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José Manuel Vicent-Luna, Eneko Azaceta, Said Hamad, José Manuel Ortiz-Roldán, Ramón Tena-Zaera, Sofía Calero, Juan Antonio Anta
Among many other applications, room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are used as electrolytes for storage and energy-conversion devices. In this work, we investigate, at the microscopic level, the structural and dynamical properties of 1-methyl-1-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [C4 PYR]+ [Tf2 N]- IL-based electrolytes for metal-ion batteries. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of electrolytes mainly composed of [C4 PYR]+ [Tf2 N]- IL with the addition of Mn+ -[Tf2 N]- metal salts (M=Li+ , Na+ , Ni2+ , Zn2+ , Co2+ , Cd2+ , and Al3+ , n=1, 2, and 3) dissolved in the IL...
April 18, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Xiaoming Zhang, Tianwei Gu, Shaodong Shi, Leyi Li, Shansheng Yu
Pt monolayer catalyst could greatly reduce the use of platinum. However, the core or subsurface transition metal could easily segregate to the surface and eventually selectively dissolve in the working conditions. In this work, a type of PtML /MML /WC multi-layer structure catalyst has been designed using DFT method. The results show that the stability of W-terminated core catalysts is lower than that of the corresponding C-terminated one. More importantly, C-terminated PtML/CoML/WC alloy could also maintain a stable platinum monolayer structure in various electrolyte solutions (eg, perchloric acid, phosphoric acid, alkaline solutions) and via different ORR pathways, in addition to the previously well-known precious alloy elements, such as Ru, Ir, etc...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xueqing Liu, Sha Peng, Shuyu Gao, Yuancheng Cao, Qingliang You, Liyong Zhou, Yongcheng Jin, Zhihong Liu, Jiyan Liu
It is of great significance to seek high performance solid electrolytes via a facile chemistry and simple process for meeting the requirements of solid batteries. Previous reports revealed that ion conducting pathways within ceramic-polymer composite electrolytes mainly occur at ceramic particles and the ceramic-polymer interface. Herein, one facile strategy towards ceramic particles alignment and assembly induced by an external alternating-current electric-field were presented. It was manifested by in-situ optical microscope that Li1...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Huiteng Tan, Lianhua Xu, Hongbo Geng, Xianhong Rui, Chengchao Li, Shaoming Huang
To further increase the energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), monoclinic Li3 V2 (PO4 )3 attracts much attention. However, the intrinsic low electrical conductivity (2.4 × 10-7 S cm-1 ) and sluggish kinetics become major drawbacks that keep Li3 V2 (PO4 )3 away from meeting its full potential in high rate performance. Recently, significant breakthroughs in electrochemical performance (e.g., rate capability and cycling stability) have been achieved by utilizing advanced nanotechnologies...
April 18, 2018: Small
Cheng Peng, Chengzhi Guan, Jun Lin, Shiyu Zhang, Hongliang Bao, Yu Wang, Guoping Xiao, George Zheng Chen, Jianqiang Wang
The energy and power density of conventional batteries are far lower than their theoretical expectations, primarily because of the slow reaction kinetics in the battery that is often working under ambient conditions. Here we describe a low-cost and high-temperature rechargeable iron-oxygen battery containing a cascade bi-phase electrolyte of molten carbonate and solid oxide. This new design merges the merits of solid oxide fuel cell and molten metal-air battery, offering significantly improved battery reaction kinetics and hence the power capability without compromising the energy capacity...
April 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Liqi Sun, Yingying Xie, Xiao-Zhen Liao, Hong Wang, Guoqiang Tan, Zonghai Chen, Yang Ren, Jihyeon Gim, Wan Tang, Yu-Shi He, Khalil Amine, Zi-Feng Ma
O3-type NaNi1/3 Fe1/3 Mn1/3 O2 (NaNFM) is well investigated as a promising cathode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), but the cycling stability of NaNFM still needs to be improved by using novel electrolytes or optimizing their structure with the substitution of different elements sites. To enlarge the alkali-layer distance inside the layer structure of NaNFM may benefit Na+ diffusion. Herein, the effect of Ca-substitution is reported in Na sites on the structural and electrochemical properties of Na1- x Cax /2 NFM (x = 0, 0...
April 18, 2018: Small
Huiqiao Wang, Jinjin Zhang, Jiajing Tan, Lilan Xin, Yaping Li, Sheng Zhang, Kun Xu
An electrochemically intramolecular functionalization of C(sp3 )-H bonds with masked oxygen nucleophiles was developed. With KI as the catalyst and electrolyte, diverse trisubstituted 2-oxazolines were constructed in good to excellent yields. This newly developed electrochemical dehydrogenative approach features external oxidant-free and additive-free conditions.
