculopathy-and-vasospasm-of-proximal-intracranial-arteries-due-to-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-a-infant
#15
Alexander Pschibul, Wibke G Janzarik, Peter Franck, Markus Hufnagel, Christopher Beck, Rudolf Korinthenberg
Despite the availability of modern antibiotics, pneumococcal meningitis in both children and adults remains a severe disease-one known to frequently cause grave complications and residual disability. Although the appearance of arterial vasospasms in bacterial meningitis systematically has been investigated and reported on for adult patients, such research is lacking when it comes to infants. We report on a 4-week-old infant who, 6 days after onset of pneumococcal meningitis, suffered severe neurological deterioration with treatment-resistant seizures and coma...
June 2018: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477837/a-survey-of-antiepileptic-drug-responses-identifies-drugs-with-potential-efficacy-for-seizure-control-in-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome
#16
Karen S Ho, Leah M Markham, Hope Twede, Amanda Lortz, Lenora M Olson, Xiaoming Sheng, Cindy Weng, E Robert Wassman, Tara Newcomb, E Robert Wassman, John C Carey, Agatino Battaglia
Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged...
April 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467102/acute-symptomatic-neonatal-seizures-in-preterm-neonates-etiologies-and-treatments
#17
REVIEW
Francesco Pisani, Carlotta Spagnoli
Acute symptomatic neonatal seizures in preterm newborns are a relevant clinical challenge due to the presence of many knowledge gaps. Etiology-wise, acute symptomatic seizures have an age-specific epidemiology, with intraventricular hemorrhage and its complications representing the first cause in extremely and very preterm neonates, whereas other etiologies have similar occurrence rates as in full-term infants. Specific treatment strategies for the premature neonates are not yet available. Studies suggest a similarly low response rate with even more unfavorable prognosis than in full-term infants...
December 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453114/levetiracetam-monotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-infants-with-epilepsy
#18
Pinar Arican, Pinar Gencpinar, Dilek Cavusoglu, Nihal Olgac Dundar
PURPOSE: Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum anti-epileptic drug that is effective against both focal and generalized epilepsies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of levetiracetam monotherapy in the management of different seizure types in children with epilepsy under the age of two. METHOD: This retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of epilepsy from January 2014 to January 2017. To be included in the study, patients were required to be less than two years of age at the time levetiracetam was initiated as initial monotherapy and to be followed clinically for at least 6 months...
March 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437806/rhabdomyolysis-in-stuve-wiedemann-syndrome
#19
Pemantah Sandheeah Ramdeny, Colin Powell, Mallinath Chakraborty, Louise Hartley
A 6-month-old male infant with Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome (SWS) presented with an acute respiratory arrest secondary to a rhinovirus respiratory infection from which he was rapidly resuscitated. He developed an acute kidney injury requiring supportive treatment and on day 3 of his illness was noted to have developed severe rhabdomyolysis (creatine kinase level 132 040 U/L (normal <320 U/L)). He was born from consanguineous parents with homozygous mutations in the leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor. He had skeletal dysplasia with metabolic bone disease and episodes of hyperthermia with lactic acidosis...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435578/comparative-effectiveness-of-levetiracetam-vs-phenobarbital-for-infantile-epilepsy
#20
Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas, Jason Coryell, Joseph E Sullivan, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, William D Gaillard, Eric H Kossoff, Ignacio Valencia, Kelly G Knupp, Courtney Wusthoff, Cynthia Keator, Nicole Ryan, Tobias Loddenkemper, Catherine J Chu, Edward J Novotny, John Millichap, Anne T Berg
Importance: More than half of infants with new-onset epilepsy have electroencephalographic and clinical features that do not conform to known electroclinical syndromes (ie, nonsyndromic epilepsy). Levetiracetam and phenobarbital are the most commonly prescribed medications for epilepsy in infants, but their comparative effectiveness is unknown. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of levetiracetam vs phenobarbital for nonsyndromic infantile epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Early Life Epilepsy Study-a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study conducted from March 1, 2012, to April 30, 2015, in 17 US medical centers-enrolled infants with nonsyndromic epilepsy and a first afebrile seizure between 1 month and 1 year of age...
April 1, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
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