keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microbotryum

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832131/polymorphic-microsatellite-markers-for-the-tetrapolar-anther-smut-fungus-microbotryum-saponariae-based-on-genome-sequencing
#1
Taiadjana M Fortuna, Alodie Snirc, Hélène Badouin, Jérome Gouzy, Sophie Siguenza, Diane Esquerre, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Jacqui A Shykoff, Tatiana Giraud
BACKGROUND: Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742098/production-of-antifungal-and-antiinsectan-metabolites-by-the-picea-endophyte-diaporthe-maritima-sp-nov
#2
Joey B Tanney, David R McMullin, Blake D Green, J David Miller, Keith A Seifert
The genus Diaporthe comprises close to 800 species, with around 2000 names attributed to it and its asexual morphs previously recognized in Phomopsis. Diaporthe species are common plant associates, including saprotrophs, pathogens, and endophytes affiliated with a diverse range of hosts worldwide. In this study, an unknown Diaporthe sp. was frequently isolated as an endophyte from healthy Picea mariana and Picea rubens needles in the Acadian forest of Eastern Canada. Morphological observations and the application of the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition concept using four unlinked loci (internal transcribed spacer (ITS), DNA-lyase (Apn2), translation elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α), and beta-tubulin (TUB)) support the distinctiveness of this species, described here as Diaporthe maritima...
November 2016: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500396/strong-phylogeographic-co-structure-between-the-anther-smut-fungus-and-its-white-campion-host
#3
Alice Feurtey, Pierre Gladieux, Michael E Hood, Alodie Snirc, Amandine Cornille, Lisa Rosenthal, Tatiana Giraud
Although congruence between host and pathogen phylogenies has been extensively investigated, the congruence between host and pathogen genetic structures at the within-species level has received little attention. Using an unprecedented and comprehensive collection of associated plant-pathogen samples, we investigated the degree of congruence between the genetic structures across Europe of two evolutionary and ecological model organisms, the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host plant Silene latifolia...
November 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27215216/reliable-transformation-system-for-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae-informed-by-genome-and-transcriptome-project
#4
Su San Toh, David S Treves, Michelle T Barati, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is a member of a species complex infecting host plants in the Caryophyllaceae. It is used as a model system in many areas of research, but attempts to make this organism tractable for reverse genetic approaches have not been fruitful. Here, we exploited the recently obtained genome sequence and transcriptome analysis to inform our design of constructs for use in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques currently available for other fungi. Reproducible transformation was demonstrated at the genomic, transcriptional and functional levels...
October 2016: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27136128/lower-prevalence-but-similar-fitness-in-a-parasitic-fungus-at-higher-radiation-levels-near-chernobyl
#5
Gabriela Aguileta, Helene Badouin, Michael E Hood, Anders P Møller, Stephanie Le Prieur, Alodie Snirc, Sophie Siguenza, Timothy A Mousseau, Jacqui A Shykoff, Christina A Cuomo, Tatiana Giraud
Nuclear disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima provide examples of effects of acute ionizing radiation on mutations that can affect the fitness and distribution of species. Here, we investigated the prevalence of Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, a pollinator-transmitted fungal pathogen of plants causing anther-smut disease in Chernobyl, its viability, fertility and karyotype variation, and the accumulation of nonsynonymous mutations in its genome. We collected diseased flowers of Silene latifolia from locations ranging by more than two orders of magnitude in background radiation, from 0...
July 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27111800/resurgence-of-less-studied-smut-fungi-as-models-of-phytopathogenesis-in-the-omics-age
#6
Su San Toh, Michael H Perlin
The smut fungi form a large, diverse, and nonmonophyletic group of plant pathogens that have long served as both important pests of human agriculture and, also, as fertile organisms of scientific investigation. As modern techniques of molecular genetic analysis became available, many previously studied species that proved refractive to these techniques fell by the wayside and were neglected. Now, as the advent of rapid and affordable next-generation sequencing provides genomic and transcriptomic resources for even these "forgotten" fungi, several species are making a comeback and retaking prominent places in phytopathogenic research...
November 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26694866/deciphering-evolutionary-strata-on-plant-sex-chromosomes-and-fungal-mating-type-chromosomes-through-compositional-segmentation
#7
Ravi S Pandey, Rajeev K Azad
Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported...
