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atherosclerosis exercise

Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B Weiner, Gregory D Lewis, Adolph Hutter, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. METHODS: An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Sundararajan Srikanth, Prakash Deedwania
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss dyslipidemia in the various common clinical conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome and review the current therapeutic strategy in these settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyslipidemias are common in patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Epidemiologic studies have shown a strong correlation between serum lipid levels and risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease...
October 2016: Current Hypertension Reports
Rebecca Wilson, Richard Kendall
Low back pain and obesity are both rising epidemics. This manuscript will examine global trends in obesity, contributory lifestyle and societal factors, and morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. Using this background information, the article will explore the complex physiological process of atherosclerosis and association between impaired lumbar perfusion and low back pain. It will also give specific guidance on exercise and nutrition to help treat these potential underlying and contributory mechanisms of spine pathology...
October 6, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Jonathan H Kim, Aaron L Baggish
Although moderate levels of exercise reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent data have questioned whether higher doses of physical activity are associated with diminished health benefits and adverse outcomes. This review focuses on several issues at the center of this controversy including epidemiologic data describing mortality trends in those who engage in high levels of physical activity and recent observational data suggesting adverse cardiovascular outcomes among long-term endurance athletes...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Sandeep Aggarwal, Randy D Moore, Ross Arena, Brenda Marra, Amanda McBride, Brea Lamb, Billie-Jean Martin, James Stone
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the result of atherosclerosis in the lower limb arteries, which can give rise to intermittent claudication (IC), limb ulceration, infections, and, in some circumstances, amputation. As a result of PAD, patients are frequently limited in both walking duration and speed. These ambulatory deficits impact both functional capacity and quality of life. The prevalence of PAD is increasing, and patients with this diagnosis have high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A comprehensive approach is required to improve outcomes in patients with PAD and include tobacco cessation, pharmacologic management of metabolic fitness, risk-factor modification, and exercise training...
October 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Kate A Gustavsen, Kimber L Stanhope, Amy S Lin, James L Graham, Peter J Havel, Joanne R Paul-Murphy
Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Milan Hromádka, Jitka Seidlerová, Jan Baxa, David Suchý, Daniel Rajdl, Jakub Šedivý, Richard Rokyta
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a condition associated with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis in affected individuals. Myocardial assessment using exercise testing in such patients, however, is often difficult to perform. Our objective was to determine the factors associated with severe coronary stenosis using computed tomography (CT) angiography of the coronary arteries in asymptomatic patients with RA. METHODS: Forty-four women with RA were examined using CT angiography to detect atherosclerotic involvement and significant coronary stenosis (>50 %)...
September 29, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Emily Tat, Richard Cheng, Jeffrey S Helfenstein
A 48-year-old woman with 40 years of intermittent squeezing chest pain presented with worsening symptoms. Results of an ambulatory electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and exercise treadmill were unremarkable. Persistent symptoms prompted a computed tomography coronary angiogram (CTCA) that revealed mid-left anterior descending artery myocardial bridging (MB) that was not physiologically significant by exercise single-photon emission CT. Conservative treatment was pursued. Anatomic MB is prevalent in a large proportion of the general population and are increasingly identified by CTCA...
2016: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
Thomas F Whayne
Carotid artery atherosclerosis (CAA) represents a significant form of atherosclerosis with stroke as a major consequence. Whether it is a unique form of atherosclerosis is not established. However, this is not of major clinical relevance as no specific preventive measures over and above the established ones for cardiovascular risk are well established. Major risk factors for CAA are elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), diabetes mellitus, tobacco use, hypertension, and increased inflammation...
