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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735206/electrochemical-treatment-of-biologically-pre-treated-dairy-wastewater-using-dimensionally-stable-anodes
#1
Vlasia Markou, Maria-Christina Kontogianni, Zacharias Frontistis, Athanasia G Tekerlekopoulou, Alexandros Katsaounis, Dimitris Vayenas
In this work, electrochemical oxidation of aerobically pre-treated dairy wastewaters using IrO2-Pt coated dimensionally stable anodes was investigated. It was found that IrO2/Ti electrode outperforming Pt/Ti and IrO2-Pt/Ti at lower current densities, while Pt/Ti achieved better efficiency at higher current density. Among the different parameters which were studied, the current density was the most crucial for the efficiency of the process. A current density of 100 mA/cm(2) led to almost complete removal of 3700 mg/L COD after 360 min of treatment using IrO2/Ti electrode and 0...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734351/capillary-electrophoresis-tandem-mass-spectrometry-as-a-highly-selective-tool-for-the-compositional-and-site-specific-assessment-of-multiple-peptide-deamidation
#2
Elena Dominguez-Vega, Thomas De Vijlder, Edwin P Romijn, Govert W Somsen
Site-specific mapping of multiple deamidations in peptides is a challenging analytical task. In this work, capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) is presented as a high-resolution tool for the detailed characterization of these subtle modifications in peptides. The 4.5-kDa peptide drug TRI-1144, which contains five closely-positioned potential deamidation sites, was selected as model compound. TRI-1144 was exposed to acidic conditions and/or elevated temperatures for 1-14 h. Stressed samples were analyzed using a background electrolyte (BGE) of 150 mM ammonium formate (pH 6...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734311/a-monte-carlo-simulation-of-ionic-conductivity-and-viscosity-of-highly-concentrated-electrolytes-based-on-a-pseudo-lattice-model
#3
Hiroyuki Ozaki, Kentaro Kuratani, Hikaru Sano, Tetsu Kiyobayashi
Simulating three transport phenomena-ionic conductivity, viscosity, and self-diffusion coefficient-in a common Monte-Carlo framework, we discuss their relationship to the intermolecular interactions of electrolyte solutions at high concentrations (C/mol l(-1) ∼ 1). The simulation is predicated on a pseudolattice model of the solution. The ions and solvents (collectively termed "molecules") are considered dimensionless points occupying the lattice sites. The molecular transport is realized by a repetition of swapping two adjacent molecules by the stochastic Gibbs sampling process based on simple intermolecular interactions...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734277/note-density-functional-theory-for-uniformly-charged-hard-sphere-ions
#4
Seanea Jang, Ghi Ryang Shin, Soon-Chul Kim
The density function theory has been proposed for studying the structural properties of electrolytes containing uniformly charged hard-spherical ions. The calculated result shows good agreement with the corresponding Monte Carlo simulation data of Bohinc et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 234901 (2016)]. The results confirm that the attraction between like-charged planar surfaces is the results of the intra-ionic correlation and depends strongly on the charge distribution of hard-sphere ions.
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734221/treatment-of-highly-toxic-cardboard-plant-wastewater-by-a-combination-of-electrocoagulation-and-electrooxidation-processes
#5
Erhan Gengec
The objective of this study was to investigate the removal efficiencies of the electrochemical treatment systems as an alternative for the treatment of cardboard plant wastewater (CPW). In accordance with this purpose, CPW was treated by electrocoagulation (EC) with Al electrodes and the effects of current density (CD), operating time (t), and initial pH (pHi) were investigated. The results showed that EC at optimum treatment conditions (CD: 7.5mA/cm(2), pHi: 7.0 and t: 60min) have limited removal efficiencies for total organic carbon (TOC; 17...
