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Blood culture contamination rate

C Dustin Waters, Bryce J Bitton, Annie Torosyan, Kevin P Myers
BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is a serious condition that leads to high morbidity and mortality. Data describing pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine if pharmacist involvement in the management of bacteremia in the emergency department (ED) led to an increase in appropriate treatment of bacteremia as well as improvements in patient outcomes. METHODS: The primary outcome of this retrospective cohort study was the rate of appropriate treatment of bacteremia...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Shun-Ichi Kimura, Ayumi Gomyo, Jin Hayakawa, Yu Akahoshi, Naonori Harada, Tomotaka Ugai, Yusuke Komiya, Kazuaki Kameda, Hidenori Wada, Yuko Ishihara, Koji Kawamura, Kana Sakamoto, Miki Sato, Kiriko Terasako-Saito, Misato Kikuchi, Hideki Nakasone, Junya Kanda, Shinichi Kako, Aki Tanihara, Yoshinobu Kanda
BACKGROUND: We examined the clinical characteristics and predictive factors for mortality in coryneform bacteria bloodstream infection in hematological patients. METHODS: We searched for hematological patients who had positive blood cultures for coryneform bacteria at our center between April 2007 and January 2016. Patients with definite bloodstream infections were included. We started species identification in April 2014. RESULTS: Twenty of twenty-eight cases with a positive blood culture for coryneform bacteria were regarded as definite infections...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Michael S Clemens, Mamie C Stull, Kai W Hata, Thomas A Heafner, J Devin B Watson, Zachary M Arthurs, Brandon W Propper
BACKGROUND: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Dacron are commonly used as arterial conduits in vascular trauma or infection when vein interposition graft may not be available. This study used a previously validated large animal model of polymicrobial infection to assess the patency and infectious resistance of a novel, antibiotic-impregnated graft material compared with PTFE and Dacron. METHODS: Forty-eight animals were placed into five groups for a 21-day survival period...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Jason G Walchok, Ronald G Pirrallo, Douglas Furmanek, Martin Lutz, Colt Shope, Brandi Giles, Greta Gue, Aaron Dix
BACKGROUND: To improve patient outcomes, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented core measures that outline the initial treatment of the septic patient. These measures include initial blood culture collection prior to antibiotics, adequate intravenous fluid resuscitation, and early administration of broad spectrum antibiotics. We sought to determine if Paramedics can initiate the CMS sepsis core measure bundle in the prehospital field reliably. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case series from a 3rd service EMS system model in Greenville, South Carolina between November 17, 2014 and February 20, 2016...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
M Onofrei, M Y Wee, B Parker, N Wee, S Hill
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to inform practice regarding the optimum aseptic technique of drawing up saline for epidural insertion. Our regional practice is to draw up saline from a non-sterile packaged plastic ampoule, therefore introducing the risk of bacterial contamination. Usually, the anaesthetist draws up saline directly from the vial held by an assistant using a needle (needle technique). Alternatively, the saline vial is emptied onto a sterile tray by an assistant and then drawn up by the anaesthetist (tray technique)...
October 8, 2016: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Reyhaneh Alikhani, Mohsen Shahriari, Sina Mobasherizadeh
This study aims to evaluate the effect of the protocol for the preparation of oxygen-moisturizing chamber on the count of its bacteria.This study is a double- group clinical trial before and after intervention, which was carried out in the neurology ward of an educational hospital in Esfahan from July to December 2015. In this study, 64 oxygen humidifying chambers were studied in terms of number and type of microorganisms in two groups of 32 during three phases, before, immediately after, and 6 hours after its intervention...
June 30, 2016: Global Journal of Health Science
P V Surase, G Nataraj, K Pattamadai, P R Mehta, A R Pazare, M C Agarwal, R N Nanavati
AIMS: Comparison of conventional blood culture with BACTEC 9050 for rate and time to detection of microorganisms. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective study was carried out in a multispecialty tertiary care teaching hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 835 paired specimens (797 blood and 38 nonblood specimens) were collected and processed according to standard microbiological procedures by both conventional method as well as by BACTEC 9050 automated culture system...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Jong Hoo Lee, Yee Hyung Kim
Although blood cultures (BCs) are an important component of diagnostic practice for antibiotic management in patients with pneumonia, several studies have questioned whether they should be performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive factors of bacteremia and the role of BCs in patients with community-onset pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia).This study was retrospectively conducted in patients with community-onset pneumonia who were hospitalized at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Padmavali Palange, Rahul Narang, Venkataramana Kandi
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis has undergone a rapid change during last few years and a number of techniques for culture as well as molecular diagnosis have been used with their respective advantages and disadvantages. Sporadic studies have also reported the isolation of M. tuberculosis on standard blood agar (BA), which at one time was not considered as a suitable medium for mycobacterial culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the routine use of 5% sheep BA in a mycobacteriology laboratory by comparing isolation rates and time for isolation of mycobacteria from pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples with those on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium...
