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cytoplasmic incompatibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295812/hybridization-between-two-cryptic-filamentous-brown-seaweeds-along-the-shore-analysing-pre-and-post-zygotic-barriers-in-populations-of-individuals-with-varying-ploidy-levels
#1
Alejandro E Montecinos, Marie-Laure Guillemin, Lucia Couceiro, Akira F Peters, Solenn Stoeckel, Myriam Valero
We aimed to study the importance of hybridization between two cryptic species of the genus Ectocarpus, a group of filamentous algae with haploid-diploid life cycles that include the principal genetic model organism for the brown algae. In haploid-diploid species, the genetic structure of the two phases of the life cycle can be analysed separately in natural populations. Such life cycles provide a unique opportunity to estimate the frequency of hybrid genotypes in diploid sporophytes and meiotic recombinant genotypes in haploid gametophytes allowing the effects of reproductive barriers preventing fertilization or preventing meiosis to be untangle...
March 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256191/molecular-mechanisms-regulating-cell-fusion-and-heterokaryon-formation-in-filamentous-fungi
#2
Asen Daskalov, Jens Heller, Stephanie Herzog, André Fleißner, N Louise Glass
For the majority of fungal species, the somatic body of an individual is a network of interconnected cells sharing a common cytoplasm and organelles. This syncytial organization contributes to an efficient distribution of resources, energy, and biochemical signals. Cell fusion is a fundamental process for fungal development, colony establishment, and habitat exploitation and can occur between hyphal cells of an individual colony or between colonies of genetically distinct individuals. One outcome of cell fusion is the establishment of a stable heterokaryon, culminating in benefits for each individual via shared resources or being of critical importance for the sexual or parasexual cycle of many fungal species...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248294/a-wolbachia-deubiquitylating-enzyme-induces-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#3
John F Beckmann, Judith A Ronau, Mark Hochstrasser
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria(1) that infect arthropods, including approximately two-thirds of insect species(2). Wolbachia manipulate insect reproduction by enhancing their inheritance through the female germline. The most common alteration is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)(3-5), where eggs from uninfected females fail to develop when fertilized by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males. By contrast, if female and male partners are both infected, embryos are viable. CI is a gene-drive mechanism impacting population structure(6) and causing reproductive isolation(7), but its molecular mechanism has remained unknown...
March 1, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241146/prophage-wo-genes-recapitulate-and-enhance-wolbachia-induced-cytoplasmic-incompatibility
#4
Daniel P LePage, Jason A Metcalf, Sarah R Bordenstein, Jungmin On, Jessamyn I Perlmutter, J Dylan Shropshire, Emily M Layton, Lisa J Funkhouser-Jones, John F Beckmann, Seth R Bordenstein
The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality...
March 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208639/biological-control-strategies-for-mosquito-vectors-of-arboviruses
#5
REVIEW
Yan-Jang S Huang, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
Historically, biological control utilizes predatory species and pathogenic microorganisms to reduce the population of mosquitoes as disease vectors. This is particularly important for the control of mosquito-borne arboviruses, which normally do not have specific antiviral therapies available. Although development of resistance is likely, the advantages of biological control are that the resources used are typically biodegradable and ecologically friendly. Over the past decade, the advancement of molecular biology has enabled optimization by the manipulation of genetic materials associated with biological control agents...
February 10, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181227/independent-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-induced-by-cardinium-and-wolbachia-maintains-endosymbiont-co-infections-in-haplodiploid-thrips-populations
#6
Duong T Nguyen, Jennifer L Morrow, Robert N Spooner-Hart, Markus Riegler
Cardinium and Wolbachia are common maternally inherited reproductive parasites that can co-infect arthropods, yet interactions between both bacterial endosymbionts are rarely studied. For the first time, we report their independent expression of complete cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in a co-infected host, and CI in a species of the haplodiploid insect order Thysanoptera. In Pezothrips kellyanus, Cardinium-induced CI resulted in a combination of male development (MD) and embryonic female mortality (FM) of fertilised eggs...
February 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110970/-plasma-exchange-in-nephrology-indications-and-technique
#7
Christophe Ridel, Sébastien Kissling, Laurent Mesnard, Alexandre Hertig, Éric Rondeau
Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive...