July 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733585/robust-hierarchical-3d-carbon-foam-electrode-for-efficient-water-electrolysis
#6
Tung Ngoc Pham, Tiva Sharifi, Robin Sandström, William Siljebo, Andrey Shchukarev, Krisztian Kordas, Thomas Wågberg, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
Herein we report a 3D heterostructure comprising a hierarchical macroporous carbon foam that incorporates mesoporous carbon nanotubes decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles as an unique and highly efficient electrode material for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in electrocatalytic water splitting. The best performing electrode material showed high stability after 10 h, at constant potential of 1.7 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) in a 0.1 M KOH solution and high electrocatalytic activity in OER with low overpotential (0...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732999/ultrasonic-depolymerization-of-li2o-na2o-sio2-type-silicate-melt
#7
Yi Min, Zhenxing Shi, Chengjun Liu
Under the application of ultrasound, the organic polymers can be degraded for the reason of breakage of C-C or C-N bond induced by the cavitation effect, similar to organic polymers, the silicate melts are also one typical polymer connected with Si-O bonds. To verify the prediction of the depolymerization of silicate melt, the ultrasound was applied to one kind of silicate melt for the first time via a special designed experimental system. Results showed that, under the applying of the ultrasound, the Si-O (bridged O) bonds in the structure units of the silicate melt can be broken, which decreases the polymerization degree and the viscosity...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732973/enhanced-photodegradation-of-dye-in-waste-water-using-iron-vanadate-nanocomposite-ultrasound-assisted-preparation-and-characterization
#8
Maryam Ghiyasiyan-Arani, Masoud Salavati-Niasari, Sara Naseh
The paper proposes a new approach to Schiff-base ligand assisted sonochemical synthesis of iron vanadate. In this disquisition, we tried to comparing various factors and reaction condition on morphology, size and uniformity of as-obtained samples. Some parameters including Schiff-base capping agent (Bis(acetylacetone) ethylenediamine=H2acacen), electrolyte (NH4F), solvent and reaction time were investigated to reach optimum condition. XRD, FT-IR, EDS, SEM and TEM were used in order to determine purity and structural morphology of as-synthesized products...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732394/surface-charge-effects-on-the-electro-orientation-of-insulating-boron-nitride-nanotubes-in-aqueous-suspension
#9
Semih Cetindag, Bishnu Tiwari, Dongyan Zhang, Yoke Khin Yap, Sangil Kim, Jerry W Shan
The alignment of hexagonal boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in aqueous KCl solutions under spatially uniform electric fields was examined experimentally, using direct optical visualization to probe the orientation dynamics of individual BNNTs for different electric-field frequencies. Different from most previously studied nanowires and nanotubes, BNNTs are wide-bandgap materials which are essentially insulating at room temperature. We analyze the electro-orientation of BNNTs in the general context of polarizable cylindrical particles in liquid suspensions, whose behavior can fall into different regimes, including alignment due to Maxwell-Wagner induced dipoles at high frequencies, and alignment due to fluid motion of the electrical double layer around the particles at lower frequencies...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732314/the-effect-of-low-dose-furosemide-in-critically-ill-patients-with-early-acute-kidney-injury-a-pilot-randomized-blinded-controlled-trial-the-spark-study
#10
Sean M Bagshaw, R T Noel Gibney, Peter Kruger, Imran Hassan, Finlay A McAlister, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE: Furosemide is commonly prescribed in acute kidney injury (AKI). Prior studies have found conflicting findings on whether furosemide modifies the course and outcome of AKI. METHODS: Pilot multi-center randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial in adult patients with AKI admitted to three intensive care units. Participants were randomly allocated to furosemide bolus and infusion or 0.9% saline placebo. Primary endpoint was worsening AKI, defined by the RIFLE criteria...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732164/electrochemical-intercalation-of-mg-2-into-anhydrous-and-hydrated-crystalline-tungsten-oxides
#11
Ruocun Wang, Ching-Chang Chung, Yang Liu, Jacob L Jones, Veronica Augustyn
The reversible intercalation of multivalent cations, especially Mg(2+), into a solid-state electrode is an attractive mechanism for next-generation energy storage devices. These reactions typically exhibit poor kinetics due to a high activation energy for interfacial charge-transfer and slow solid-state diffusion. Interlayer water in V2O5 and MnO2 has been shown to improve Mg(2+) intercalation kinetics in non-aqueous electrolytes. Here, the effect of structural water on Mg(2+) intercalation in non-aqueous electrolytes is examined in crystalline WO3 and the related hydrated and layered WO3·nH2O (n = 1, 2)...
July 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732139/advances-in-electrocatalysis-for-energy-conversion-and-synthesis-of-organic-molecules
#12
Yaovi Holade, Karine Servat, Sophie Tingry, Teko W Napporn, Hynd Remita, David Cornu, Kouakou Boniface Kokoh
The ubiquitous electrochemistry is expected to play a major role for reliable energy, and for production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. For organics-based electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium, the fundamental understandings at solid-liquid interfaces involve relatively complex mechanisms and performance descriptors (from the electrolyte and reaction intermediates), which undermine the roads towards advance and breakthroughs. Here, we review and diagnose recently designed strategies for the electrochemical conversion of organics into electricity or high added- value chemicals, and likely both...
July 21, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731713/revealing-the-electrochemical-charging-mechanism-of-nano-sized-li2s-by-in-situ-and-operando-x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy
#13
Liang Zhang, Dan Sun, Jun Feng, Elton J Cairns, Jinghua Guo
Lithium sulfide (Li2S) is a promising cathode material for lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells due to its high theoretical specific capacity (1166 mAh g(-1)) and capability to pair with non-metallic lithium anodes to avoid potential safety issues. However, when used as the cathode a high charging voltage (~ 4 V vs. Li+/Li) is always necessary to activate Li2S in the first charge process, and the voltage profile becomes similar to that of a common sulfur electrode in the following charge processes. In this report, we have prepared an electrode of nano-sphere Li2S particles and investigated its charging mechanism of the initial two charge processes by in-situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731629/stabilizing-the-performance-of-high-capacity-sulfur-composite-electrodes-by-a-novel-gel-polymer-electrolyte-configuration
#14
Marco Agostini, Du Hyun Lim, Matthew Sadd, Fasciani Chiara, Maria Assunta Navarra, Stefania Panero, Sergio Brutti, Aleksandar Matic, Bruno Scrosati
Increased pollution and the consequent increasing in global warming are drawing attention to the larger use of renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, the production of energy from most renewable sources is intermittent and thus relies on the availability of electrical energy storage systems with high capacity and at competitive cost. Lithium-sulfur batteries are among the most promising technologies in this respect due to a very high theoretical energy density (1675 mAh g-1) and that the active material, S, is abundant and cheap...
