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Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Vijayan Pillai, Ya-Chien Wang, Arati Maleku
Globally, millions of people are affected by war and conflicts every year. However, women have increasingly suffered the greatest harm by war in more different ways than men. We conceptualize a reproductive rights approach toward examining the effects of war on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Given the rising concerns of exclusion to adequately address women's rights, sexual and gender-based violence, and post-conflict accountability, we specifically focus on the limitations of the Minimum Initial Service Package, a UN-sponsored reproductive health service program in conflict zones while offering a broad reproductive rights-based conceptual lens for examining reproductive health care services in war-torn areas...
October 18, 2016: Social Work in Health Care
John G Grundy, Aram Keyvani Chahi
Previous research has shown that bilingual children outperform their monolingual peers on a wide variety of tasks measuring executive functions (EF). However, recent failures to replicate this finding have cast doubt on the idea that the bilingual experience leads to domain-general cognitive benefits. The present study explored the role of disengagement of attention as an explanation for why some studies fail to produce this result. Eighty children (40 monolingual, 40 bilingual) who were 7 years old performed a task-switching experiment...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
Abla Mehio Sibai, Anthony Rizk, Hiam Chemaitelly
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines differentials in self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (aged 60+ years) across three impoverished and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in post-conflict Lebanon and assesses whether variations are explained by social and economic factors. DESIGN: Data were drawn from the Older Adult Component (n = 740) of the Urban Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 in a formal community (Nabaa), an informal settlement (Hey El-Sellom), and a refugee camp for Palestinians (Burj El-Barajneh) in Beirut, Lebanon...
October 15, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Niro Kandasamy, Karen Soldatic, Dinesha Samararatne
This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities...
October 13, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
D M Silove, A K Tay, Z Steel, N Tam, Z Soares, C Soares, N Dos Reis, A Alves, S Rees
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. METHOD: We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. RESULTS: Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Jennifer J Palmer, Katerini T Storeng
This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Diane Richardson, Nina Laurie, Meena Poudel, Janet Townsend
This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having - or not having - citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the 'new' Nepal 'post-conflict'. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women...
May 2016: Sociological Review
Katherine Kentoffio, John D Kraemer, Thomas Griffiths, Avi Kenny, Rajesh Panjabi, G Andrew Sechler, Stephen Selinsky, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing global emphasis on universal healthcare, access to basic primary care for remote populations in post-conflict countries remains a challenge. To better understand health sector recovery in post-conflict Liberia, this paper seeks to evaluate changes in utilization of health services among rural populations across a 5-year time span. METHODS: We assessed trends in healthcare utilization among the national rural population using the Liberian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from 2007 and 2013...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Rose Kisa, Florence Baingana, Rehema Kajungu, Patrick O Mangen, Mangesh Angdembe, Wilfred Gwaikolo, Janice Cooper
BACKGROUND: Access to mental health care services for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders remains low especially in post-conflict, low and middle income countries. Persons with mental health conditions and epilepsy take many different paths when they access formal and informal care for their conditions. This study conducted across three countries sought to provide preliminary data to inform program development on access to care. It thus sought to assess the different pathways persons with severe mental disorders and epilepsy take when accessing care...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, B Liddell, A Nickerson, N Tam, D Silove
AIMS: Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Sarah Rudrum, Helen Brown, John L Oliffe
The provision of gifts to new mothers in Uganda is laden with significance that varies by the social location of the giver and receiver and the context and conditions under which the gift is made available. Here, we examine the act of gift giving and receiving within a Ugandan maternity care setting, describing the connections between these material objects and social relations. A study investigating the social organisation of maternity care in post-conflict northern Uganda found that gift-giving to new mothers functioned to create a material and discursive context wherein women's desire to access these goods was leveraged to create an incentive to attend formal maternity care during pregnancy and for delivery...
August 23, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Elizabeth J Levey, Claire E Oppenheim, Brittany C L Lange, Naomi S Plasky, Benjamin L Harris, G Gondah Lekpeh, Isaac Kekulah, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
BACKGROUND: In 2008, 5 years after the Liberian civil war ended, there were an estimated 340,000 orphans in Liberia, 18 % of the total child population of the country. Given that children make up half the population and that these children experienced significant trauma and loss both through direct exposure to the war and then to the Ebola epidemic, and indirectly as a result of the trauma experienced by their parents, the recovery of these children is essential to the recovery of the nation as a whole...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
Theresa S Betancourt, Robert T Brennan, Patrick Vinck, Tyler J VanderWeele, Dayo Spencer-Walters, Joshua Jeong, Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Phuong Pham
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to potential relationships between mental health, trauma, and personal exposures to Ebola virus disease (EVD) and health behaviors in post-conflict West Africa. We tested a conceptual model linking mental health and trauma to EVD risk behaviors and EVD prevention behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using survey data from a representative sample in the Western Urban and Western Rural districts of Sierra Leone, this study examines associations between war exposures, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and personal EVD exposure (e...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
Joyce F Benenson, Richard W Wrangham
The nature of ancestral human social structure and the circumstances in which men or women tend to be more cooperative are subjects of intense debate. The male warrior hypothesis proposes that success in intergroup contests has been vital in human evolution and that men therefore must engage in maximally effective intragroup cooperation [1-3]. Post-conflict affiliation between opponents is further proposed to facilitate future cooperation [4], which has been demonstrated in non-human primates [5] and humans [6]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Amanda J Nguyen, Concetta Feo, Kyuri Idrisov, Giovanni Pintaldi, Annick Lenglet, Zalina Tsatsaeva, Paul Bolton, Judith Bass
BACKGROUND: A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. METHODS: Data were collected in July 2014...
2016: Conflict and Health
Lemma Fekadu, Joseph Okeibunor, Peter Nsubuga, Jean Marie Kipela, Pascal Mkanda, Richard Mihigo
BACKGROUND: Growing conflict and insecurity played a major role in precipitating polio outbreaks in the Horn of Africa and the Middle East. In Angola, the early post-conflict situation was characterized by the presence of many inaccessible zones and districts due to insecurity and poor infrastructure. Partnership with the Angolan Army health service (AAHS) was one of the innovative strategies that the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) introduced into the country to support the polio vaccination campaigns in insecure and hard to reach zones...
June 25, 2016: Vaccine
Verena Ertl, Regina Saile, Frank Neuner, Claudia Catani
BACKGROUND: It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, childhood maltreatment and problems related to alcohol use...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Jean Baptiste Kakoma
The area of Human Resources for Health (HRH) is the most critical challenge for the achievement of health related development goals in countries with limited resources. This is even exacerbated in a post conflict environment like Rwanda. The aim of this commentary is to report and share the genesis and outcomes of an exciting experience about training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health as well as setting - up of a research culture for the last nine years (2006 - 2014) in Rwanda. Many initiatives have been taken and concerned among others training of qualified health workers in medicine and public health...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Sharif A Ismail, Aula Abbara, Simon M Collin, Miriam Orcutt, Adam P Coutts, Wasim Maziak, Zaher Sahloul, Osman Dar, Tumena Corrah, Fouad M Fouad
OBJECTIVES: To describe trends in major communicable diseases in Syria during the ongoing conflict, and the challenges to communicable disease surveillance and control in the context of dynamic, large-scale population displacement, unplanned mass gatherings, and disruption to critical infrastructure. METHODS: A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature from 2005 to 2015 was performed, augmented by secondary analysis of monitoring data from two disease early warning systems currently operational in Syria, focusing mainly on three diseases: tuberculosis (TB), measles, and polio...
June 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
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