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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236020/application-of-response-surface-methodology-as-a-new-pid-tuning-method-in-an-electrocoagulation-process-control-case
#1
Ş Camcıoğlu, B Özyurt, I C Doğan, H Hapoğlu
In this work the application of response surface methodology (RSM) to proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller parameter tuning for electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater was researched. Dynamic data for two controlled variables (pH and electrical conductivity) were obtained under pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) input signals applied to manipulated variables (acid and supporting electrolyte flow rates). Third order plus time delay model parameters were evaluated through System Identification Toolbox™ in MATLAB®...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236002/anodic-oxidation-of-slaughterhouse-wastewater-on-boron-doped-diamond-process-variables-effect
#2
Arwa Abdelhay, Inshad Jum'h, Enas Abdulhay, Akeel Al-Kazwini, Mashael Alzubi
A non-sacrificial boron-doped diamond electrode was prepared in the laboratory and used as a novel anode for electrochemical oxidation of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. This wastewater poses environmental threats as it is characterized by a high content of recalcitrant organics. The influence of several process variables, applied current density, initial pH, supporting electrolyte nature, and concentration of electrocoagulant, on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, color removal, and turbidity removal was investigated...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235851/semi-interpenetrating-polymer-network-composite-gel-electrolytes-employing-vinyl-functionalized-silica-for-lithium-oxygen-batteries-with-enhanced-cycling-stability
#3
Hyun-Sik Woo, Yong-Bok Moon, Samuel Seo, Ho-Taek Lee, Dong-Won Kim
A major challenge of lithium-oxygen batteries is to develop a stable electrolyte not only to suppress solvent evaporation and lithium dendrite growth, but also to resist against the attack by superoxide anion radical formed at the positive electrode. The present study demonstrates the enhancement of cycling stability by addressing the above challenges through the use of three-dimensional semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) composite gel polymer electrolyte when fabricating the lithium-oxygen cell...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235735/homemade-hypertonic-saline-essential-treatment-can-be-available-and-affordable
#4
Nili Elior, Diana Tasher, Elli Somekh, Michal Stein, Orna Schwartz Harari, Avigdor Mandelberg
BACKGROUND: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment is unavailable to large populations worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To determine the bacterial contamination and electrolyte concentrations in homemade (HM-HS) vs. pharmacy made (PM-HS). METHODS: We conducted three double-blind consecutive trials: 50 boiled-water homemade 3%-HS (B-HM-HS) bottles and 50 PM-HS. The bottles were cultured after 48 hours. Electrolyte concentrations were measured in 10 bottles (5 per group)...
December 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235726/chemical-immobilization-effect-on-lithium-polysulfides-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#5
REVIEW
Caixia Li, Zhucong Xi, Dexiang Guo, Xiangju Chen, Longwei Yin
Despite great progress in lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs), great obstacles still exist to achieve high loading content of sulfur and avoid the loss of active materials due to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfide products in the electrolyte. Relationships between the intrinsic properties of nanostructured hosts and electrochemical performance of LSBs, especially, the chemical interaction effects on immobilizing polysulfides for LSB cathodes, are discussed in this Review. Moreover, the principle of rational microstructure design for LSB cathode materials with strong chemical interaction adsorbent effects on polysulfides, such as metallic compounds, metal particles, organic polymers, and heteroatom-doped carbon, is mainly described...
December 13, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235721/the-ideal-ionic-liquid-salt-bridge-for-the-direct-determination-of-gibbs-energies-of-transfer-of-single-ions-part-ii-evaluation-of-the-role-of-ion-solvation-and-ion-mobilities
#6
Andreas Ermantraut, Valentin Radtke, Niklas Gebel, Daniel Himmel, Thorsten Koslowski, Ivo Leito, Ingo Krossing
An important intermediate goal to evaluate our concept for the assumption-free determination of single ion Gibbs transfer energies ΔtrG°(i, S1 > S2) is presented: We executed the crucial steps a) and b) of the methodology, described in Part I of this treatise, exemplarily for Ag+ and Cl- with S1 being water and S2 being acetonitrile. The experiments showed that virtually all parts of the liquid junction potentials (LJPs) at both ends of a salt bridge cancel, if the bridge electrolyte is an "ideal" ionic liquid - one with nearly identical diffusion of anion and cation...