January 16, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097419/modelling-wolbachia-infection-in-a-sex-structured-mosquito-population-carrying-west-nile-virus
#8
József Z Farkas, Stephen A Gourley, Rongsong Liu, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
Wolbachia is possibly the most studied reproductive parasite of arthropod species. It appears to be a promising candidate for biocontrol of some mosquito borne diseases. We begin by developing a sex-structured model for a Wolbachia infected mosquito population. Our model incorporates the key effects of Wolbachia infection including cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. We also allow the possibility of reduced reproductive output, incomplete maternal transmission, and different mortality rates for uninfected/infected male/female individuals...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064190/cytoplasmic-nuclear-incompatibility-between-wild-isolates-of-caenorhabditis-nouraguensis
#9
Piero Lamelza, Michael Ailion
How species arise is a fundamental question in biology. Species can be defined as populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations. Therefore, understanding how reproductive barriers evolve between populations is essential for understanding the process of speciation. Hybrid incompatibility (for example, hybrid sterility or lethality) is a common and strong reproductive barrier in nature. Here we report a lethal incompatibility between two wild isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis nouraguensis Hybrid inviability results from the incompatibility between a maternally inherited cytoplasmic factor from each strain and a recessive nuclear locus from the other...
March 10, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056065/wolbachia-infections-in-aedes-aegypti-differ-markedly-in-their-response-to-cyclical-heat-stress
#10
Perran A Ross, Itsanun Wiwatanaratanabutr, Jason K Axford, Vanessa L White, Nancy M Endersby-Harshman, Ary A Hoffmann
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia bacteria are currently being released for arbovirus suppression around the world. Their potential to invade populations and persist will depend on interactions with environmental conditions, particularly as larvae are often exposed to fluctuating and extreme temperatures in the field. We reared Ae. aegypti larvae infected with different types of Wolbachia (wMel, wAlbB and wMelPop-CLA) under diurnal cyclical temperatures. Rearing wMel and wMelPop-CLA-infected larvae at 26-37°C reduced the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility, a reproductive manipulation induced by Wolbachia...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997046/the-on-again-off-again-relationship-between-mitochondrial-genomes-and-species-boundaries
#11
Daniel B Sloan, Justin C Havird, Joel Sharbrough
The study of reproductive isolation and species barriers frequently focuses on mitochondrial genomes and has produced two alternative and almost diametrically opposed narratives. On one hand, mtDNA may be at the forefront of speciation events, with coevolved mitonuclear interactions responsible for some of the earliest genetic incompatibilities arising among isolated populations. On the other hand, there are numerous cases of introgression of mtDNA across species boundaries even when nuclear gene flow is restricted...
December 20, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982076/establishment-of-the-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-inducing-wolbachia-strain-wmel-in-an-important-agricultural-pest-insect
#12
Xiao-Fei Zhou, Zheng-Xi Li
The wMel Wolbachia strain was known for cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-induction and blocking the transmission of dengue. However, it is unknown whether it can establish and induce CI in a non-dipteran host insect. Here we artificially transferred wMel from Drosophila melanogaster into the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation demonstrated that wMel had successfully transfected the new host. Reciprocal crossing was conducted with wMel-transfected and wild-type isofemale lines, indicating that wMel could induce a strong CI without imposing significant cost on host fecundity...
December 16, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974481/unc-84-linc-ing-chromosome-movement-and-double-strand-break-repair
#13
Nicola Silva, Verena Jantsch
Assaults to our DNA take place at a high frequency and are incompatible with life. In this issue, Lawrence et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201604112) demonstrate that a novel complex links the nucleus with cytoplasmic microtubules for the promotion of DNA repair by homologous recombination.
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821433/wolbachia-in-the-drosophila-yakuba-complex-pervasive-frequency-variation-and-weak-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-but-no-apparent-effect-on-reproductive-isolation
#14
Brandon S Cooper, Paul S Ginsberg, Michael Turelli, Daniel R Matute
Three hybridizing species-the clade [(Drosophila yakuba, D. santomea), D. teissieri]-comprise the yakuba complex in the D. melanogaster subgroup. Their ranges overlap on Bioko and São Tomé, islands off west Africa. All three species are infected with Wolbachia-maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria, best known for manipulating host reproduction to favor infected females. Previous analyses reported no cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in these species. However, we discovered that Wolbachia from each species cause intraspecific and interspecific CI...
