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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819123/active-prosthesis-dependent-functional-cortical-reorganization-following-stroke
#1
Christian Merkel, Janet Hausmann, Jens-Max Hopf, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Lars Buentjen, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with gait improvements triggered by an active prosthesis in patients with drop-foot following stroke during the chronic stage. Eleven patients took part in the study. MEG recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation of the left and right hand as well as gait analyses were performed shortly before or after prosthesis implantation surgery and 3-4 months later. Plastic changes of the sensorimotor cortex of the ipsi- and contralesional hemisphere were revealed...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#2
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817305/foot-massage-touch-and-presence-in-decreasing-anxiety-during-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-feasibility-study
#3
Rajni Parmar, Barbara B Brewer, Laura A Szalacha
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to determine (1) recruitment feasibility; (2) intervention adherence; (3) intervention acceptability; and (4) the preliminary effects of touch or foot massage interventions on anxiety during a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN: A quasi-experimental design was used. INTERVENTION: Foot massage and touch were the intervention groups and "presence" was the control group. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Center for Neurosciences, a freestanding facility, in southern Arizona...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814774/molecular-characterization-of-two-novel-echovirus-18-recombinants-associated-with-hand-foot-mouth-disease
#4
Haihao Zhang, Yilin Zhao, Hongbo Liu, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Human echovirus 18 (E-18) is a member of the enterovirus B species. To date, sixteen full-length genome sequences of E-18 are available in the GenBank database. In this study, we describe the complete genomic characterization of two E-18 strains isolated in Yunnan, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the two Yunnan E-18 strains had 87.5% nucleotide identity and 96.3-96.5% amino acid identity with the Chinese strain. Phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses revealed the two E-18 strains had the highest identity with other several EV-B serotypes than the other E-18 strains in the P3 coding region, especially, 3B region of the Swine Vesicular disease virus (SVDV) strain HK70, indicated that frequent intertypic recombination might have occurred in the two Yunnan strains...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813971/feasibility-study-of-transtibial-amputee-walking-using-a-powered-prosthetic-foot
#5
Martin Grimmer, Matthew Holgate, Jeffrey Ward, Alexander Boehler, Andre Seyfarth
Passive prosthetic feet are not able to provide non-amputee kinematics and kinetics for the ankle joint. Persons with amputations show reduced interlimb symmetry, slower walking speeds, and increased walking effort. To improve ankle range of motion and push off, various powered prosthetic feet were introduced. This feasibility study analyzed if predefined motor reference trajectories can be used to achieve non-amputee ankle biomechanics during walking with the powered prosthetic foot, Walk-Run Ankle. Trajectories were calculated using the desired ankle angle and ankle moment based spring deflection at a given spring stiffness...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809837/protocol-for-assessing-the-relative-effects-of-environment-and-genetics-on-antler-and-body-growth-for-a-long-lived-cervid
#6
Eric S Michel, Emily B Flinn, Stephen Demarais, Bronson K Strickland, Guiming Wang, Chad M Dacus
Cervid phenotype can be placed into one of two categories: efficiency, which promotes survival over extravagant morphometric growth, and luxury, which promotes growth of large weaponry and body size. Populations of the same species display each phenotype depending on environmental conditions. Although antler and body size of male white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) varies by physiographic region in Mississippi, USA and is strongly correlated with regional variation in nutritional quality, the effects of population-level genetics from native stocks and previous re-stocking efforts cannot be disregarded...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#7
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800707/radiographic-results-and-return-to-activity-after-sesamoidectomy-for-fracture
#8
Justin M Kane, James W Brodsky, Yahya Daoud
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available comparing the results of lateral sesamoidectomy and medial sesamoidectomy for the treatment of fractures recalcitrant to nonoperative treatment interventions. The hypothesis of this study was that sesamoidectomy for either lateral or medial sesamoid fractures would not change radiographic alignment of the first ray given the use of identical reconstruction of the plantar plate, intersesamoid ligament, and plantar ligament complex at the time of surgery...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794494/evidence-of-energetic-optimization-during-adaptation-differs-for-metabolic-mechanical-and-perceptual-estimates-of-energetic-cost
#9
Natalia Sánchez, Sungwoo Park, James M Finley
The theory that the sensorimotor system minimizes energetic cost during locomotion has long been supported by both computational models and empirical studies. However, it has yet to be determined if the behavior to which people converge when exposed to a novel perturbation during locomotion is also energetically optimal. We address this issue in the context of adaptation to walking on a split-belt treadmill, which can impose a left-right asymmetry in step lengths. In response to this asymmetry, participants gradually adjust their foot placement to adopt steps of equal length...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783556/foot-structure-is-significantly-associated-to-subtalar-joint-kinetics-and-mechanical-energetics
#10
Jayishni N Maharaj, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
INTRODUCTION/AIM: Foot structure has been implicated as a risk factor of numerous overuse injuries, however, the mechanism linking foot structure and the development of soft-tissue overuse injuries are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors that could predict foot function during walking. METHODS: A total of eleven variables (including measures of foot structure, anthropometry and spatiotemporal gait characteristics) were investigated for their predictive ability on identifying kinematic, kinetic and energetic components of the foot...