December 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235501/room-temperature-performance-of-poly-ethylene-ether-carbonate-based-solid-polymer-electrolytes-for-all-solid-state-lithium-batteries
#7
Yun-Chae Jung, Myung-Soo Park, Duck-Hyun Kim, Makoto Ue, Ali Eftekhari, Dong-Won Kim
Amorphous poly(ethylene ether carbonate) (PEEC), which is a copolymer of ethylene oxide and ethylene carbonate, was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of ethylene carbonate. This route overcame the common issue of low conductivity of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes at low temperatures, and thus the solid polymer electrolyte could be successfully employed at the room temperature. Introducing the ethylene carbonate units into PEEC improved the ionic conductivity, electrochemical stability and lithium transference number compared with PEO...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235164/boosting-bifunctional-oxygen-electrocatalysis-with-3d-graphene-aerogel-supported-ni-mno-particles
#8
Gengtao Fu, Xiaoxiao Yan, Yifan Chen, Lin Xu, Dongmei Sun, Jong-Min Lee, Yawen Tang
Electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction and oxygen-evolution reactions (ORR and OER) are crucial for metal-air batteries, where more costly Pt- and Ir/Ru-based materials are the benchmark catalysts for ORR and OER, respectively. Herein, for the first time Ni is combined with MnO species, and a 3D porous graphene aerogel-supported Ni/MnO (Ni-MnO/rGO aerogel) bifunctional catalyst is prepared via a facile and scalable hydrogel route. The synthetic strategy depends on the formation of a graphene oxide (GO) crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel that allows for the efficient capture of highly active Ni/MnO particles after pyrolysis...
December 13, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234034/electrochemical-production-of-glycolic-acid-from-oxalic-acid-using-a-polymer-electrolyte-alcohol-electrosynthesis-cell-containing-a-porous-tio2-catalyst
#9
Masaaki Sadakiyo, Shinichi Hata, Xuedong Cui, Miho Yamauchi
A liquid flow-type electrolyser that continuously produces an alcohol from a carboxylic acid was constructed by employing a polymer electrolyte, named a polymer electrolyte alcohol electrosynthesis cell (PEAEC). Glycolic acid (GC, an alcoholic compound) is generated on anatase TiO2 catalysts via four-electron reduction of oxalic acid (OX, a divalent carboxylic acid), accompanied with water oxidation, which achieves continuous electric power storage in easily stored GC. Porous anatase TiO2 directly grown on Ti mesh (TiO2/Ti-M) or Ti felt (TiO2/Ti-F) was newly fabricated as a cathode having favourable substrate diffusivity...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233909/oral-contraceptives-and-renal-water-handling-a-diurnal-study-in-young-women
#10
Charlotte Graugaard-Jensen, Gitte M Hvistendahl, Jørgen Frøkiær, Peter Bie, Jens Christian Djurhuus
To test the hypothesis that use of oral contraceptives (OC) changes diurnal variation in fluid balance mechanisms including blood pressure, secretion of vasopressin and oxytocin, and renal water and electrolyte excretion. Fifteen naturally cycling (NC) women in mid-follicular phase and 11 long-term OC users were included in a 24-h standardized inpatient study for measurements of vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium, and osmolality in plasma as well as urinary excretion of electrolytes, aquaporin-2, and prostaglandin E2...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233322/using-simplistic-simulations-to-enhance-learning-in-a-nephrology-pharmacotherapeutics-module
#11
Yen H Dang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a simplistic simulation exercise in a nephrology module on pharmacy students' learning in a three-year concentrated curriculum. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: Second year pharmacy students participated in a two-part simulation on electrolyte imbalances and dialysis in a nephrology pharmacotherapeutics module. Students completed a seven-item anonymous survey at the end of the simulation on a five-point Likert scale to examine the effect of the simulation and their attitudes to the exercise...
September 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232640/decomposition-of-ibuprofen-in-water-via-an-electrochemical-process-with-nano-sized-carbon-black-coated-carbon-cloth-as-oxygen-permeable-cathode-integrated-with-ultrasound
#12
Reza Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Masumeh Mashayekhi
The main aim of the present investigation was the treatment of ibuprofen (IBP)-polluted aquatic phase using a novel oxygen-permeable cathode (OPC)-equipped electrochemical process (ECP) integrated with ultrasound (US). According to kinetic modeling, the decomposition rate of IBP by the integrated process was 3.2 × 10-2 min-1 which was significant in comparison with the OPC-equipped ECP (1.4 × 10-2 min-1) and US alone (2.4 × 10-3 min-1). Increasing the current resulted in the enhanced generation of H2O2 and consequently, improved the degradation of IBP in the solution...