March 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26671732/distribution-and-population-structure-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-silenes-acaulis-parasitizing-an-arctic-alpine-plant
#8
Britta Bueker, Chris Eberlein, Pierre Gladieux, Angela Schaefer, Alodie Snirc, Dominic J Bennett, Dominik Begerow, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Cold-adapted organisms with current arctic-alpine distributions have persisted during the last glaciation in multiple ice-free refugia, leaving footprints in their population structure that contrast with temperate plants and animals. However, pathogens that live within hosts having arctic-alpine distributions have been little studied. Here, we therefore investigated the geographical range and population structure of a fungus parasitizing an arctic-alpine plant. A total of 1437 herbarium specimens of the plant Silene acaulis were examined, and the anther smut pathogen Microbotryum silenes-acaulis was present throughout the host's geographical range...
February 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26378529/size-does-matter-staging-of-silene-latifolia-floral-buds-for-transcriptome-studies
#9
Su San Toh, Michael H Perlin
Dioecious plants in the Caryophyllaceae family are susceptible to infection by members of the anthericolous smut fungi. In our studies of the Silene latifolia/Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae pathosystem, we were interested in characterizing the plant-pathogen interaction at the molecular level before and during teliosporogenesis. This takes place during floral bud development, and we hoped to capture the interaction by Illumina Next-Gen RNA-Sequencing. Using previous literature that documented the stages of the floral buds for S...
September 11, 2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339889/breaking-linkage-between-mating-compatibility-factors-tetrapolarity-in-microbotryum
#10
Michael E Hood, Molly Scott, Mindy Hwang
Linkage of genes determining separate self-incompatibility mechanisms is a general expectation of sexual eukaryotes that helps to resolve conflicts between reproductive assurance and recombination. However, in some organisms, multiple loci are required to be heterozygous in offspring while segregating independently in meiosis. This condition, termed "tetrapolarity" in basidiomycete fungi, originated in the ancestor to that phylum, and there have been multiple reports of subsequent transitions to "bipolarity" (i...
October 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26306729/variation-in-mate-recognition-pheromones-of-the-fungal-genus-microbotryum
#11
L Xu, E Petit, M E Hood
Mate recognition is an essential life-cycle stage that exhibits strong conservation in function, whereas diversification of mating signals can contribute directly to the integrity of species boundaries through assortative mating. Fungi are simple models, where compatibility is based on the recognition of pheromone peptides by corresponding receptor proteins, but clear patterns of diversification have not emerged from the species examined, which are few compared with mate signaling studies in plant and animal systems...
January 2016: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26302401/monitoring-of-yeast-communities-and-volatile-flavor-changes-during-traditional-korean-soy-sauce-fermentation
#12
Young-Ran Song, Do-Youn Jeong, Sang-Ho Baik
Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis...
September 2015: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26189049/antimicrobial-dihydrobenzofurans-and-xanthenes-from-a-foliar-endophyte-of-pinus-strobus
#13
Susan N Richardson, Tienabe K Nsiama, Allison K Walker, David R McMullin, J David Miller
Foliar fungal endophytes of Pinus strobus (eastern white pine) were collected from different sites across south-eastern New Brunswick, Canada and screened for the production of bioactive metabolites. From one site, two fungal isolates representing a formerly unknown genus and species within the family Massarinaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were resolved by phylogenetic analysis. These isolates produced crude organic extracts that were active against Microbotryum violaceum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae...
September 2015: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076695/sex-and-parasites-genomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-of-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae-the-biotrophic-and-plant-castrating-anther-smut-fungus
#14
Michael H Perlin, Joelle Amselem, Eric Fontanillas, Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, Jonathan Goldberg, Sebastien Duplessis, Bernard Henrissat, Sarah Young, Qiandong Zeng, Gabriela Aguileta, Elsa Petit, Helene Badouin, Jared Andrews, Dominique Razeeq, Toni Gabaldón, Hadi Quesneville, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo
BACKGROUND: The genus Microbotryum includes plant pathogenic fungi afflicting a wide variety of hosts with anther smut disease. Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae infects Silene latifolia and replaces host pollen with fungal spores, exhibiting biotrophy and necrosis associated with altering plant development. RESULTS: We determined the haploid genome sequence for M. lychnidis-dioicae and analyzed whole transcriptome data from plant infections and other stages of the fungal lifecycle, revealing the inventory and expression level of genes that facilitate pathogenic growth...
