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valerian root

Michael Penzkofer, Andrea Baron, Annette Naumann, Andrea Krähmer, Hartwig Schulz, Heidi Heuberger
Background: The essential oil is an important compound of the root and rhizome of medicinally used valerian ( Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.), with a stated minimum content in the European pharmacopoeia. The essential oil is located in droplets, of which the position and distribution in the total root cross-section of different valerian varieties, root thicknesses and root horizons are determined in this study using an adapted fluorescence-microscopy and automatic imaging analysis method...
2018: Plant Methods
Rex Cole, Valera Peremyslov, Savanah Van Why, Ibrahim Moussaoui, Ann Ketter, Renee Cool, Matthew Andres Moreno, Zuzana Vejlupkova, Valerian Dolja, John E Fowler
The exocyst, a conserved, octameric protein complex helps mediate secretion at the plasma membrane, facilitating specific developmental processes that include control of root meristem size, cell elongation, and tip growth. A genetic screen for second-site enhancers in Arabidopsis identified NEW ENHANCER of ROOT DWARFISM1 (NERD1) as an exocyst interactor. Mutations in nerd1 combined with weak exocyst mutations in SEC8 and EXO70A1 result in a synergistic reduction in root growth. Alone, nerd1 alleles modestly reduce primary root growth, both by shortening the root meristem and by reducing cell elongation, but also result in a slight increase in root hair length, bulging, and rupture...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Mohamad Abu-Abied, Eduard Belausov, Sapir Hagay, Valera Peremyslov, Valerian Dolja, Einat Sadot
The interplay between myosin- and auxin-mediated processes was investigated by following root development in the triple myosin knockout mutant xi-k xi-1 xi-2 (3KO). It was found that the 3KO plants generated significantly more lateral and adventitious roots than the wild type plants or rescued plant line expressing functional myosin XI-K:YFP (3KOR). Using the auxin-dependent reporter DR5:venus, a significant change in the auxin gradient toward the root tip was found in 3KO plants, which correlated with the loss of polar localization of the auxin transporter PIN1 in the stele and with the increased number of the stele cells with oblique cell walls...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Jeff Wong, Leo d'Espaux, Ishaan Dev, Cas van der Horst, Jay Keasling
Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) root extracts have been used by European and Asian cultures for millennia for their anxiolytic and sedative properties. However, the efficacy of these extracts suffers from variable yields and composition, making these extracts a prime candidate for microbial production. Recently, valerenic acid, a C15 sesquiterpenoid, was identified as the active compound that modulates the GABAA channel. Although the first committed step, valerena-4,7(11)-diene synthase, has been identified and described, the complete valerenic acid biosynthetic pathway remains to be elucidated...
March 12, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Ramin Nikzad-Langerodi, Katharina Arth, Valerie Klatte-Asselmeyer, Sabine Bressler, Johannes Saukel, Gottfried Reznicek, Christoph Dobeš
(Acetoxy-)valerenic acid and total essential oil content are important quality attributes of pharmacy grade valerian root (Valerianae radix). Traditional analysis of these quantities is time-consuming and necessitates (harmful) solvents. Here we investigated an application of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for extractionless analysis of these quality attributes on a representative sample comprising 260 wild-crafted individuals covering the Central European taxonomic diversity of the Valeriana officinalis L...
November 9, 2017: Planta Medica
S Eric Nybo, Jacqueline Saunders, Sean P McCormick
Valeriana officinalis is a medicinal herb which produces a suite of compounds in its root tissue useful for treatment of anxiety and insomnia. The sesquiterpene components of the root extract, valerenic acid and valerena-1,10-diene, are thought to contribute to most of the observed anxiolytic of Valerian root preparations. However, valerenic acid and its biosynthetic intermediates are only produced in low quantities in the roots of V. officinalis. Thus, in this report, Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered to produce substantial quantities of valerena-1,10-diene in shake flask fermentations with decane overlay...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
Marketa Marvanova, Paul Jacob Henkel
Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts millions of individuals worldwide. Since no cure is currently available, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are symptomatic therapy. This study assessed community pharmacists' knowledge regarding donepezil adverse effects (AEs) and self-care recommendations for insomnia management for persons with AD treated with rivastigmine. This is a cross-sectional, standardized telephone survey of community pharmacists (n = 862) in three study areas: West Virginia, North Dakota/South Dakota, and Southern Oregon/Northern California...
July 28, 2017: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Sebastiaan Bol, Jana Caspers, Lauren Buckingham, Gail Denise Anderson-Shelton, Carrie Ridgway, C A Tony Buffington, Stefan Schulz, Evelien M Bunnik
BACKGROUND: Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them...