January 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734242/modeling-the-effects-of-augmentation-strategies-on-the-control-of-dengue-fever-with-an-impulsive-differential-equation
#15
Xianghong Zhang, Sanyi Tang, Robert A Cheke, Huaiping Zhu
Dengue fever has rapidly become the world's most common vector-borne viral disease. Use of endosymbiotic Wolbachia is an innovative technology to prevent vector mosquitoes from reproducing and so break the cycle of dengue transmission. However, strategies such as population eradication and replacement will only succeed if appropriate augmentations with Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes that take account of a variety of factors are carried out. Here, we describe the spread of Wolbachia in mosquito populations using an impulsive differential system with four state variables, incorporating the effects of cytoplasmic incompatibility and the augmentation of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes with different sex ratios...
October 12, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721807/disentangling-a-holobiont-recent-advances-and-perspectives-in-nasonia-wasps
#16
Jessica Dittmer, Edward J van Opstal, J Dylan Shropshire, Seth R Bordenstein, Gregory D D Hurst, Robert M Brucker
The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) is a well-established model organism for insect development, evolutionary genetics, speciation, and symbiosis. The host-microbiota assemblage which constitutes the Nasonia holobiont (a host together with all of its associated microbes) consists of viruses, two heritable bacterial symbionts and a bacterial community dominated in abundance by a few taxa in the gut. In the wild, all four Nasonia species are systematically infected with the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia and can additionally be co-infected with Arsenophonus nasoniae...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628851/two-sex-mosquito-model-for-the-persistence-of-wolbachia
#17
Ling Xue, Carrie A Manore, Panpim Thongsripong, James M Hyman
We develop and analyse an ordinary differential equation model to investigate the transmission dynamics of releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes to establish an endemic infection in a population of wild uninfected mosquitoes. Wolbachia is a genus of endosymbiotic bacteria that can infect mosquitoes and reduce their ability to transmit some viral mosquito-transmitted diseases, including dengue fever, chikungunya, and Zika. Although the bacterium is transmitted vertically from infected mothers to their offspring, it can be difficult to establish an endemic infection in a wild mosquito population...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543297/genomes-of-candidatus-wolbachia-bourtzisii-wdaca-and-candidatus-wolbachia-pipientis-wdacb-from-the-cochineal-insect-dactylopius-coccus-hemiptera-dactylopiidae
#18
Shamayim T Ramírez-Puebla, Ernesto Ormeño-Orrillo, Arturo Vera-Ponce de León, Luis Lozano, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Mónica Rosenblueth, Esperanza Martínez-Romero
Dactylopius species, known as cochineal insects, are the source of the carminic acid dye used worldwide. The presence of two Wolbachia strains in Dactylopius coccus from Mexico was revealed by PCR amplification of wsp and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. A metagenome analysis recovered the genome sequences of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA (supergroup A) and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB (supergroup B). Genome read coverage, as well as 16S rRNA clone sequencing, revealed that wDacB was more abundant than wDacA...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530694/-darwin-s-corollary-and-cytoplasmic-incompatibility-induced-by-cardinium-may-contribute-to-speciation-in-encarsia-wasps-hymenoptera-aphelinidae
#19
Marco Gebiola, Suzanne E Kelly, Peter Hammerstein, Massimo Giorgini, Martha S Hunter
The potential importance of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) - inducing bacterial symbionts in speciation of their arthropod hosts has been debated. Theoretical advances have led to a consensus that a role is plausible when CI is combined with other isolating barriers. However, the insect model systems Nasonia and Drosophila are the only two experimental examples documented. Here we analyzed the components of reproductive isolation between the parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae, which is infected by the CI-inducing symbiont Cardinium, and its uninfected sibling species Encarsia gennaroi...
August 17, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498563/wolbachia-protein-tomo-targets-nanos-mrna-and-restores-germ-stem-cells-in-drosophila-sex-lethal-mutants
#20
Manabu Ote, Morio Ueyama, Daisuke Yamamoto
Wolbachia, endosymbiotic bacteria prevalent in invertebrates, manipulate their hosts in a variety of ways: they induce cytoplasmic incompatibility, male lethality, male-to-female transformation, and parthenogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular basis for host manipulation by these bacteria. In Drosophila melanogaster, Wolbachia infection makes otherwise sterile Sex-lethal (Sxl) mutant females capable of producing mature eggs. Through a functional genomic screen for Wolbachia genes with growth-inhibitory effects when expressed in cultured Drosophila cells, we identified the gene WD1278 encoding a novel protein we call toxic manipulator of oogenesis (TomO), which phenocopies some of the Wolbachia effects in Sxl mutant D...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
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