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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149313/how-do-health-workers-experience-and-cope-with-shocks-learning-from-four-fragile-and-conflict-affected-health-systems-in-uganda-sierra-leone-zimbabwe-and-cambodia
#1
Sophie Witter, Haja Wurie, Pamela Chandiwana, Justine Namakula, Sovannarith So, Alvaro Alonso-Garbayo, Freddie Ssengooba, Joanna Raven
This article is grounded in a research programme which set out to understand how to rebuild health systems post-conflict. Four countries were studied-Uganda, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe and Cambodia-which were at different distances from conflict and crisis, as well as having unique conflict stories. During the research process, the Ebola epidemic broke out in West Africa. Zimbabwe has continued to face a profound economic crisis. Within our research on health worker incentives, we captured insights from 128 life histories and in-depth interviews with a variety of staff that had remained in service...
November 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120291/how-they-see-it-young-women-s-views-on-early-marriage-in-a-post-conflict-setting
#2
Sonya Em Knox
Current understandings of early marriage in conflict and post-conflict settings are incomplete and under-researched, and do not sufficiently take into consideration the views and experiences of adolescent girls. While much of the literature, development reports and mainstream media emphasise the poverty, health risks and lack of agency of young women married early, they seldom provide these teenagers an open platform from which to speak. In 2007, a Palestinian refugee camp in North Lebanon was destroyed and its residents forced to flee...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119266/civilians-in-world-war-ii-and-dsm-iv-mental-disorders-results-from-the-world-mental-health-survey-initiative
#3
Rochelle Frounfelker, Stephen E Gilman, Theresa S Betancourt, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, Giovanni de Girolamo, Semyon Gluzman, Oye Gureje, Elie G Karam, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Yutaka Ono, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Daniela G Popovici, Margreet Ten Have, Ronald C Kessler
PURPOSE: Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. METHODS: Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders...
November 8, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108020/post-conflict-opponent-affiliation-reduces-victim-re-aggression-in-a-family-group-of-captive-arctic-wolves-canis-lupus-arctos
#4
Martina Lazzaroni, Sarah Marshall-Pescini, Simona Cafazzo
Post-conflict affiliative interactions have been widely investigated in primates but not extensively in other species. Using the Post Conflict-Matched Control (PC-MC) comparison method, this study investigated the patterns of post-conflict opponent affiliation (POA) of a captive family group of 19 arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos), investigating the correlation with various factors. We found that POAs occurred mainly in the non-feeding context and more often when the victim was dominant and the aggressor subordinate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082000/leaving-no-one-behind-lessons-on-rebuilding-health-systems-in-conflict-and-crisis-affected-states
#5
REVIEW
Tim Martineau, Barbara McPake, Sally Theobald, Joanna Raven, Tim Ensor, Suzanne Fustukian, Freddie Ssengooba, Yotamu Chirwa, Sreytouch Vong, Haja Wurie, Nick Hooton, Sophie Witter
Conflict and fragility are increasing in many areas of the world. This context has been referred to as the 'new normal' and affects a billion people. Fragile and conflict-affected states have the worst health indicators and the weakest health systems. This presents a major challenge to achieving universal health coverage. The evidence base for strengthening health systems in these contexts is very weak and hampered by limited research capacity, challenges relating to insecurity and apparent low prioritisation of this area of research by funders...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017360/cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-and-mental-health-problems-in-war-affected-youth-in-northern-uganda-findings-from-the-ways-study
#6
Kennedy Amone-P'Olak, Vavani Boitumelo, Diana Shamisai Mberengwa
BACKGROUND: Cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS) have been shown to moderate the influence of War Experiences (WE) on mental health problems. AIMS: This study assessed the influence of WE and use of specific CERS on mental health problems among war-affected youth in Northern Uganda. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-nine participants in an ongoing war-affected youth study (WAYS) were assessed by locally developed measures. CERS were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929872/building-worldly-insights
#7
Michael Tremblay
This article offers health leaders in Canada an opportunity to build a more worldly understanding of healthcare challenges. The focus is on post-conflict countries and island/small countries. Small and island countries often depend on other countries for their workforce and for specialist healthcare services. Conflict usually undermines if it doesn't destroy a country's healthcare system. Small and island countries offer opportunities for the majority of Canadian provinces and territories to develop new approaches from novel comparator countries, with which they may have more in common...
