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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903869/within-group-behavioural-consequences-of-between-group-conflict-a-prospective-review
#1
REVIEW
Andrew N Radford, Bonaventura Majolo, Filippo Aureli
Conflict is rife in group-living species and exerts a powerful selective force. Group members face a variety of threats from extra-group conspecifics, from individuals looking for reproductive opportunities to rival groups seeking resources. Theory predicts that such between-group conflict should influence within-group behaviour. However, compared with the extensive literature on the consequences of within-group conflict, relatively little research has considered the behavioural impacts of between-group conflict...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871229/-the-cango-lyec-project-healing-the-elephant-hiv-related-vulnerabilities-of-post-conflict-affected-populations-aged-13-49-years-living-in-three-mid-northern-uganda-districts
#2
Samuel S Malamba, Herbert Muyinda, Patricia M Spittal, John P Ekwaru, Noah Kiwanuka, Martin D Ogwang, Patrick Odong, Paul K Kitandwe, Achilles Katamba, Kate Jongbloed, Nelson K Sewankambo, Eugene Kinyanda, Alden Blair, Martin T Schechter
BACKGROUND: The protracted war between the Government of Uganda and the Lord's Resistance Army in Northern Uganda (1996-2006) resulted in widespread atrocities, destruction of health infrastructure and services, weakening the social and economic fabric of the affected populations, internal displacement and death. Despite grave concerns that increased spread of HIV/AIDS may be devastating to post conflict Northern Uganda, empirical epidemiological data describing the legacy of the war on HIV infection are scarce...
November 21, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842739/-psychiatry-and-biopolitics-in-context-of-war-understanding-conflict-to-build-the-post-conflict
#3
Paula Ariadna Corzo Pérez
The purpose of this document is to present a review on biopolitics and psychiatry in the context of war, considering that this is where the greatest number of altered and deviant behaviours is generated. Along this line, as it is not about the psychopathology, but of its behaviour, of the approaches of Michel Foucault as regards the relationships of power, as such that it allows introducing the reader to a new perspective of thinking and understanding of the elements that have given rise to the maintenance of violent behaviour patterns and of the war itself...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842734/-mental-health-and-post-conflict
#4
EDITORIAL
Carlos Alberto Palacio Acosta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804900/resource-activation-for-treating-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-co-morbid-symptoms-and-impaired-functioning-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-cambodia
#5
C Steinert, P J Bumke, R L Hollekamp, A Larisch, F Leichsenring, H Mattheß, S Sek, U Sodemann, M Stingl, T Ret, H Vojtová, W Wöller, J Kruse
BACKGROUND: Mental health morbidity in post-conflict settings is high. Nevertheless, randomized controlled trials of psychotherapy on site are rare. Our aim was to integrate rigorous research procedures into a humanitarian programme and test the efficacy of resource activation (ROTATE) in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), co-morbid symptoms and impaired functioning in Cambodia. METHOD: A total of 86 out-patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to five sessions of ROTATE (n = 53) or a 5-week waiting-list control (WLC) condition (n = 33)...
November 2, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768274/products-of-in-situ-corrosion-of-depleted-uranium-ammunition-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina-soils
#6
Yuheng Wang, Konstantin von Gunten, Barbora Bartova, Nicolas Meisser, Markus Astner, Mario Burger, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani
Hundreds of tons of depleted uranium (DU) ammunition were used in previous armed conflicts in Iraq, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia/Kosovo. The majority (>90%) of DU penetrators miss their target and, if left in the environment, corrode in these post-conflict zones. Thus, the best way to understand the fate of bulk DU material in the environment is to characterize the corrosion products of intact DU penetrators under field conditions for extended periods of time. However, such studies are scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we characterized corrosion products formed from two intact DU penetrators that remained in soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina for over seven years...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754779/women-war-and-reproductive-health-in-developing-countries
#7
Vijayan Pillai, Ya-Chien Wang, Arati Maleku
Globally, millions of people are affected by war and conflicts every year. However, women have increasingly suffered the greatest harm by war in more different ways than men. We conceptualize a reproductive rights approach toward examining the effects of war on women's reproductive health in developing countries. Given the rising concerns of exclusion to adequately address women's rights, sexual and gender-based violence, and post-conflict accountability, we specifically focus on the limitations of the Minimum Initial Service Package, a UN-sponsored reproductive health service program in conflict zones while offering a broad reproductive rights-based conceptual lens for examining reproductive health care services in war-torn areas...