December 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232614/evaluation-of-carbon-nanotube-based-copper-nanoparticle-composite-for-the-efficient-detection-of-agroviruses
#13
Muhammad Ali Tahir, Sadia Z Bajwa, Shahid Mansoor, Rob W Briddon, Waheed S Khan, Brian E Scheffler, Imran Amin
We report a biosensor that combines the construction of a three-dimensional nanocomposite with electrochemical methods for the detection of viruses in plants. This is the first report, where carbon nanotubes are used as a conductive frame to anchor highly electrolytic agglomerates of copper nanoparticles to detect agroviruses. Morphological analysis of nanocomposite revealed the presence of carbon nanotubes having a diameter of 50-100nm with copper nanoparticles of 20-100nm, attached in the form of bunches...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232598/high-performance-bimetallic-alloy-catalyst-using-ni-and-n-co-doped-composite-carbon-for-the-oxygen-electro-reduction
#14
Won Suk Jung
In this study, a novel synthesis method for the bimetallic alloy catalyst is reported, which is subsequently used as an oxygen reduction catalyst in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The support prepared from the Ni-chelate complex shows a mesoporous structure with a specific surface area of ca. 400 m2 g-1 indicating the suitable support for PEMFC applications. Ethylenediamine is converted to the nitrogen and carbon layers to protect the Ni particles which will diffuse into the Pt lattice at 800 °C...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232410/early-variations-of-laboratory-parameters-predicting-shunt-dependent-hydrocephalus-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
Min Kyun Na, Yu Deok Won, Choong Hyun Kim, Jae Min Kim, Jin Hwan Cheong, Je Il Ryu, Myung-Hoon Han
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hydrocephalus is a frequent complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Few studies investigated the association between laboratory parameters and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. This study aimed to investigate the variations of laboratory parameters after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We also attempted to identify predictive laboratory parameters for shunt-dependent hydrocephalus. METHODS: Multiple imputation was performed to fill the missing laboratory data using Bayesian methods in SPSS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232274/from-theory-to-practice-the-diuretic-potential-of-sacubitril-valsartan-a-tale-of-2-patients
#16
Sabrina M Hormann, Lindsay E Davis, Elizabeth K Pogge
BACKGROUND: Heart failure prevalence continues to rise in the United States causing significant morbidity and mortality and costing billions in healthcare expenditures. Consensus guidelines updated in 2016 recommend an angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) as a therapeutic option in lieu of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker for the management of stage C heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). For chronic HFrEF patients with New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms tolerating an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, a change in therapy to an ARNi is recommended to further reduce morbidity and mortality...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232194/persistent-ventricular-bigeminy-during-anesthesia-in-pediatric-patients-a-case-report-of-an-11-year-old-child
#17
Sheetal Dalal, Vikas Chaudhari
An 11-year-old male child with fractures in both bones in his left forearm presented for open reduction and internal fixation. The pre-anesthetic check-up and investigations did not reveal any pre-existing underlying cardio-respiratory disease. The patient had an uneventful peri-operative period during the operation and was comfortable without any anxiety or restlessness. After an uneventful induction and intubation as per routine protocol, the patient received 600 mg of amoxicillin+clavunate intravenously as an antibiotic...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232136/insights-into-solid-electrolyte-interphase-induced-li-ion-degradation-from-in-situ-auger-electron-spectroscopy
#18
Ching-Yen Tang, Yonghui Ma, Richard T Haasch, Jia-Hu Ouyang, Shen J Dillon
Surface reactions occurring on LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, LiNiO2, Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2, and LiFePO4 during charging and overcharging are studied by in situ and ex situ Auger electron spectroscopy. Carbon surface stability at the cathode solid-electrolyte interphas (SEI), associated with carbonate formation, decomposition, and CO/CO2 evolution, on different electrodes during cycling correlates with their cycle life. To understand how associated CO and CO2 evolution affects cycle stability, LiMn2O4 is cycled in flowing gas...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232132/cobalt-and-vanadium-trimetaphosphate-polyanions-synthesis-characterization-and-electrochemical-evaluation-for-non-aqueous-redox-flow-battery-applications
#19
Julia M Stauber, Shiyu Zhang, Nataliya Gvozdik, Yanfeng Jiang, Laura Avena, Keith J Stevenson, Christopher C Cummins
An electrochemical cell consisting of cobalt ([CoII/III(P3O9)2]4-/3-) and vanadium ([VIII/II(P3O9)2]3-/4-) bistrimetaphosphate complexes as catholyte and anolyte species, respectively, was constructed with a cell voltage of 2.4 V and Coulombic efficiencies exceeding 90% for up to 100 total cycles. The [Co(P3O9)2]4- (1) and [V(P3O9)2]3- (2) complexes have favorable properties for flow-battery applications that include reversible redox chemistry, high stability toward electrochemical cycling, and high solubility in MeCN (1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232123/dendrite-free-li-metal-battery-enabled-by-a-thin-asymmetric-solid-electrolyte-with-engineered-layers
#20
Hui Duan, Ya-Xia Yin, Yang Shi, Peng-Fei Wang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Chun-Peng Yang, Ji-Lei Shi, Rui Wen, Yu-Guo Guo, Li-Jun Wan
The key bottleneck troubling the application of solid electrolyte is the contradictory requirements from Li-metal and cathode, which need high modulus to block Li-dendrite penetration and flexibility to enable low interface resistance, respectively. This study describes a thin asymmetrical design of solid electrolyte to address these shortcomings. In this architecture, a rigid ceramic-layer modified with an ultrathin polymer is toward Li-metal to accomplish dendrite-suppression of Li-anode, and a soft polymer-layer spreads over the exterior and interior of cathode to endow connected interface simultaneously...
December 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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