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Intense pulse light

Houkun Liang, Peter Krogen, Zhou Wang, Hyunwook Park, Tobias Kroh, Kevin Zawilski, Peter Schunemann, Jeffrey Moses, Louis F DiMauro, Franz X Kärtner, Kyung-Han Hong
High-energy phase-stable sub-cycle mid-infrared pulses can provide unique opportunities to explore phase-sensitive strong-field light-matter interactions in atoms, molecules and solids. At the mid-infrared wavelength, the Keldysh parameter could be much smaller than unity even at relatively modest laser intensities, enabling the study of the strong-field sub-cycle electron dynamics in solids without damage. Here we report a high-energy sub-cycle pulse synthesiser based on a mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier and its application to high-harmonic generation in solids...
July 26, 2017: Nature Communications
Tahir Shaaran, Rana Nicolas, Bianca Iwan, Milutin Kovacev, Hamed Merdji
Nano-structures excited by light can enhance locally the electric field when tuned to plasmonic resonances. This phenomenon can be used to boost non-linear processes such as harmonic generation in crystals or in gases, Raman excitation, and four wave mixing. Here we present a theoretical investigation of the near-field phase matching of attosecond pulses emitted by high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of an atom immersed in a multi-cycle femtosecond infrared laser field and a spatially inhomogeneous plasmonic field...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Margit Lw Juhász, Melissa K Levin, Ellen S Marmur
BACKGROUND: Home optical devices are becoming an increasingly popular treatment modality sought out by patients for dermatologic pathologies such as acne, hair removal and anti-aging, as these devices are a low-cost and convenient therapy choice. METHODS: An Internet search using was completed with search terms, "home device dermatology," "home device acne," "home device hair" or "hair removal," and "home device aging." RESULTS: Currently, there are multiple home optical devices available on the market...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Jin Li, Jack Lindley-Start, Adrian Porch, David Barrow
High specification, polymer capsules, to produce inertial fusion energy targets, were continuously fabricated using surfactant-free, inertial centralisation, and ultrafast polymerisation, in a scalable flow reactor. Laser-driven, inertial confinement fusion depends upon the interaction of high-energy lasers and hydrogen isotopes, contained within small, spherical and concentric target shells, causing a nuclear fusion reaction at ~150 M°C. Potentially, targets will be consumed at ~1 M per day per reactor, demanding a 5000x unit cost reduction to ~$0...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hiroshi Abe, Tsuyoshi Shiina
Photoacoustic imaging is a unique imaging method that involves extracting information from points at different depths, an advantage of ultrasound imaging, while maintaining functional information, a key feature of conventional photo imaging. This makes it easy to add functional images to ultrasound images by adding a laser pulse source to the conventional ultrasound imaging device and detecting a photo-ultrasound signal via a conventional ultrasound probe. One challenge when using normal one-dimensional (1D) probes and generating photoacoustic images is the limited-view problem, in which artefacts are observed due to the positions of the ultrasound transducers...
December 2017: Photoacoustics
Liuying Liang, Yalkunjan Tursun, Aisha Nulahong, Talifu Dilinuer, Awuti Tunishaguli, Ge Gao, Abulizi Abulikemu, Kenji Okitsu
Hierarchical Bi2WO6 structures with high surface area were prepared in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone by using an optimized hydrothermal method. The samples prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption technique. The results of these characterizations showed the formation of the hierarchical Bi2WO6 structures with high surface area (51m(2)/g). The degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) with or without visible light was investigated under various experimental conditions to evaluate the sonophotocatalytic activity of the hierarchical Bi2WO6 structures...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Ana Beatriz Baranda, Amaia Lasagabaster, Iñigo Martínez de Marañón
Perspectives concerning pulsed light (PL) technology as a novel water decontamination treatment are overviewed in this work. Degradation of atrazine, malathion, chlorpyriphos-methyl and bromopropylate in aqueous solutions at different concentrations was performed employing static and continuous flow-through PL units. Results for both PL systems were compared in terms of efficacy of pesticides degradation and derived photoproducts formed. The pesticides degradation increased with the applied total fluence for both PL systems...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
R Royle, Y Sentoku, R C Mancini, I Paraschiv, T Johzaki
Solid-density plasmas driven by intense x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) radiation are seeded by sources of nonthermal photoelectrons and Auger electrons that ionize and heat the target via collisions. Simulation codes that are commonly used to model such plasmas, such as collisional-radiative (CR) codes, typically assume a Maxwellian distribution and thus instantaneous thermalization of the source electrons. In this study, we present a detailed description and initial applications of a collisional particle-in-cell code, picls, that has been extended with a self-consistent radiation transport model and Monte Carlo models for photoionization and KLL Auger ionization, enabling the fully kinetic simulation of XFEL-driven plasmas...
