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Daqiang Pan, Michel Kather, Lucas Willmann, Manuel Schlimpert, Christoph Bauer, Simon Lagies, Karin Schmidtkunz, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Manfred Jung, Stefan Günther, Bernd Kammerer
XD14 is a 4-acyl pyrrole derivative, which was discovered by a high-throughput virtual screening experiment. XD14 inhibits bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) and consequently suppresses cell proliferation. In this study, metabolic profiling reveals the molecular effects in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) treated by XD14. A three-day time series experiment with two concentrations of XD14 was performed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for untargeted profiling of treated and non-treated MCF-7 cells...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Guillaume Andrieu, Anna C Belkina, Gerald V Denis
Several cancer clinical trials for small molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomain proteins have been initiated. There is enthusiasm for the anti-proliferative effect of inhibiting BRD4, one of the targets of these inhibitors, which is thought to cooperate with MYC, a long-desired target for cancer therapeutics. However, no current inhibitor is selective for BRD4 among the three somatic BET proteins, which include BRD2 and BRD3; their respective functions are partially overlapping and none are functionally redundant with BRD4...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Aaron J Stonestrom, Sarah C Hsu, Michael T Werner, Gerd A Blobel
Pharmacologic inhibitors of the bromodomain and extra-terminal motif (BET) protein family are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, yet the functions of individual BET proteins remain largely uncharacterized. We review the molecular roles of BETs in the context of erythropoiesis. Studies in this lineage have provided valuable insights into their mechanisms of action, and helped define the individual and overlapping functions of BET protein family members BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4. These studies have important ramifications for our understanding of the molecular and physiologic roles of BET proteins, and provide a framework for elucidating some of the beneficial and adverse effects of pharmacologic inhibitors...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Cheng-Ming Chiang
BRD4 is an epigenetic regulator and transcription cofactor whose phosphorylation by CK2 and dephosphorylation by PP2A modulates its function in chromatin targeting, factor recruitment, and cancer progression. While the bromodomains of BET family proteins, including BRD4, BRD2, BRD3 and BRDT, have been the primary targets of small compounds such as JQ1, I-BET and MS417 that show promising anticancer effects against some hematopoietic cancer and solid tumors, drug resistance upon prolonged treatment necessitates a better understanding of alternative pathways underlying not only the resistance but also persistent BET protein dependence for identifying new targets and effective combination therapy strategies...
March 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
Guillaume Andrieu, Anna H Tran, Katherine J Strissel, Gerald V Denis
The Bromodomain and ExtraTerminal (BET) proteins are epigenetic 'readers' of acetylated histones in chromatin and have been identified as promising therapeutic targets in diverse cancers. However, it remains unclear how individual family members participate in cancer progression, and small molecule inhibitors such as JQ1 can target functionally independent BET proteins. Here we report a signaling pathway involving BRD4 and the ligand/receptor pair Jagged1/Notch1 that sustains triple-negative breast cancer migration and invasion...
September 20, 2016: Cancer Research
Jingjun Li, Jing Ma, Guofeng Meng, Hong Lin, Sharon Wu, Jamie Wang, Jie Luo, Xiaohong Xu, David Tough, Matthew Lindon, Inma Rioja Pastor, Jing Zhao, Hongkang Mei, Rab Prinjha, Zhong Zhong
Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs) are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers...
July 20, 2016: Stem Cell Research
C A French
BET proteins have recently become recognized for their role in a broad range of cancers and are defined by the presence of two acetyl-histone reading bromodomains and an ET domain. This family of proteins includes BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT. BRD4 is the most-studied BET protein in cancer, and normally serves as an epigenetic reader that links active chromatin marks to transcriptional elongation through activation of RNA polymerase II. The role of BRD3 and BRD4 first became known in cancer as mutant oncoproteins fused to the p300-recruiting NUT protein in a rare aggressive subtype of squamous cell cancer known as NUT midline carcinoma (NMC)...