July 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783473/heel-rise-height-deficit-1-year-after-achilles-tendon-rupture-relates-to-changes-in-ankle-biomechanics-6-years-after-injury
#11
Annelie Brorsson, Richard W Willy, Roy Tranberg, Karin Grävare Silbernagel
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the height of a heel-rise performed in the single-leg standing heel-rise test 1 year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) correlates with ankle biomechanics during walking, jogging, and jumping in the long-term. PURPOSE: To explore the differences in ankle biomechanics, tendon length, calf muscle recovery, and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 6 years after ATR between 2 groups that, at 1-year follow-up, had less than 15% versus greater than 30% differences in heel-rise height...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773146/modeling-stone-columns
#12
REVIEW
Jorge Castro
This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns...
July 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768790/quantification-of-the-ossification-of-the-lateral-cuneiform-in-the-feet-of-young-children-with-unilateral-congenital-talipes-equinovarus
#13
P J Lang, T Avoian, S N Sangiorgio, M A Nazif, E Ebramzadeh, L E Zionts
AIMS: After the initial correction of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) using the Ponseti method, a subsequent dynamic deformity is often managed by transfer of the tendon of tibialis anterior (TATT) to the lateral cuneiform. Many surgeons believe the lateral cuneiform should be ossified before surgery is undertaken. This study quantifies the ossification process of the lateral cuneiform in children with CTEV between one and three years of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The length, width and height of the lateral cuneiform were measured in 43 consecutive patients with unilateral CTEV who had been treated using the Ponseti method...
August 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767173/prevalence-presentation-and-treatment-of-lower-limb-pathologies-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Antoni Fellas, Fiona Hawke, Derek Santos, Andrea Coda
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory joint disease. It is the most common arthritis in children and adolescents. This paper reviews the presentation and treatment of lower limb pathologies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis from an allied health perspective. Common lower limb pathologies include: synovitis causing swelling, tenderness and pain; persistent inflammation leading to flexion contractures; limb length discrepancies; muscle atrophy; enthesopathies such as plantar fasciitis and Achilles tendonitis; and tenosynovitis...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764298/index-ring-finger-ratio-hand-and-foot-index-gender-estimation-tools
#15
Sonia Gupta, Vineeta Gupta, Nutan Tyagi, Ettishree, Sinthia Bhagat, Mohit Dadu, Nishita Anthwal, Tahira Ashraf
INTRODUCTION: Gender estimation from dismembered human body parts and skeletal remains in cases of mass disasters, explosions, and assaults cases is an imperative element of any medico-legal investigations and has been a major challenge for forensic scientists. AIM: The aim of the present study was to estimate the gender by using index and ring finger length ratio, hand and foot index along with the correlation of both the hand and foot index to determine the vital role of all the indices in establishing gender identity...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761694/the-effect-of-minimalist-footwear-and-instruction-on-running-an-observational-study
#16
Massimo Giuseppe Barcellona, Linda Buckley, Lisa J M Palmer, Roisin M Ormond, Gwawr Owen, Daniel J Watson, Roger Woledge, Di Newham
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). AIM: To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. METHODS: 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755930/locomotion-characteristics-of-dairy-cows-walking-on-pasture-and-the-effect-of-artificial-flooring-systems-on-locomotion-comfort
#17
M Alsaaod, S Huber, G Beer, P Kohler, G Schüpbach-Regula, A Steiner
The locomotion comfort of dairy cows depends on the floor of the walking alleys. Optimal locomotion comfort is given when cows walk on pasture, allowing freedom from discomfort and pain and the expression of normal behavior. This study examined the characteristics of locomotion behavior on pasture (gold standard with optimal locomotion comfort) and compared it with behaviors of cows walking on mastic asphalt or solid rubber mats before and after a routine claw trimming session. Our hypotheses were (1) that gait variables were different on pasture versus mastic asphalt and on mastic asphalt versus rubber, and (2) that claw trimming had an effect on gait variables of cows walking on mastic asphalt...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752024/local-environment-and-social-factors-in-primary-school-children-s-afterschool-commute-in-china
#18
John Zacharias, Bai Zhen, Xili Han, Yunshi Huang
The rapid decline in young children's active commutes to and from school has prompted investigations into ways to raise activity levels. The period after school is recognized as very important in the daily activity regime of primary school children. In this study, we examine the relative effects of local environmental factors and socio-economic status on children's after-school commute mode choice. Environmental factors are pedestrian priority streets, street intersection density, motorways, shops, and play spaces...
September 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749397/action-oriented-colour-coded-foot-length-calliper-for-primary-healthcare-workers-as-a-proxy-for-birth-weight-gestational-period
#19
Asha K Pratinidhi, Abhijit C Bagade, Satish V Kakade, Hemangi P Kale, Vinayak Y Kshirsagar, Rohini Babar, Shilpa Bagal
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Foot length of the newborn has a good correlation with the birth weight and is recommended to be used as a proxy measure. There can be variations in the measurement of foot length. A study was, therefore, carried out to develop a foot length calliper for accurate foot length measurement and to find cut-off values for birth weight and gestational age groups to be used by primary healthcare workers. METHODS: This study was undertaken on 645 apparently healthy newborn infants with known gestational age...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743205/do-baseball-pitchers-improve-mechanics-after-biomechanical-evaluations
#20
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
The purpose of this study was to determine how often flaws in pitching mechanics identified from biomechanical analysis are corrected. The biomechanics of 46 baseball pitchers were evaluated twice, with an average of 12 months (range 2-48 months) between evaluations. Pitchers were healthy at the time of both evaluations, competing at the high school, college, minor league or Major League level. After warming up, each participant pitched 10 full-effort fastballs. Automated three-dimensional motion analysis was used to compute eight kinematic parameters which were compared with a database of elite professional pitchers...
July 25, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
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