April 17, 2018: Organic Letters
Ruifang Ma, Ling Fan, Suhua Chen, Zengxi Wei, Yuhua Yang, Hongguan Yang, Yong Qin, Bingan Lu
Sodium dual ion batteries (NDIBs) are attracting extensive attention recently due to their low cost and abundant sodium resources. However, the low capacity of the carbonaceous anode would reduce the energy density and the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation in the anode during the initial cycles would consume large amount Na+ in the electrolyte, resulting in low Coulombic efficiency and inferior stability of the NDIBs. To address these issues, a phosphorus-doped soft carbon (P-SC) anode combination with a pre-sodiation process is developed to enhance the performance of the NDIBs...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qingqing Qin, Jiaqin Liu, Wenping Mao, Chenxi Xu, Binbin Lan, Yan Wang, Yong Zhang, Jian Yan, Yucheng Wu
Energy density and mechanical strength are crucial for practical usage of flexible supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a flexible supercapacitor using Ni(OH)2/CNTs hierarchical spheres with high specific capacity (854 C g-1) and tough PBI-KOH solid polymer electrolyte. The integrated device shows high specific energy (50.6 W h kg-1) and good flexibility under folding tests.
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Bowen Wang, Weigang Zhang, Lei Wang, Jiake Wei, XueDong Bai, Jingyue Liu, Guanhua Zhang, Huigao Duan
Design and synthesis of integrated, interconnected porous structures are critical to the development of high-performance supercapacitors. We develop a novel and facial synthesis technic to construct three-dimensional carbon-bubble foams with hierarchical pores geometry. The carbon-bubble foams are fabricated by conformally coating, via catalytic decomposition of ethanol, a layer of carbon coating onto the surfaces of pre-formed ZnO foams and then the removal of the ZnO template by a reduction-evaporation process...
April 17, 2018: Nanotechnology
Joey A Lussier, Fabian J Simon, Pamela S Whitfield, Kalpana Singh, Venkataraman Thangadurai, Mario Bieringer
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are solid-state electrochemical devices that directly convert chemical energy of fuels into electricity with high efficiency. Because of their fuel flexibility, low emissions, high conversion efficiency, no moving parts, and quiet operation, they are considered as a promising energy conversion technology for low carbon future needs. Solid-state oxide and proton conducting electrolytes play a crucial role in improving the performance and market acceptability of SOFCs. Defect fluorite phases are some of the most promising fast oxide ion conductors for use as electrolytes in SOFCs...
April 17, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Yi-Hsuan Chiu, Ting-Hsuan Lai, Chun-Yi Chen, Ping-Yen Hsieh, Kazunari Ozasa, Mitsuo Niinomi, Kiyoshi Okada, Tso-Fu Mark Chang, Nobuhiro Matsushita, Masato Sone, Yung-Jung Hsu
Poor kinetics of hole transportation at the electrode/electrolyte interface is regarded as a primary cause for the mediocre performance of n-type TiO2 photoelectrodes. By adopting nanotubes as the electrode backbone, light absorption and carrier collection can be spatially decoupled, allowing n-type TiO2, with its short hole diffusion length, to maximize the use of the available photoexcited charge carriers during operation in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. Here, we presented a delicate electrochemical anodization process for the preparation of quaternary Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr-O mixed-oxides (denoted as TNTZO) nanotube arrays and demonstrated their utility in PEC water splitting...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Buddha Deka Boruah, Arnab Maji, Abha Misra
On-chip micro-supercapacitor (MSC) pattern is obtained by layer-by-layer spray deposition of both manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoparticles coated carbon nanotubes (MnO2-CNTs) and MnO2 nanosheets decorated reduced graphene oxide (MnO2-rGO) on mechanically robust, flexible polyethylene terephthalate. Layer-by-layer patterning of MSC electrode offers rapid in-plane diffusion of electrolyte ion in electrode with respect to the layered electrode and hence increase in the synergistic response under energy storage process...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Petra Riasová, Dagmar Doubková, Lucie Pincová, Ondřej Jung, Miroslav Polášek, Pavel Jáč
A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of indomethacin impurities (4-chlorobenzoic acid, 5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indoleacetic acid and 3,4-dichloroindomethacin) has been developed. A 64.5/56-cm fused silica 50 μm id capillary with extended light path (150 μm id) detection window was used. Internal standard was 1-naphthylacetic acid. The analytes were separated at 30 kV with DAD detection at 224 nm. A central composite face-centered design was applied for the optimization of the separation conditions...