2016: Advances in Cancer Research
Caroline Berenguer-Daizé, Lucile Astorgues-Xerri, Elodie Odore, Mylène Cayol, Esteban Cvitkovic, Kay Noel, Mohamed Bekradda, Sarah MacKenzie, Keyvan Rezai, François Lokiec, Maria E Riveiro, L'Houcine Ouafik
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) bromodomain (BRD) proteins are epigenetic readers that bind to acetylated lysine residues on chromatin, acting as co-activators or co-repressors of gene expression. BRD2 and BRD4, members of the BET family, are significantly increased in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary adult brain cancer. OTX015 (MK-8628), a novel BRD2/3/4 inhibitor, is under evaluation in dose-finding studies in solid tumors, including GBM. We investigated the pharmacologic characteristics of OTX015 as a single agent and combined with targeted therapy or conventional chemotherapies in glioblastoma cell lines...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Chiara Vardabasso, Sandra B Hake, Emily Bernstein
Histone variants are attracting attention in the field of cancer epigenetics. Our study has established a novel role for the uncharacterized histone variant H2A.Z.2 as a driver of malignant melanoma. H2A.Z.2 promotes cellular proliferation by recruiting BRD2 and E2F1 to E2F target genes and facilitating their transcription. High H2A.Z.2 expression correlates with poor survival in patients, and its depletion sensitizes cells to chemotherapy and targeted therapies.
March 2016: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Olesya A Kharenko, Emily M Gesner, Reena G Patel, Karen Norek, Andre White, Eric Fontano, Robert K Suto, Peter R Young, Kevin G McLure, Henrik C Hansen
Bromodomains are epigenetic readers that specifically bind to the acetyl lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Small molecule BET bromodomain inhibitors can disrupt this interaction which leads to potential modulation of several disease states. Here we describe the binding properties of a novel BET inhibitor RVX-297 that is structurally related to the clinical compound RVX-208, currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but is distinctly different in its biological and pharmacokinetic profiles...
August 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shailesh Tripathi, Shruti Mathur, Prashant Deshmukh, Ramu Manjula, Balasundaram Padmanabhan
Bromodomain containing proteins recognize the level of histone acetylation and regulate epigenetically controlled processes like gene transcription and chromatin modification. The BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) family proteins, which are transcriptional co-regulators, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and defects in embryonic stem cell differentiation. Inhibitors selectively targeting the BET bromodomains can pave the path for new drug discovery against several forms of major diseases...
2016: PloS One
Yinshi Huang, Sabikun Nahar, Akifumi Nakagawa, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Jennifer A Mertz, Barbara M Bryant, Curtis E Adams, Mari Mino-Kenudson, Kate N Von Alt, Kevin Chang, Andrew R Conery, Charlie Hatton, Robert J Sims, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Xingpeng Wang, Keith D Lillemoe, Carlos Fernández-Del Castillo, Andrew L Warshaw, Sarah P Thayer, Andrew S Liss
PURPOSE: The initiation, progression, and maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) results from the interplay of genetic and epigenetic events. While the genetic alterations of PDAC have been well characterized, epigenetic pathways regulating PDAC remain, for the most part, elusive. The goal of this study was to identify novel epigenetic regulators contributing to the biology of PDAC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In vivo pooled shRNA screens targeting 118 epigenetic proteins were performed in two orthotopic PDAC xenograft models...
August 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Bebeka Gjoksi, Chafik Ghayor, Indranil Bhattacharya, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Franz E Weber
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is one of the consequences of estrogen deficiency and constitutes a major health problem. The present study highlights the effects of N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP) on adipogenesis in osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized rat model. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in body weight gain, increased femoral marrow adipocytes, and hypertrophic adipocytes in white adipose tissue, distorted serum leptin, and TNF-α and PPARγ levels...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Dong U Lee, Paula Katavolos, Gopinath Palanisamy, Arna Katewa, Charly Sioson, Janice Corpuz, Jodie Pang, Kevin DeMent, Edna Choo, Nico Ghilardi, Dolores Diaz, Dimitry M Danilenko
Bromo and extra terminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are epigenetic transcriptional regulators required for efficient expression of growth promoting, cell cycle progression and antiapoptotic genes. Through their bromodomain, these proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues of histones and are recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin. Inhibition of the BET-histone interaction provides a tractable therapeutic strategy to treat diseases that may have epigenetic dysregulation. JQ1 is a small molecule that blocks BET interaction with histones...