July 2017: Healthcare Management Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895128/transitional-justice-as-social-control-political-transitions-human-rights-norms-and-the-reclassification-of-the-past
#8
Ron Dudai
This article offers an interpretation of transitional justice policies - the efforts of post-conflict and post-dictatorship societies to address the legacy of past abuses - as a form of social control. While transitional justice is commonly conceptualized as responding to a core problem of impunity, this article argues that such formulation is too narrow and leads to lack of coherence in the analysis of the diverse array of transitional mechanisms, which include among others trials, truth commissions, reparations for victims and apologies...
September 12, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889861/forensic-science-and-the-right-to-access-to-justice-testing-the-efficacy-of-self-examination-intimate-dna-swabs-to-enhance-victim-centred-responses-to-sexual-violence-in-low-resource-environments
#9
Lisa L Smith, Jon H Wetton, Gurdeep K M Lall, Heather D Flowe, Mark A Jobling
In developed countries, DNA profiling routinely forms part of the forensic strategy in the investigation of sexual violence. Medical examinations provide opportunities for recovering DNA evidence from intimate swabs, which can be particularly probative in cases where the identity of the perpetrator is unknown and proof of intercourse between two people is required. In low-resource environments, such as developing countries, remote geographic locations, conflict (and post-conflict) affected regions and displaced communities where access to medical examinations is lacking, DNA evidence is not available to support prosecutions and perpetrators are rarely identified and held accountable for crimes of sexual violence...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870228/changes-in-catastrophic-health-expenditure-in-post-conflict-sierra-leone-an-oaxaca-blinder-decomposition-analysis
#10
Ijeoma Edoka, Barbara McPake, Tim Ensor, Rogers Amara, Joseph Edem-Hotah
BACKGROUND: At the end of the eleven-year conflict in Sierra Leone, a wide range of policies were implemented to address both demand- and supply-side constraints within the healthcare system, which had collapsed during the conflict. This study examines the extent to which households' exposure to financial risks associated with seeking healthcare evolved in post-conflict Sierra Leone. METHOD: This study uses the 2003 and 2011 cross-sections of the Sierra Leone Integrated Household Survey to examine changes in catastrophic health expenditure between 2003 and 2011...
September 4, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866762/risk-factors-for-and-consequences-of-substance-use-in-post-conflict-liberia-a-qualitative-study
#11
Margaret L Prust, Leslie Curry, Tamora A Callands, Janeen Drakes, Kristen McLean, Benjamin Harris, Nathan B Hansen
Substance use has a significant impact on post-conflict populations; however, little is known about this critical issue in Liberia. This study examined the current risk factors for and consequences of substance use in Monrovia, Liberia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 substance users and 21 key informants. Findings support that Liberia's civil war played a role in increasing substance use, but also that additional risk factors continue to generate substance use today. This study provides insights into the roles of civil war and additional risk factors for substance use in Liberia...
September 2, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858697/post-conflict-struggles-as-networks-of-problems-a-network-analysis-of-trauma-daily-stressors-and-psychological-distress-among-sri-lankan-war-survivors
#12
Nuwan Jayawickreme, Candace Mootoo, Christine Fountain, Andrew Rasmussen, Eranda Jayawickreme, Rebecca F Bertuccio
A growing body of literature indicates that the mental distress experienced by survivors of war is a function of both experienced trauma and stressful life events. However, the majority of these studies are limited in that they 1) employ models of psychological distress that emphasize underlying latent constructs and do not allow researchers to examine the unique associations between particular symptoms and various stressors; and 2) use one or more measures that were not developed for that particular context and thus may exclude key traumas, stressful life events and symptoms of psychopathology...
October 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854708/rapidly-increasing-trend-of-recorded-alcohol-consumption-since-the-end-of-the-armed-conflict-in-sri-lanka
#13
Manjula D Nugawela, Sarah Lewis, Lisa Szatkowski, Tessa Langley
Aim: To evaluate temporal changes in recorded alcohol consumption in Sri Lanka during and after the armed conflict 1998-2013. Methods: District level alcohol sales, and mid-year population data for the whole study period (1998-2013) were consistently available from the Department of Excise and the Department of Census and Statistics for 18 of 25 districts. These data were used to estimate the recorded per capita consumption for the areas that were not directly exposed to the armed conflict...
