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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046974/stress-echocardiography-in-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#1
REVIEW
Sothinathan Gurunathan, Roxy Senior
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stress echocardiography (SE) is a well-established technique for the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). This review article summarizes the status of SE in CAD, including testing protocols, clinical efficacy and current use of newer technologies: myocardial perfusion, strain imaging, three-dimensional echocardiography and adjunctive carotid ultrasonography. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent major findings in SE include the clinical value of myocardial perfusion imaging in multicentre studies, as well as when added to left ventricular (LV) wall motion assessment in clinical service...
October 18, 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039835/-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-lower-extremity-atherosclerosis-during-standard-treatment-and-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#2
Yu V Chervyakov, O N Vlasenko
AIM: To compare the impact of standard conservative treatment (SCT) and its combination with therapeutic angiogenesis for 3 to 5 years on quality of life in patients with Stage II (according to the classification developed by A.V. Pokrovsky-Fontaine) lower extremity atherosclerosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 92 patients (69 men and 23 women) (mean age 65.2±7.7 years) were examined and divided into 2 groups of 46 people each. Only SCT (statins at an individually adjusted dose, antiaggregants, and graded exercise walking 3 to 5 km daily were used in Group 1; while Group 2 received SCT in combination with double injection of a plasmid-based VEGF165 gene drug (1...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022268/physical-exercise-is-a-potential-medicine-for-atherosclerosis
#3
Jian Yang, Richard Y Cao, Rongrong Gao, Qiongyao Mi, Qiying Dai, Fu Zhu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been recognized as the number one killer for decades. The most well-known risk factor is atherosclerosis. Unlike the acuity of CVD, atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive pathological change. This process involves inflammatory response, oxidative reaction, macrophage activity, and different interaction of inflammatory factors. Physical exercise has long been known as good for health in general. In recent studies, physical exercise has been demonstrated to be a therapeutic tool for atherosclerosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022266/cardiac-aging-benefits-of-exercise-nrf2-activation-and-antioxidant-signaling
#4
Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran
Cardiovascular dysfunction and heart failure associated with aging not only impairs the cardiac function but also the quality of life eventually decreasing the life expectancy of the elderly. Notably, cardiac tissue can prematurely age under certain conditions such as genetic mutation, persistent redox stress and overload, aberrant molecular signaling, DNA damage, telomere attrition, and other pathological insults. While cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality is on the rise and remains a global health threat, there has been only little to moderate improvements in its medical management...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022256/the-effects-of-exercise-on-cardiovascular-biomarkers-new-insights-recent-data-and-applications
#5
Lin Che, Dong Li
The benefit of regular exercise or physical activity with appropriate intensity on improving cardiopulmonary function and endurance has long been accepted with less controversy. The challenge remains, however, quantitatively evaluate the effect of exercise on cardiovascular health due in part to the amount and intensity of exercise varies widely plus lack of effective, robust and efficient biomarker evaluation systems. Better evaluating the overall function of biomarker and validate biomarkers utility in cardiovascular health should improve the evidence regarding the benefit or the effect of exercise or physical activity on cardiovascular health, in turn increasing the efficiency of the biomarker on individuals with mild to moderate cardiovascular risk...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979778/association-between-normal-or-mildly-reduced-kidney-function-cardiovascular-risk-and-biomarkers-for-atherosclerosis-results-from-the-encore-trial
#6
Crystal C Tyson, Patrick J Smith, Andrew Sherwood, Stephanie Mabe, Alan L Hinderliter, James A Blumenthal
BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-severe kidney dysfunction is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Gradations of normal or mildly reduced kidney function may also associate with ASCVD risk. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis using baseline data from the Exercise and Nutritional Interventions for Cardiovascular Health (ENCORE) trial. Participants were sedentary, overweight and obese adults with unmedicated pre-hypertension or Stage I hypertension and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1...
October 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976393/-approach-to-peripheral-arterial-disease-in-the-elderly
#7
Ozan Onur Balkanay, Suat Nail Ömeroğlu
The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, which usually develops on the basis of atherosclerosis and develops as a result of chronic arterial occlusive pathology, increases with age. Peripheral artery disease in the elderly patient population may be asymptomatic due to restrictive conditions associated with immobilization. Concurrent cerebrovascular disease and coronary artery disease risk and mortality rates are higher in elderly patients with peripheral artery disease. The life expectancy in patients with peripheral arterial disease is worse than in prostate cancer patients...