October 18, 2016: Social Work in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748005/post-conflict-slowing-effects-in-monolingual-and-bilingual-children
#8
John G Grundy, Aram Keyvani Chahi
Previous research has shown that bilingual children outperform their monolingual peers on a wide variety of tasks measuring executive functions (EF). However, recent failures to replicate this finding have cast doubt on the idea that the bilingual experience leads to domain-general cognitive benefits. The present study explored the role of disengagement of attention as an explanation for why some studies fail to produce this result. Eighty children (40 monolingual, 40 bilingual) who were 7 years old performed a task-switching experiment...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744730/self-rated-health-disparities-among-disadvantaged-older-adults-in-ethnically-diverse-urban-neighborhoods-in-a-middle-eastern-country
#9
Abla Mehio Sibai, Anthony Rizk, Hiam Chemaitelly
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines differentials in self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (aged 60+ years) across three impoverished and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in post-conflict Lebanon and assesses whether variations are explained by social and economic factors. DESIGN: Data were drawn from the Older Adult Component (n = 740) of the Urban Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2003 in a formal community (Nabaa), an informal settlement (Hey El-Sellom), and a refugee camp for Palestinians (Burj El-Barajneh) in Beirut, Lebanon...
October 15, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734749/peace-justice-and-disabled-women-s-advocacy-tamil-women-with-disabilities-in-rural-post-conflict-sri-lanka
#10
Niro Kandasamy, Karen Soldatic, Dinesha Samararatne
This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities...
October 13, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682000/symptoms-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-severe-psychological-distress-explosive-anger-and-grief-amongst-partners-of-survivors-of-high-levels-of-trauma-in-post-conflict-timor-leste
#11
D M Silove, A K Tay, Z Steel, N Tam, Z Soares, C Soares, N Dos Reis, A Alves, S Rees
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mental health of partners of survivors of high levels of trauma in post-conflict countries. METHOD: We studied 677 spouse dyads (n = 1354) drawn from a community survey (response 82.4%) in post-conflict Timor-Leste. We used culturally adapted measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, explosive anger and grief. RESULTS: Latent class analysis identified three classes of couples: class 1, comprising women with higher trauma events (TEs), men with intermediate TEs (19%); class 2, including men with higher TEs, women with lower TEs (23%); and class 3, comprising couples in which men and women had lower TE exposure (58%) (the reference group)...
September 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643843/building-the-nation-s-body-the-contested-role-of-abortion-and-family-planning-in-post-war-south-sudan
#12
Jennifer J Palmer, Katerini T Storeng
This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642193/women-and-citizenship-post-trafficking-the-case-of-nepal
#13
Diane Richardson, Nina Laurie, Meena Poudel, Janet Townsend
This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having - or not having - citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the 'new' Nepal 'post-conflict'. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women...