June 2017: Physical Review. E
Benjamin L Greenberg, Zachary L Robinson, K V Reich, Claudia Gorynski, Bryan N Voigt, Lorraine F Francis, B I Shklovskii, Eray S Aydil, Uwe R Kortshagen
Networks of ligand-free semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) offer a valuable combination of high carrier mobility and optoelectronic properties tunable via quantum confinement. In principle, maximizing carrier mobility entails crossing the insulator-metal transition (IMT), where carriers become delocalized. A recent theoretical study predicted that this transition occurs at nρ(3) ≈ 0.3, where n is the carrier density and ρ is the interparticle contact radius. In this work, we satisfy this criterion in networks of plasma-synthesized ZnO NCs by using intense pulsed light (IPL) annealing to tune n and ρ independently...
July 20, 2017: Nano Letters
D E Rivas, A Borot, D E Cardenas, G Marcus, X Gu, D Herrmann, J Xu, J Tan, D Kormin, G Ma, W Dallari, G D Tsakiris, I B Földes, S-W Chou, M Weidman, B Bergues, T Wittmann, H Schröder, P Tzallas, D Charalambidis, O Razskazovskaya, V Pervak, F Krausz, L Veisz
The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10(20) W/cm(2) with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Li Min, Liu Juan, Maya Valeska, Luo Dan, Zhou Bingrong
Objective We investigated the efficacy and safety of 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and lauromacrogol injection in the treatment of hemangioma, in order to evaluate the value of color Doppler ultrasound guidance in choosing the optimal treatment modality. Methods Infantile patients who were clinical diagnosed as hemangiomas were randomly divided into group A, who had color Doppler ultrasound examinations before the treatment, and group B who had the treatment without ultrasound evaluation...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
Norimitsu Akiba, Kenro Kuroki, Kenji Kurosawa, Ken'ichi Tsuchiya
Detection of aged fingerprints is difficult because they can degrade over time with exposure to light, moisture, and temperature. In this study, aging fingerprints were visualized by time-resolved spectroscopy with an ultraviolet-pulsed laser. Fingerprints were prepared on glass slides and paper and then stored under three lighting conditions and two humidity conditions for up to a year. The fluorescence intensities of the fingerprints decreased with time. Samples were stored in the dark degraded less than in sunlight or under a fluorescent lamp...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Hao Huang, Hong-Feng Tang, Ying Chen, Xiu-Fen Zheng, Yong Hu, Rui-Hua Wang, Mei-Ling Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of 420 nm intense pulsed light on Trichophyton rubrum growth in vitro and explore the mechanism. METHODS: The fungal conidia were divided into treatment group with intense pulse light irradiation and control group without irradiation. The surface areas of the fungal colonies were photographed before irradiation and on the 2nd and 3rd days after irradiation to observe the changes in fungal growth. The viability of the fungus in suspension was detected at 6 h after irradiation using MTT assay...