June 16, 2015: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26044594/chaos-of-rearrangements-in-the-mating-type-chromosomes-of-the-anther-smut-fungus-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#15
Hélène Badouin, Michael E Hood, Jérôme Gouzy, Gabriela Aguileta, Sophie Siguenza, Michael H Perlin, Christina A Cuomo, Cécile Fairhead, Antoine Branca, Tatiana Giraud
Sex chromosomes in plants and animals and fungal mating-type chromosomes often show exceptional genome features, with extensive suppression of homologous recombination and cytological differentiation between members of the diploid chromosome pair. Despite strong interest in the genetics of these chromosomes, their large regions of suppressed recombination often are enriched in transposable elements and therefore can be challenging to assemble. Here we show that the latest improvements of the PacBio sequencing yield assembly of the whole genome of the anther-smut fungus, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (the pathogenic fungus causing anther-smut disease of Silene latifolia), into finished chromosomes or chromosome arms, even for the repeat-rich mating-type chromosomes and centromeres...
August 2015: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25731752/host-resistance-and-pathogen-infectivity-in-host-populations-with-varying-connectivity
#16
Ulla Carlsson-Granér, Peter H Thrall
Theory predicts that hosts and pathogens will evolve higher resistance and aggressiveness in systems where populations are spatially connected than in situations in which populations are isolated and dispersal is more local. In a large cross-inoculation experiment we surveyed patterns of host resistance and pathogen infectivity in anther-smut diseased Viscaria alpina populations from three contrasting areas where populations range from continuous, through patchy but spatially connected to highly isolated demes...
April 2015: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25567990/recent-and-massive-expansion-of-the-mating-type-specific-region-in-the-smut-fungus-microbotryum
#17
Carrie A Whittle, Antonina Votintseva, Kate Ridout, Dmitry A Filatov
The presence of large genomic regions with suppressed recombination (SR) is a key shared property of some sex- and mating-type determining (mat) chromosomes identified to date in animals, plants, and fungi. Why such regions form and how they evolve remain central questions in evolutionary genetics. The smut fungus Microbotryum lychnis-dioicae is a basidiomycete fungus in which dimorphic mat chromosomes have been reported, but the size, age, and evolutionary dynamics of the SR region remains unresolved. To identify the SR region in M...
March 2015: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25534033/degeneration-of-the-nonrecombining-regions-in-the-mating-type-chromosomes-of-the-anther-smut-fungi
#18
Eric Fontanillas, Michael E Hood, Hélène Badouin, Elsa Petit, Valérie Barbe, Jérôme Gouzy, Damien M de Vienne, Gabriela Aguileta, Julie Poulain, Patrick Wincker, Zehua Chen, Su San Toh, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin, Pierre Gladieux, Tatiana Giraud
Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence...
April 2015: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24892951/influence-of-multiple-infection-and-relatedness-on-virulence-disease-dynamics-in-an-experimental-plant-population-and-its-castrating-parasite
#19
Lorenza Buono, Manuela López-Villavicencio, Jacqui A Shykoff, Alodie Snirc, Tatiana Giraud
The level of parasite virulence, i.e., the decrease in host's fitness due to a pathogen, is expected to depend on several parameters, such as the type of the disease (e.g., castrating or host-killing) and the prevalence of multiple infections. Although these parameters have been extensively studied theoretically, few empirical data are available to validate theoretical predictions. Using the anther smut castrating disease on Silene latifolia caused by Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, we studied the dynamics of multiple infections and of different components of virulence (host death, non-recovery and percentage of castrated stems) during the entire lifespan of the host in an experimental population...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24112452/experimental-hybridization-and-backcrossing-reveal-forces-of-reproductive-isolation-in-microbotryum
#20
Britta Büker, Elsa Petit, Dominik Begerow, Michael E Hood
BACKGROUND: Hybridization and reproductive isolation are central to the origin and maintenance of species, and especially for sympatric species, gene flow is often inhibited through barriers that depend upon mating compatibility factors. The anther-smut fungi (genus Microbotryum) serve as models for speciation in the face of sympatry, and previous studies have tested for but not detected assortative mating. In addition, post-mating barriers are indicated by reduced fitness of hybrids, but sources of those barriers (i...
2013: BMC Evolutionary Biology
keyword
keyword
111911
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"