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Fanny E Hartmann, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Fantin Carpentier, Tatiana Giraud
Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M...
May 2, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, Eric C Rouchka, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host Silene latifolia serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores...
February 2, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae , a parasite on Silene latifolia , is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hiroki Kawamoto, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
When Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects a male Silene latifolia, M. lychnidis-dioicae smut spores develop in the pollen sac instead of pollen. In contrast, when M. lychnidis-dioicae infects a female S. latifolia, the female flowers become male-like, promoting stamen formation. However, it is unclear when and how M. lychnidis-dioicae invades the anther. It is important to investigate not only whether hyphae exist when the apical meristem tissue differentiates into flowers and anthers, but also whether hyphae exist when stamen filaments form...
2017: PloS One
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
April 2017: Molecular Ecology
Felix Horns, Elsa Petit, Michael E Hood
Transposable elements (TEs) are selfish, autonomously replicating DNA sequences that constitute a major component of eukaryotic genomes and contribute to genome evolution through their movement and amplification. Many fungal genomes, including the anther-smut fungi in the basidiomycete genus Microbotryum, have genome defense mechanisms, such as repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), which hypermutate repetitive DNA and limit TE activity. Little is known about how hypermutation affects the tempo of TE activity and their sequence evolution...
February 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
Hiroki Kawamoto, Kaori Yamanaka, Ayako Koizumi, Aiko Hirata, Shigeyuki Kawano
Mechanisms of suppression of pistil primordia in male flowers and of stamen primordia in female flowers differ in diclinous plants. In this study, we investigated how cell death and cell cycle arrest are related to flower organ formation in Silene latifolia. Using in situ hybridization and a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, we detected both cell cycle arrest and cell death in suppressed stamens of female flowers and suppressed pistils of male flowers in S. latifolia...
February 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alodie Snirc, Hélène Badouin, Jérome Gouzy, Sophie Siguenza, Diane Esquerre, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
BACKGROUND: Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i...
2016: PloS One
Joey B Tanney, David R McMullin, Blake D Green, J David Miller, Keith A Seifert
The genus Diaporthe comprises close to 800 species, with around 2000 names attributed to it and its asexual morphs previously recognized in Phomopsis. Diaporthe species are common plant associates, including saprotrophs, pathogens, and endophytes affiliated with a diverse range of hosts worldwide. In this study, an unknown Diaporthe sp. was frequently isolated as an endophyte from healthy Picea mariana and Picea rubens needles in the Acadian forest of Eastern Canada. Morphological observations and the application of the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition concept using four unlinked loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), DNA-lyase (Apn2), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and beta-tubulin (TUB)) support the distinctiveness of this species, described here as Diaporthe maritima...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
Alice Feurtey, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E Hood, Alodie Snirc, Amandine Cornille, Lisa Rosenthal, Tatiana Giraud
Although congruence between host and pathogen phylogenies has been extensively investigated, the congruence between host and pathogen genetic structures at the within-species level has received little attention. Using an unprecedented and comprehensive collection of associated plant-pathogen samples, we investigated the degree of congruence between the genetic structures across Europe of two evolutionary and ecological model organisms, the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host plant Silene latifolia...
November 2016: New Phytologist
Su San Toh, David S Treves, Michelle T Barati, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is a member of a species complex infecting host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. It is used as a model system in many areas of research, but attempts to make this organism tractable for reverse genetic approaches have not been fruitful. Here, we exploited the recently obtained genome sequence and transcriptome analysis to inform our design of constructs for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques currently available for other fungi. Reproducible transformation was demonstrated at the genomic, transcriptional and functional levels...
October 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Gabriela Aguileta, Helene Badouin, Michael E Hood, Anders P Møller, Stephanie Le Prieur, Alodie Snirc, Sophie Siguenza, Timothy A Mousseau, Jacqui A Shykoff, Christina A Cuomo, Tatiana Giraud
Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0...
July 2016: Molecular Ecology
Su San Toh, Michael H Perlin
The smut fungi form a large, diverse, and nonmonophyletic group of plant pathogens that have long served as both important pests of human agriculture and, also, as fertile organisms of scientific investigation. As modern techniques of molecular genetic analysis became available, many previously studied species that proved refractive to these techniques fell by the wayside and were neglected. Now, as the advent of rapid and affordable next-generation sequencing provides genomic and transcriptomic resources for even these "forgotten" fungi, several species are making a comeback and retaking prominent places in phytopathogenic research...
November 2016: Phytopathology
Ravi S Pandey, Rajeev K Azad
Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported...
March 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Britta Bueker, Chris Eberlein, Pierre Gladieux, Angela Schaefer, Alodie Snirc, Dominic J Bennett, Dominik Begerow, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range...
February 2016: Molecular Ecology
Su San Toh, Michael H Perlin
Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S...
September 11, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Michael E Hood, Molly Scott, Mindy Hwang
Linkage of genes determining separate self-incompatibility mechanisms is a general expectation of sexual eukaryotes that helps to resolve conflicts between reproductive assurance and recombination. However, in some organisms, multiple loci are required to be heterozygous in offspring while segregating independently in meiosis. This condition, termed "tetrapolarity" in basidiomycete fungi, originated in the ancestor to that phylum, and there have been multiple reports of subsequent transitions to "bipolarity" (i...
October 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
L Xu, E Petit, M E Hood
Mate recognition is an essential life-cycle stage that exhibits strong conservation in function, whereas diversification of mating signals can contribute directly to the integrity of species boundaries through assortative mating. Fungi are simple models, where compatibility is based on the recognition of pheromone peptides by corresponding receptor proteins, but clear patterns of diversification have not emerged from the species examined, which are few compared with mate signaling studies in plant and animal systems...
January 2016: Heredity
Young-Ran Song, Do-Youn Jeong, Sang-Ho Baik
Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis...
September 2015: Journal of Food Science
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