August 30, 2016: Curēus
Sarman Singh
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally from infected mother to fetus...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Elizabeth Story-Roller, Melvin P Weinstein
Blood cultures (BCs) are the standard method for diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSIs). However, the average BC contamination rate (CR) in U.S. hospitals is 2.9%, potentially resulting in unnecessary antibiotic use and excessive therapy costs. Several studies have compared various skin antisepsis agents without a clear consensus as to which agent is most effective in reducing contamination. A prospective, randomized crossover study directly comparing blood culture contamination rates using chlorhexidine versus iodine tincture for skin antisepsis was performed at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital (RWJUH)...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Sonia Hesam Shariati, Anoosha Alaei, Rouhollah Keshavarz, Nader Mosavari, Ali Rabbani, Magdalena Niegowska, Leonardo A Sechi, Mohammad Mehdi Feizabadi
INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis or Johne's disease in ruminants. Its role in triggering autoimmunity, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), has been reported in recent years. Due to the high contamination rate of MAP in Iran's livestock and the increasing outbreak of T1DM, we investigated this association in a small group of patients with T1DM in Iran. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples of 29 T1DM patients and 29 healthy control subjects were tested through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against MAP3865c and ZnT8 homologous epitopes and the presence of MAP DNA...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
M Osthoff, N Gürtler, S Bassetti, G Balestra, S Marsch, H Pargger, M Weisser, A Egli
OBJECTIVES: Rapid identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures (BC) in combination with an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) is associated with improved antibiotic treatment and outcomes, but the effect of each individual intervention is less clear. The current study investigated the impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) versus conventional identification on antibiotic management in a setting with a well-established ASP and low resistance rates...
August 26, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Kevin Messacar, Amanda L Hurst, Jason Child, Kristen Campbell, Claire Palmer, Stacey Hamilton, Elaine Dowell, Christine C Robinson, Sarah K Parker, Samuel R Dominguez
KEY POINTS: Real-time antimicrobial stewardship decision support for rapid blood culture diagnostics is associated with improved times to optimal and effective antimicrobial therapies and decreased unnecessary antimicrobial use in children. The unsolicited intervention incorporated with result reporting was well accepted and resulted in high provider satisfaction. BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases have the potential to improve clinical outcomes, but guideline-recommended antimicrobial stewardship (AS) strategies are not currently optimized for rapid intervention...
August 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
K-D Heller
BACKGROUND: Periprothetic infection after primary or revision arthroplasty is of increasing importance. The incidence of infection in primary arthroplasty is approximately 1 %. Revision arthroplasty has higher infection rates, which increase with the number of revision surgeries. Aim of this Paper: An overview of the current diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This selective analysis is based on a lecture by the author at the DKOU 2015. RESULTS: Periprosthetic infection is taken as having been demonstrated when either two periprosthetic cultures contain the same microorganism, or if there is a fistula communicating with a joint...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Daiichi Morii, Takayuki Yokozawa, Naoki Ichinose, Toshimi Oda
The blood culture contamination rate is often used to validate specimen-collection procedures. CUMITECH has set its optimal target to be 2% to 3%. However, the term "contamination rate" has been defined in many ways, limiting its generalizability. The definitions used in earlier studies can be divided into two categories; definitions based on clinical judgements, and those based on preset rules. According to each principle, the equation must be composed of a defined numerator and denominator. The problem with clinical definitions is that the decision is inevitably subjective, and the process is too cumbersome...
May 2016: Kansenshōgaku Zasshi. the Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases
Barış Ata Borsa, Mehmet Ersoy Aldağ, Birsen Tunalı, Uğur Dinç, Zeynep Güngördü Dalar, Veli Cengiz Özalp
The high prevalence of Bacillus species in nature and the detection of these bacteria as contaminant in cultures may lead diagnostic dilemma, however they should still be considered as a pathogen particularly in case of repeated positive cultures from patients with risk factors. Bacillus pumilus is a bacteria, though rarely, been reported as the causative agent of various infections such as sepsis, endocarditis, skin infections and food poisoning in human. In this report, a sepsis case in an immunocompetent patient caused by B...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Birte Tröger, Christoph Härtel, Jan Buer, Michael Dördelmann, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Thomas Höhn, Nico Hepping, Georg Hillebrand, Angela Kribs, Janina Marissen, Dirk Olbertz, Peter-Michael Rath, Susanne Schmidtke, Jens Siegel, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel, Joerg Steinmann, Anja Stein
INTRODUCTION: In the German Neonatal Network (GNN) 10% of very-low-birth weight infants (VLBWI) suffer from blood-culture confirmed sepsis, while 30% of VLBWI develop clinical sepsis. Diagnosis of sepsis is a difficult task leading to potential over-treatment with antibiotics. This study aims to investigate whether the results of blood multiplex-PCR (SeptiFast®) for common sepsis pathogens are relevant for clinical decision making when sepsis is suspected in VLBWI. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multi-centre study within the GNN including 133 VLBWI with 214 episodes of suspected late onset sepsis (LOS)...
2016: PloS One
Dimitri Papagiannopoulos, Patrick Whelan, Waseem Ahmad, James Rybak, Bala Hota, Leslie Deane, Ajay Nehra
PURPOSE: The appropriate management of infected obstructing ureteral calculi is prompt genitourinary decompression. Urine cultures are the gold standard for confirming infection but often take 24-48 h to result. Although white blood cell (WBC) count is an important diagnostic laboratory test, it is a nonspecific inflammatory marker. Similarly, urinalysis (UA) can be misleading in the setting of a contaminated sample, bladder colonization, or in cases of a completely obstructed the upper urinary tract...
July 2016: Urology Annals
Mamie C Stull, Michael S Clemens, Thomas A Heafner, John Devin B Watson, Zachary M Arthurs, Brandon W Propper
BACKGROUND: In the setting of vascular injury, vein interposition graft is the preferred conduit, but may have limited availability. This study seeks to develop a large animal model assessing the graft performance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Dacron in the setting of a polymicrobial infection. METHODS: Thirty-seven animals were placed into 4 groups for a 21-day survival period. Six-millimeter PTFE or Dacron interposition grafts were placed in the right iliac artery with a standardized bacterial inoculation...
October 2016: Annals of Vascular Surgery
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