April 17, 2018: Electrophoresis
Jingjing Yan, Hui Wang, Shan Ji, Bruno G Pollet, Rongfang Wang
The practical performance of MnO2 as a capacitor material is limited mainly by its poor electronic conductivity. Arranging MnO2 on the conductive backbone to form a unique hierarchical nanostructure is an efficient way to enhance its capacitor performance. Herein, a hierarchically core-shell structure, in which thin γ-MnO2 sheets are grown on amorphous CoB alloy nano-chains (CoB@MnO2), is produced via a simple and scalable solution-phase procedure at room temperature. A specific capacitance of 612.0 F g-1 is obtained for the CoB@MnO2 capacitor electrode at a discharge current density of 0...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Alagappan Annamalai, Robin Sandström, Eduardo Gracia-Espino, Nicolas Boulanger, Jean-Francois Boily, Inge Muehlbacher, Andrey Shchukarev, Thomas Wagberg
In order to exploit the full potential of hematite (α-Fe2O3) as an efficient photoanode for water oxidation, the redox processes occurring at the Fe2O3/electrolyte interface needs to be studied in greater detail. Ex-situ doping is an excellent technique to introduce dopants onto the photoanode surface and to modify the photoanode/electrolyte interface. In this context, we selected antimony (Sb5+) as ex-situ dopant for its effective electron donor and reduced recombination effects and concurrently utilize the possibility to tune surface charge and wettability...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Fabile Schlickmann, Thaise Boeing, Luisa Nathália Bolda Mariano, Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca da Silva, Luisa Mota da Silva, Sérgio Faloni de Andrade, Priscila de Souza, Valdir Cechinel-Filho
Although present in the leaves of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) and many other medicinal plants commonly used to augment urinary volume excretion, the effects of gallic acid as a diuretic agent remain to be studied. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, hydrochlorothiazide, or gallic acid. The effects of gallic acid in the presence of hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, amiloride, L-NAME, atropine, and indomethacin were also investigated. Diuretic index, pH, conductivity, and electrolyte excretion were evaluated at the end of the experiment (after 8 or 24 h)...
April 16, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Doaa A Abdelmoety, Nahid K El-Bakri, Wedian O Almowalld, Zyad A Turkistani, Bassam H Bugis, Eshraq A Baseif, Mohamed H Melbari, Khaled AlHarbi, Amani Abu-Shaheen
Introduction: Data regarding the characteristics and outcomes of heat illness are lacking in the literature. The present study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics, morbidity, management, and mortality associated with heat illness among Hajj participants. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the Hajj in 2016 on patients who presented to emergency departments and were diagnosed with heat exhaustion or heatstroke. Data were collected using a structured collection sheet developed based on the literature...
2018: BioMed Research International
Fei Wang, Oleg Borodin, Tao Gao, Xiulin Fan, Wei Sun, Fudong Han, Antonio Faraone, Joseph A Dura, Kang Xu, Chunsheng Wang
Metallic zinc (Zn) has been regarded as an ideal anode material for aqueous batteries because of its high theoretical capacity (820 mA h g-1 ), low potential (-0.762 V versus the standard hydrogen electrode), high abundance, low toxicity and intrinsic safety. However, aqueous Zn chemistry persistently suffers from irreversibility issues, as exemplified by its low coulombic efficiency (CE) and dendrite growth during plating/ stripping, and sustained water consumption. In this work, we demonstrate that an aqueous electrolyte based on Zn and lithium salts at high concentrations is a very effective way to address these issues...
April 16, 2018: Nature Materials
Katalin Peto, Norbert Nemeth, Anita Mester, Zsuzsanna Magyar, Souleiman Ghanem, Viktoria Somogyi, Bence Tanczos, Adam Deak, Laszlo Bidiga, Ede Frecska, Balazs Nemes
BACKGROUND: Micro-rheological relations of renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) have not been completely elucidated yet. Concerning anti-inflammatory agents, it is supposed that sigma-1 receptor agonist N,N-dimethyl-tryptamin (DMT) can be useful to reduce I/R injury. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the micro-rheological and metabolic parameters, and the effects of DMT in renal I/R in rats. METHODS: In anesthetized rats from median laparotomy both kidneys were exposed...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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