March 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Elizabeth G Kurth, Valera V Peremyslov, Hannah L Turner, Kira S Makarova, Jaime Iranzo, Sergei L Mekhedov, Eugene V Koonin, Valerian V Dolja
We investigate the myosin XI-driven transport network in Arabidopsis using protein-protein interaction, subcellular localization, gene knockout, and bioinformatics analyses. The two major groups of nodes in this network are myosins XI and their membrane-anchored receptors (MyoB) that, together, drive endomembrane trafficking and cytoplasmic streaming in the plant cells. The network shows high node connectivity and is dominated by generalists, with a smaller fraction of more specialized myosins and receptors...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Oliver T R Toovey, Ian R Edmond, Nikolaos Makris
A 47-year-old woman presented with seizures secondary to euvolaemic hyponatraemia. A collateral history revealed recent increased oral fluid intake and increased use of herbal remedies including valerian root over the New Year period. There was no history of psychiatric disease to support psychogenic polydipsia. She responded to careful sodium replacement in the intensive care unit and was discharged with no neurological sequelae.
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Elham Rezaei, Roghaieh Shirood Gholami, Masomeh Kheirkhah, Hamid Haghani
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Due to the knowledge lack of the precise etiology of this syndrome, different treatment methods are recommended, one of them is the use of medicinal herbs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Valerian ( xié cǎo) root extract on the intensity of PMS symptoms. In this double-blind clinical trial, 100 female students of Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran Province, Iran, with PMS were randomly divided into groups receiving Valerian (scientific name: Valeriana officinalis) and placebo in 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Bianca A Torres-Hernández, Luis R Colón, Coral Rosa-Falero, Aranza Torrado, Nahira Miscalichi, José G Ortíz, Lorena González-Sepúlveda, Naydi Pérez-Ríos, Erick Suárez-Pérez, John N Bradsher, Martine Behra
RATIONALE: Ethnopharmacology has documented hundreds of psychoactive plants awaiting exploitation for drug discovery. A robust and inexpensive in vivo system allowing systematic screening would be critical to exploiting this knowledge. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to establish a cheap and accurate screening method which can be used for testing psychoactive efficacy of complex mixtures of unknown composition, like plant crude extracts. METHODS: We used automated recording of zebrafish larval swimming behavior during light vs...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Kiyohisa Yanagisawa
Soam discovered the drug Bromovalerylurea (or less BV) in 1907. After that, BV was imported in Japan in the latter part of the Meiji period as Western medicine. Under the influence of the First World War, in Japan, BV was domestic production. And BV are listed in JP V (1932), it is continued listing until the current JP X VI (2011). As a foreign pharmacopoeia which listed the BV, only in addition to the JP, there was a German Pharmacopoeia (DAB). During this time, the JP and DAB, the standards and test methods of BV, it was amended as shown in Table 1 and Table 2...
2015: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Vincent Ricigliano, Santosh Kumar, Scott Kinison, Christopher Brooks, S Eric Nybo, Joe Chappell, Dianella G Howarth
The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology...
May 2016: Phytochemistry
Stephanie Maxine Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2015: Holistic Nursing Practice
Keiji Yuki, Mariko Ikeda, Shosuke Yoshida, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, Kaoru Yamada, Daisuke Uemura, Kenji Miyamoto
The rhizomes and roots of Valeriana fauriei were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol. This extract was found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on fat accumulation in 3T3-LI murine adipocytes. After several steps of chromatographic purification, we succeeded in identifying monovalerianester A as an inhibitor of fat accumulation. Thus, monovalerianester A and the crude extract of the rhizomes and roots of V. fauriei may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity.
August 2015: Natural Product Communications
Ning-ning Zhang, Guang-zhi Ding
Valeriana jatamansi (syn. V. wallichii), a traditional Chinese medicine recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia (1977 and 2010 edition), has been used for treatment of a variety of conditions including sleep problems, obesity, nervous disorders, epilepsy, insanity, snake poisoning, eye trouble, and skin diseases. Also, it was used as an important substitute for the European V. officinalis, whose root preparation, popularly known as valerian, has been employed as a mild sedative for a long time. In recent years, much attention has been draw to the iridoids, one of the major bioactive constituents of V...
May 2015: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Bianca A Torres-Hernández, Lisa M Del Valle-Mojica, José G Ortíz
BACKGROUND: Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. METHODS: All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug...
July 14, 2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Kiyohisa Yanagisawa
Valerian has been used as a name for Japanese Valerian and European Valerian root. Valerian in the German market today was originally called Baldrian. Transitions in the standards and the test methods of Valerian root listed in the DAB were studied this time. Moreover, we compared these standards and test methods with those in the USP, BP, EP and JP. We also considered the pharmacology evaluation in Germany. At the time, the standards and test methods had content in accordance with the EP from DAB9 (1986) of the West Germany publication...
2014: Yakushigaku Zasshi. the Journal of Japanese History of Pharmacy
Dae Young Yoo, Hyo Young Jung, Sung Min Nam, Jong Whi Kim, Jung Hoon Choi, Youn-Gil Kwak, Miyoung Yoo, Sanghee Lee, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion...
June 2015: Journal of Medicinal Food
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