June 1, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sophia Pinz, Samy Unser, Anne Rascle
BACKGROUND: c-Myc has been proposed as a putative target gene of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). No functional STAT5 binding site has been identified so far within the c-Myc gene locus, therefore a direct transcriptional regulation by STAT5 remains uncertain. c-Myc super-enhancer, located 1.7 Mb downstream of the c-Myc gene locus, was recently reported as essential for the regulation of c-Myc gene expression by hematopoietic transcription factors and bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins and for leukemia maintenance...
2016: BMC Molecular Biology
Sandy Amorim, Anastasios Stathis, Mary Gleeson, Sunil Iyengar, Valeria Magarotto, Xavier Leleu, Franck Morschhauser, Lionel Karlin, Florence Broussais, Keyvan Rezai, Patrice Herait, Carmen Kahatt, François Lokiec, Gilles Salles, Thierry Facon, Antonio Palumbo, David Cunningham, Emanuele Zucca, Catherine Thieblemont
BACKGROUND: The first-in-class small molecule inhibitor OTX015 (MK-8628) specifically binds to bromodomain motifs BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins, inhibiting them from binding to acetylated histones, which occurs preferentially at super-enhancer regions that control oncogene expression. OTX015 is active in haematological preclinical entities including leukaemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. We aimed to establish the recommended dose of OTX015 in patients with haematological malignancies...
April 2016: Lancet Haematology
Céline Berthon, Emmanuel Raffoux, Xavier Thomas, Norbert Vey, Carlos Gomez-Roca, Karen Yee, David Christopher Taussig, Keyvan Rezai, Christophe Roumier, Patrice Herait, Carmen Kahatt, Bruno Quesnel, Mauricette Michallet, Christian Recher, François Lokiec, Claude Preudhomme, Hervé Dombret
BACKGROUND: Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are chromatin readers that preferentially affect the transcription of genes with super-enhancers, including oncogenes. BET proteins bind acetylated histone tails via their bromodomain, bringing the elongation complex to the promoter region. OTX015 (MK-8628) specifically binds to BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4, preventing BET proteins from binding to the chromatin, thus inhibiting gene transcription. OTX015 inhibits proliferation in many haematological malignancy cell lines and patient cells, in vitro and in vivo...
April 2016: Lancet Haematology
Mingcheng Huang, Qian Qiu, Youjun Xiao, Shan Zeng, Mingying Zhan, Maohua Shi, Yaoyao Zou, Yujin Ye, Liuqin Liang, Xiuyan Yang, Hanshi Xu
The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jude T Deeney, Anna C Belkina, Orian S Shirihai, Barbara E Corkey, Gerald V Denis
Displacement of Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) proteins from chromatin has promise for cancer and inflammatory disease treatments, but roles of BET proteins in metabolic disease remain unexplored. Small molecule BET inhibitors, such as JQ1, block BET protein binding to acetylated lysines, but lack selectivity within the BET family (Brd2, Brd3, Brd4, Brdt), making it difficult to disentangle contributions of each family member to transcriptional and cellular outcomes. Here, we demonstrate multiple improvements in pancreatic β-cells upon BET inhibition with JQ1 or BET-specific siRNAs...
2016: PloS One
Anastasios Stathis, Emanuele Zucca, Mohamed Bekradda, Carlos Gomez-Roca, Jean-Pierre Delord, Thibault de La Motte Rouge, Emmanuelle Uro-Coste, Filippo de Braud, Giuseppe Pelosi, Christopher A French
UNLABELLED: The antineoplastic, prodifferentiative effects of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) bromodomain (BRD) inhibitors were initially discovered in NUT midline carcinoma (NMC), an aggressive subtype of squamous cancer driven by the BRD4-NUT fusion oncoprotein. BRD4-NUT blocks differentiation and maintains tumor growth through a potent chromatin-modifying mechanism. OTX015/MK-8628, a novel oral BET inhibitor, targets BRD2/3/4/T with preclinical activity in NMC and several other tumor types and is currently in clinical development...
May 2016: Cancer Discovery
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