September 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928671/aerobic-exercise-training-selectively-changes-oxysterol-levels-and-metabolism-reducing-cholesterol-accumulation-in-the-aorta-of-dyslipidemic-mice
#8
Guilherme Silva Ferreira, Paula R Pinto, Rodrigo T Iborra, Vanessa Del Bianco, Monique Fátima Mello Santana, Edna Regina Nakandakare, Valéria S Nunes, Carlos E Negrão, Sergio Catanozi, Marisa Passarelli
Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET) prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916241/relationship-of-echocardiographic-epicardial-fat-thickness-and-epicardial-fat-volume-by-computed-tomography-with-coronary-artery-calcification-data-from-the-caesar-study
#9
Byung Jin Kim, Jung Gyu Kang, Sung Ho Lee, Jong Young Lee, Ki Chul Sung, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: No study has assessed the association between echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and computed tomography (CT)-based epicardial fat volume (EFV) and coronary artery calcification. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between EFT and EFV and coronary artery calcification. METHODS: Among the 2,299 individuals enrolled in the CArdiometabolic risk, Epicardial fat, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis Registry (CAESAR) study, 2,276 (1,851 men; mean age 45 ± 8...
September 12, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910811/impact-of-age-and-aerobic-exercise-training-on-conduit-artery-wall-thickness-role-of-the-shear-pattern
#10
Koichiro Tanahashi, Keisei Kosaki, Yuriko Sawano, Toru Yoshikawa, Kaname Tagawa, Hiroshi Kumagai, Nobuhiko Akazawa, Seiji Maeda
Hemodynamic shear stress is the frictional force of blood on the arterial wall. The shear pattern in the conduit artery affects the endothelium and may participate in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the role of the shear pattern in age- and aerobic exercise-induced changes in conduit artery wall thickness via cross-sectional and interventional studies. In a cross-sectional study, we found that brachial shear rate patterns and brachial artery intima-media thickness (IMT) correlated with age...
2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888894/exercise-intervention-attenuates-hyperhomocysteinemia-induced-aortic-endothelial-oxidative-injury-by-regulating-sirt1-through-mitigating-nadph-oxidase-lox-1-signaling
#11
Shih-Hung Chan, Ching-Hsia Hung, Jhih-Yuan Shih, Pei-Ming Chu, Yung-Hsin Cheng, Huei-Chen Lin, Pei-Ling Hsieh, Kun-Ling Tsai
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a critical cardiovascular disease and a cause of high morbidity and mortality in this world. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been suggested as a risk factor for CAD. In addition, SIRT1 (sirtuin 1) has been reported to play a protective role in a variety of diseases, especially in the cardiovascular system. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on apoptosis and inflammation in HHcy animals. We also tested whether exercise protected against Hhcy-induced dysfunction of endothelium through modulation of SIRT1...
August 24, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884731/-optimization-of-the-algorithm-for-the-detection-and-the-differential-non-pharmacological-correction-of-the-risk-factors-and-the-preclinical-stages-of-atherosclerosis-at-the-level-of-the-health-resort-based-primary-care
#12
M A Vartazaryan, A T Bykov, A V Chernyshev, L S Khodasevich
This article presents the results of a comparative prospective study of 276 subjects at the age between 40 and 65 years presenting with risk factors (RF) of atherosclerosis and its preclinical stages (APC). All of them were reckoned to be at a moderate risk of developing APC based on the results of evaluation with the use of the SCORE scale which implied the necessity of their differential non-pharmacological treatment during a two-year period with the application of a variety of preventive therapeutic strategies...
2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875043/the-role-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-cardiovascular-disease-and-exercise
#13
REVIEW
Junyoung Hong, Kwangchan Kim, Jong-Hee Kim, Yoonjung Park
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is highly associated with cardiovascular disease, is triggered by a disturbance in ER function because of protein misfolding or an increase in protein secretion. Prolonged disruption of ER causes ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and leads to various diseases. Eukaryotic cells respond to ER stress via three major sensors that are bound to the ER membrane: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), and protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK)...
2017: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722106/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-exercise-role-in-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#14
REVIEW
Bente Klarlund Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact cardiometabolic diseases. RESULTS: Evidence exists that interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in pancreatic β-cell damage, whereas TNF-α is a key molecule in peripheral insulin resistance...