July 21, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731319/few-layered-mo-1-x-wxs2-hollow-nanospheres-on-ni3s2-nanorods-heterostructure-as-robust-electrocatalysts-for-overall-water-splitting
#15
Meiyong Zheng, Jing Du, Baopu Hou, Cai-Ling Xu
Owing to the unique optical, electronic and catalytic properties, MoS2 have received increasing interests in electrochemical water splitting. Herein, few-layered Mo(1-x)WxS2 hollow nanospheres modified Ni3S2 heterostructures are prepared through a facile hydrothermal method to further enhance the electro-catalytic performance of MoS2. The doping of W element optimizes the electronic structure of MoS2@Ni3S2, thus improves the conductivity and charge transfer ability of MoS2@Ni3S2. In addition, benefiting from the few-layered hollow structure of Mo(1-x)WxS2, the strong electronic interactions between Mo(1-x)WxS2 and Ni3S2, and the hierarchical structure of 1D nanorods and 3D Ni foam, massive active sites and fast ion and charge transportion are obtained...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731317/air-stable-self-bleaching-electrochromic-device-based-on-viologen-and-ferrocene-containing-triflimide-redox-ionic-liquids
#16
Bruno Gélinas, Dyuman Das, Dominic Rochefort
We demonstrate an electrochromic device with self-bleaching ability that uses ethyl viologen- ([EV](2+)) and ferrocene-based redox ionic liquids ([FcNTf](-)) as the electroactive species. These electroactive compounds are insensitive to atmospheric O2 and H2O in both their oxidized and reduced states once dissolved in a typical ionic liquid electrolyte ([BMIm][NTf2]), allowing for the device to be assembled outside a glovebox without any encapsulation. This device could generate a deep blue color by applying a 2...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731110/a-redox-controlled-electrolyte-for-plasmonic-enhanced-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#17
Yuqiao Fu, Siu-Pang Ng, Guangyu Qiu, Tak-Fu Hung, Chi-Man Lawrence Wu, Chun-Sing Lee
Plasmonic enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with metallic nanostructures suffer from corrosion problems, especially with the presence of the iodine/triiodide redox couple in the electrolyte. Herein, we introduce an alternative approach by compensating the corrosion with a modified liquid electrolyte. In contrast to the existing method of surface preservation for plasmonic nanostructures, the redox-controlled electrolyte (RCE) contains iodoaurate intermediates, i.e. gold(i) diiodide (AuI2(-)) and gold(iii) tetraiodide (AuI4(-)) with optimal concentrations, such that these intermediates are readily reduced to gold nanoparticles during the operation of DSSCs...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730818/nanoscale-mechanics-of-the-solid-electrolyte-interphase-on-lithiated-silicon-electrodes
#18
Haoran Wang, Huck Beng Chew
The ~300% volume changes of lithiated silicon electrodes (LixSi) during electrochemical cycling lead to cracking of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI). Here, we report how strain is transferred from LixSi to two primary inorganic SEI components: LiF and Li2O. Our first principle calculations show that LiF, effectively bonded on LixSi at x > 1, enables the entire interface structure to deform plastically by forming delocalized stable voids. In contrast, Li2O tightly bonded to LixSi is stiffer, and deforms rigidly across all x...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730817/efficient-solid-state-electrochemiluminescence-from-high-quality-perovskite-quantum-dot-films
#19
Jingjing Xue, Ziyi Zhang, Fenfen Zheng, Qin Xu, Jinchun Xu, Guizheng Zou, Lingling Li, Jun-Jie Zhu
Halide perovskite materials have emerged as a new class of revolutionary photovoltaic and optoelectronic nanomaterials. However, the study on electrochemiluminescence (ECL) from halide perovskite nanomaterials is still in its infancy due to their instability, sensitivity, and difficulties in purification and film formation. Here we propose a scraping coating method for the fabrication of high-quality halide perovskite quntum dot (QD) film on electrode, which shows dense and uniform packing with minimum grain size...
July 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730291/electrolyte-disorders-with-platinum-based-chemotherapy-mechanisms-manifestations-and-management
#20
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Scott Caroen, Arnold Oronsky, Vaughn E Dobalian, Neil Oronsky, Michelle Lybeck, Tony R Reid, Corey A Carter
Platinum chemotherapy, particularly cisplatin, is commonly associated with electrolyte imbalances, including hypomagnesemia, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyponatremia. The corpus of literature on these dyselectrolytemias is large; the objective of this review is to synthesize the literature and summarize the mechanisms responsible for these particular electrolyte disturbances in the context of platinum-based treatment as well as to present the clinical manifestations and current management strategies for oncologists and primary care physicians, since the latter are increasingly called on to provide care for cancer patients with medical comorbidities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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