June 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Tom Pardini, Andrew Aquila, Sébastien Boutet, Daniele Cocco, Stefan P Hau-Riege
Numerical simulations of the current and future pulse intensity distributions at selected locations along the Far Experimental Hall, the hard X-ray section of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), are provided. Estimates are given for the pulse fluence, energy and size in and out of focus, taking into account effects due to the experimentally measured divergence of the X-ray beam, and measured figure errors of all X-ray optics in the beam path. Out-of-focus results are validated by comparison with experimental data...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Troy S Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Joshua B Fisher, Ying Sun, Gretchen B North, Thomas S Davis, Ari Kornfeld, Katharina Siebke
Recent advances in the retrieval of Chl fluorescence from space using passive methods (solar-induced Chl fluorescence, SIF) promise improved mapping of plant photosynthesis globally. However, unresolved issues related to the spatial, spectral, and temporal dynamics of vegetation fluorescence complicate our ability to interpret SIF measurements. We developed an instrument to measure leaf-level gas exchange simultaneously with pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) and spectrally resolved fluorescence over the same field of view - allowing us to investigate the relationships between active and passive fluorescence with photosynthesis...
June 30, 2017: New Phytologist
Ying Guo, Jing Shan, Tianyu Zhang
Although ear reconstruction technology has been highly developed in recent years, hair growth on the reconstructed ear has plagued both surgeons and patients. In this paper, the authors introduce a clinical application of intense pulsed light depilation in total auricular reconstruction. From August 2012 to August 2013, 27 patients (28 ears) suffering from congenital microtia were treated by intense pulsed light depilation (650-950-nm filter, initial fluence of 14-16 J/cm(2) and gradually increased, pulse width of 30-50 ms, spot size of 20 × 30 mm(2), intervals of 6-8 weeks, a total of four sessions) either before or after auricular reconstruction...
June 29, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
Olivier Fernandez, Hirofumi Ishihara, Gavin M George, Virginie Mengin, Anna Flis, Dean Sumner, Stéphanie Arrivault, Regina Feil, John E Lunn, Samuel C Zeeman, Alison M Smith, Mark Stitt
We investigated whether starch degradation occurs at the same time as starch synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves in the light. Starch accumulated in a linear fashion for about 12 h after dawn, then accumulation slowed and content plateaued. Following decreases in light intensity, the rate of accumulation of starch declined in proportion to the decline in photosynthesis if the decrease occurred less than 10 h after dawn, but accumulation ceased or loss of starch occurred if the same decrease in light intensity was imposed more than 10 h after dawn...
June 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
Adam Št'ovíček, Ani Azatyan, M Ines M Soares, Osnat Gillor
Hot desert ecosystems experience rare and unpredictable rainfall events that resuscitate the arid flora and fauna. However, the effect of this sudden abundance of water on soil microbial communities is still under debate. We modeled varying rainfall amounts and temperatures in desert soil mesocosms and monitored the microbial community response over a period of 21 days. We studied two different wetting events, simulating heavy (50 mm) and light (10 mm) rain, as well as three different temperature regimes: constant 25° or 36°C, or a temperature diurnal cycle alternating between 36 and 10 °C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Cyril G Eleftheriou, Jasmina Cehajic-Kapetanovic, Franck P Martial, Nina Milosavljevic, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
PURPOSE: Retinal dystrophy through outer photoreceptor cell death affects 1 in 2,500 people worldwide with severe impairment of vision in advanced stages of the disease. Optogenetic strategies to restore visual function to animal models of retinal degeneration by introducing photopigments to neurons spared degeneration in the inner retina have been explored, with variable degrees of success. It has recently been shown that the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and non-selective gap-junction blocker meclofenamic acid (MFA) can enhance the visual responses produced by an optogenetic actuator (channelrhodopsin) expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the degenerate retina...
2017: Molecular Vision
Alessandro Martella, Mauro Raichi
The intense pulsed light (IPL) and laser technologies are widely used for skin rejuvenation and for treating several dermatological disorders such as skin dyschromia and acne, and for non-ablative dermal remodeling of rhytides and hypertrophic scars. Technological evolution is rapid. The High Power Pulsed Light™ [HPPL™] and Incoherent Fast Light™ technologies [IFL™, Novavision Group S.p.A., 20826 Misinto (MB), Italy] are recent innovations in the field of IPL technologies; IFL™ is a further evolution of the already advanced HPPL™ system...
March 13, 2017: Dermatology Reports
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