September 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837886/recovery-and-identification-of-human-remains-in-post-conflict-environments-a-comparative-study-of-the-humanitarian-forensic-programs-in-cyprus-and-kosovo
#14
Maria Mikellide
This study follows the humanitarian forensic programs in Cyprus and Kosovo over a ten-year period with an emphasis on the role of local capacity building. It begins by providing an in-depth historical account of forensic activities, followed by a comparison of the rate of excavations, exhumations and identifications. Through this analysis, a repeated pattern emerges whereby forensic activities in Kosovo start with a surge in values, which drop drastically in the first few years of operations, followed by a steadily declining productivity curve...
October 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819207/long-term-consistency-in-chimpanzee-consolation-behaviour-reflects-empathetic-personalities
#15
Christine E Webb, Teresa Romero, Becca Franks, Frans B M de Waal
In contrast to a wealth of human studies, little is known about the ontogeny and consistency of empathy-related capacities in other species. Consolation-post-conflict affiliation from uninvolved bystanders to distressed others-is a suggested marker of empathetic concern in non-human animals. Using longitudinal data comprising nearly a decade of observations on over 3000 conflict interactions in 44 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we provide evidence for relatively stable individual differences in consolation behaviour...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807062/neuropsychiatric-characteristics-of-antiterrorist-operation-combatants-in-the-donbass-ukraine
#16
Konstantin N Loganovsky, Natalia A Zdanevich, Marina V Gresko, Donatella Marazziti, Tatiana K Loganovskaja
OBJECTIVE: The present paper aimed to explore the neuropsychiatric characteristics of the antiterrorism (ATO) combatants in the Donets Basin (Donbass) and to propose therapeutic strategies for managing their mental healthcare. METHODS: A total of 54 ATO combatants were included in our study and compared with four groups of subjects exposed to other emergencies, including the Chernobyl disaster and the war in Afghanistan. The neuropsychiatric features were assessed through psychopathological assessments, neurological examinations, and quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG)...
August 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783508/thoughts-after-marital-conflict-and-punch-biopsy-wounds-age-graded-pathways-to-healing
#17
Stephanie J Wilson, Rebecca Andridge, Juan Peng, Brittney E Bailey, William B Malarkey, Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser
Thoughts and emotions following marital conflict have received little attention but almost certainly contribute to marriage's long-term health effects. Consistent with emotion theories of aging, we expected the effects of post-conflict thoughts on important neuroendocrine and immune outcomes, cortisol levels and full-thickness wound healing, to differ by age. An age-diverse sample of married couples received a punch biopsy wound and discussed a marital problem, then privately recorded their thoughts and rated their mood...
July 29, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750617/health-system-preparedness-for-integration-of-mental-health-services-in-rural-liberia
#18
Wilfred S Gwaikolo, Brandon A Kohrt, Janice L Cooper
BACKGROUND: There are increasing efforts and attention focused on the delivery of mental health services in primary care in low resource settings (e.g., mental health Gap Action Programme, mhGAP). However, less attention is devoted to systematic approaches that identify and address barriers to the development and uptake of mental health services within primary care in low-resource settings. Our objective was to prepare for optimal uptake by identifying barriers in rural Liberia. The country's need for mental health services is compounded by a 14-year history of political violence and the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak in history...
July 27, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722552/evaluation-of-regional-project-to-strengthen-national-health-research-systems-in-four-countries-in-west-africa-lessons-learned
#19
Issiaka Sombié, Jude Aidam, Gabriela Montorzi
BACKGROUND: Since the Commission on Health Research for Development (COHRED) published its flagship report, more attention has been focused on strengthening national health research systems (NHRS). This paper evaluates the contribution of a regional project that used a participatory approach to strengthen NHRS in four post-conflict West African countries - Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. METHODS: The data from the situation analysis conducted at the start of the project was compared to data from the project's final evaluation, using a hybrid conceptual framework built around four key areas identified through the analysis of existing frameworks...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637228/application-of-social-network-analysis-in-the-assessment-of-organization-infrastructure-for-service-delivery-a-three-district-case-study-from-post-conflict-northern-uganda
#20
Freddie Ssengooba, Vincent Kawooya, Justine Namakula, Suzanne Fustukian
In post-conflict settings, service coverage indices are unlikely to be sustained if health systems are built on weak and unstable inter-organization networks-here referred to as infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-organization infrastructure that supports the provision of selected health services in the reconstruction phase after conflict in northern Uganda. Applied social network analysis was used to establish the structure, size and function among organizations supporting the provision of (1) HIV treatment, (2) maternal delivery services and (3) workforce strengthening...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
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