May 2016: Sociological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604708/charting-health-system-reconstruction-in-post-war-liberia-a-comparison-of-rural-vs-remote-healthcare-utilization
#14
Katherine Kentoffio, John D Kraemer, Thomas Griffiths, Avi Kenny, Rajesh Panjabi, G Andrew Sechler, Stephen Selinsky, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing global emphasis on universal healthcare, access to basic primary care for remote populations in post-conflict countries remains a challenge. To better understand health sector recovery in post-conflict Liberia, this paper seeks to evaluate changes in utilization of health services among rural populations across a 5-year time span. METHODS: We assessed trends in healthcare utilization among the national rural population using the Liberian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) from 2007 and 2013...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577714/pathways-and-access-to-mental-health-care-services-by-persons-living-with-severe-mental-disorders-and-epilepsy-in-uganda-liberia-and-nepal-a-qualitative-study
#15
Rose Kisa, Florence Baingana, Rehema Kajungu, Patrick O Mangen, Mangesh Angdembe, Wilfred Gwaikolo, Janice Cooper
BACKGROUND: Access to mental health care services for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders remains low especially in post-conflict, low and middle income countries. Persons with mental health conditions and epilepsy take many different paths when they access formal and informal care for their conditions. This study conducted across three countries sought to provide preliminary data to inform program development on access to care. It thus sought to assess the different pathways persons with severe mental disorders and epilepsy take when accessing care...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573421/the-role-of-grief-symptoms-and-a-sense-of-injustice-in-the-pathways-to-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-in-post-conflict-timor-leste
#16
A K Tay, S Rees, Z Steel, B Liddell, A Nickerson, N Tam, D Silove
AIMS: Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82...
August 30, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554163/understanding-the-meaning-and-role-of-gifts-given-to-ugandan-mothers-in-maternity-care-settings-the-help-they-give-when-they-ve-seen-how-different-you-are
#17
Sarah Rudrum, Helen Brown, John L Oliffe
The provision of gifts to new mothers in Uganda is laden with significance that varies by the social location of the giver and receiver and the context and conditions under which the gift is made available. Here, we examine the act of gift giving and receiving within a Ugandan maternity care setting, describing the connections between these material objects and social relations. A study investigating the social organisation of maternity care in post-conflict northern Uganda found that gift-giving to new mothers functioned to create a material and discursive context wherein women's desire to access these goods was leveraged to create an incentive to attend formal maternity care during pregnancy and for delivery...
August 23, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525038/a-qualitative-analysis-of-factors-impacting-resilience-among-youth-in-post-conflict-liberia
#18
Elizabeth J Levey, Claire E Oppenheim, Brittany C L Lange, Naomi S Plasky, Benjamin L Harris, G Gondah Lekpeh, Isaac Kekulah, David C Henderson, Christina P C Borba
BACKGROUND: In 2008, 5 years after the Liberian civil war ended, there were an estimated 340,000 orphans in Liberia, 18 % of the total child population of the country. Given that children make up half the population and that these children experienced significant trauma and loss both through direct exposure to the war and then to the Ebola epidemic, and indirectly as a result of the trauma experienced by their parents, the recovery of these children is essential to the recovery of the nation as a whole...
2016: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505186/associations-between-mental-health-and-ebola-related-health-behaviors-a-regionally-representative-cross-sectional-survey-in-post-conflict-sierra-leone
#19
Theresa S Betancourt, Robert T Brennan, Patrick Vinck, Tyler J VanderWeele, Dayo Spencer-Walters, Joshua Jeong, Adeyinka M Akinsulure-Smith, Phuong Pham
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to potential relationships between mental health, trauma, and personal exposures to Ebola virus disease (EVD) and health behaviors in post-conflict West Africa. We tested a conceptual model linking mental health and trauma to EVD risk behaviors and EVD prevention behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using survey data from a representative sample in the Western Urban and Western Rural districts of Sierra Leone, this study examines associations between war exposures, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, anxiety, and personal EVD exposure (e...
August 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498561/cross-cultural-sex-differences-in-post-conflict-affiliation-following-sports-matches
#20
Joyce F Benenson, Richard W Wrangham
The nature of ancestral human social structure and the circumstances in which men or women tend to be more cooperative are subjects of intense debate. The male warrior hypothesis proposes that success in intergroup contests has been vital in human evolution and that men therefore must engage in maximally effective intragroup cooperation [1-3]. Post-conflict affiliation between opponents is further proposed to facilitate future cooperation [4], which has been demonstrated in non-human primates [5] and humans [6]...
August 22, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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