July 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662008/-evaluation-of-oxidative-reduction-markers-of-blood-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndromes-acs-subjected-to-cardiac-rehabilitation
#15
Anna Mejer-Barczewska, Joanna Kapusta, Małgorzata Godala, Edward Kowalczyk, Robert Irzmański, Jan Kowalski
Role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis play a reactive oxygen species. In the case of disturbance of dynamic balance between their production and antioxidant defense mechanisms comes to undesirable consequences - oxidative stress. Excessive exercise can, among others, disrupting the balance. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the exponents of the processes of oxidation - reduction of blood in patients with ACS undergoing rehabilitation in a hospital setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 25 patients after ACS STEMI, including 19 men and 6 women, aged 51...
June 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653394/ranolazine-reduces-repolarization-heterogeneity-in%C3%A2-symptomatic-patients-with-diabetes-and-non-flow-limiting-coronary-artery-stenosis
#16
Ederson Evaristo, Fernando G Stocco, Nishant R Shah, Michael K Cheezum, Jon Hainer, Courtney Foster, Bruce D Nearing, Marcelo Di Carli, Richard L Verrier
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence suggests that ranolazine decreases susceptibility to ischemia-induced arrhythmias independent of effects on coronary artery blood flow. OBJECTIVE: In symptomatic diabetic patients with non-flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis with diffuse atherosclerosis and/or microvascular dysfunction, we explored whether ranolazine reduces T-wave heterogeneity (TWH), an electrocardiographic (ECG) marker of arrhythmogenic repolarization abnormalities shown to predict sudden cardiac death...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616545/assessment-of-various-parameters-using-simple-non-invasive-tests-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-diseases-with-or-without-cardiac-rehabilitation
#17
Takashi Ueda, Shin-Ichiro Miura, Kanta Fujimi, Toshihisa Ishida, Takuro Matsuda, Masaomi Fujita, Yoshiyuki Ura, Kouji Kaino, Maya Sakamoto, Tomoe Horita, Tadaaki Arimura, Yuhei Shiga, Takashi Kuwano, Ken Kitajima, Keijiro Saku
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Simpler techniques are needed for use by physicians in the examination room to assess the usefulness of CR. We enrolled 46 consecutive CVD patients in a CR program (CR group) and prospectively followed them for 3 months. We compared them to 18 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched CVD patients without CR (non-CR group). Various parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months using 3 simple non-invasive tests: severity of atherosclerosis [arterial velocity pulse index and arterial pressure volume index (API)] were determined using PASESA®, an autonomic nerve total activity amount index and a coefficient of variation of the R-R interval (CVRR) were determined using eHEART®, and peripheral resistance index, pressure rate product, stroke volume and cardiac index were determined using nico®]...
September 2016: IJC Heart & Vasculature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608819/the-therapeutic-potential-of-anti-inflammatory-exerkines-in-the-treatment-of-atherosclerosis
#18
REVIEW
Megan Yu, Sheng-Feng Tsai, Yu-Min Kuo
Although many cardiovascular (CVD) medications, such as antithrombotics, statins, and antihypertensives, have been identified to treat atherosclerosis, at most, many of these therapeutic agents only delay its progression. A growing body of evidence suggests physical exercise could be implemented as a non-pharmacologic treatment due to its pro-metabolic, multisystemic, and anti-inflammatory benefits. Specifically, it has been discovered that certain anti-inflammatory peptides, metabolites, and RNA species (collectively termed "exerkines") are released in response to exercise that could facilitate these benefits and could serve as potential therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590143/combined-exercise-training-reduces-blood-pressure-arterial-stiffness-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-prehypertensive-adolescent-girls
#19
Won-Mok Son, Ki-Dong Sung, Leena P Bharath, Kong-Jib Choi, Song-Young Park
Childhood obesity is strongly linked to pathological processes for cardiovascular diseases in later adulthood. Obese adolescent girls with high blood pressure (BP) are reported to have increased arterial stiffness, which is associated with the development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. The present study sought to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise (CRAE) training on BP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), insulin resistance (IR), and body composition in obese prehypertensive girls...
June 7, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574286/changes-of-intima-media-thickness-in-marathon-runners-a-mid-term-follow-up
#20
Jan Müller, Valeria Dahm, Elke S Lorenz, Axel Pressler, Bernhard Haller, Viola Grabs, Martin Halle, Johannes Scherr
Objective Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is used to assess cardiovascular risk and progression of atherosclerosis. It is known that regular physical activity of moderate intensity has beneficial effects on the vasculature. However, it is still discussed controversially whether prolonged exercise, including participation in exhaustive competitive sports such as long-distance races, has also beneficial effects or might even be harmful regarding the cardiovascular system. Patients and methods Thirty-eight male marathon runners (45...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
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