September 20, 2016: Angiology
Ivana Burazor, Stamenko Susak
OBJECTIVE: After stent or bypass surgery blood pressure (BP) can go up for multiple reasons among which are: stress and tense of the patient unsure about the future, the pain of the cut and because some of the blood pressure medication, which the patient was receiving preoperatively may get withdrawn post operatively, thereby leading to shooting up the BP. In certain patients, BP actually comes down after surgery and returns back to the pre-operative levels 4 to 6 weeks down the track...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mi-Seung Shin, Seong-Mi Park, Mi-Na Kim, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Kyung-Soon Hong, Myung-A Kim, Gil-Ja Shin, Wan-Joo Shim
OBJECTIVE: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and coronary atherosclerosis are common cardiac complications of hypertension. Previous studies have shown that LVH is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, regardless of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between LVH and significant coronary arterial stenosis in hypertensive women with chest pain. DESIGN AND METHOD: One hundred ninety four hypertensive women with eligible data from the Korean women's chest pain registry (KoROSE) study were included...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Erica N Chirico, Vanessa Di Cataldo, Fabien Chauveau, Alain Geloën, David Patsouris, Benoît Thézé, Cyril Martin, Hubert Vidal, Jennifer Rieusset, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
BACKGROUND: Vascular brain lesions, present in advanced atherosclerosis, share pathological hallmarks with peripheral vascular lesions, such as increased inflammation and oxidative stress. Physical activity reduces these peripheral risk factors, but its cerebrovascular effect is less documented, especially by non-invasive imaging. OBJECTIVES: Through a combination of in-vivo and post-mortem techniques, we aimed at characterizing vascular brain damage in old ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high cholesterol (HC) diet with dietary controlled intake...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Shawn B Bender, Vincent J de Beer, Darla L Tharp, Douglas K Bowles, M Harold Laughlin, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J Duncker
Accelerated development of coronary atherosclerosis is a defining characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the recent data highlight a significant cardiovascular risk prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that FH produces coronary microvascular dysfunction and impairs coronary vascular control at rest and during exercise in a swine model of FH. Coronary vascular responses to drug infusions and exercise were examined in chronically instrumented control and FH swine...
November 2016: Basic Research in Cardiology
Atsushi Tanaka, Toyoaki Murohara, Isao Taguchi, Kazuo Eguchi, Makoto Suzuki, Masafumi Kitakaze, Yasunori Sato, Tomoko Ishizu, Yukihito Higashi, Hirotsugu Yamada, Mamoru Nanasato, Michio Shimabukuro, Hiroki Teragawa, Shinichiro Ueda, Satoshi Kodera, Munehide Matsuhisa, Toshiaki Kadokami, Kazuomi Kario, Yoshihiko Nishio, Teruo Inoue, Koji Maemura, Jun-Ichi Oyama, Mitsuru Ohishi, Masataka Sata, Hirofumi Tomiyama, Koichi Node
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated strongly with an increased risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications, leading to impaired quality of life and shortened life expectancy. In addition to appropriate glycemic control, multi-factorial intervention for a wide range of risk factors, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia, is crucial for management of diabetes. A recent cardiovascular outcome trial in diabetes patients with higher cardiovascular risk demonstrated that a SGLT2 inhibitor markedly reduced mortality, but not macro-vascular events...
2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Shehab M Abd El-Kader, Osama H Al-Jiffri, Fadwa M Al-Shreef
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a main risk for morbidity, associated with alterations in systemic inflammation. Recent studies proved that morbidity and mortality of COPD is related to systemic inflammation as it contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, increase of inflammatory cytokines adversely affects quality of life, alteration in ventilatory and skeletal muscles functions. Moreover, exercise training has many beneficial effects in correction of the adverse effects of COPD...
June 2016: African Health Sciences
Sae Young Jae, Barry A Franklin, Arno Schmidt-Trucksass, Do Kyung Kim, Yoon-Ho Choi, Jeong Bae Park
We tested the hypothesis that cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in men and that moderate-to-high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) attenuate this relation. Our study population (n = 2,107 men) participated in a health screening program that included measures of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) as surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a CAC score >0 and a mean CIMT more than the seventy-fifth percentile...
August 13, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Roberta Florido, Di Zhao, Chiadi E Ndumele, Pamela L Lutsey, John W McEvoy, B Gwen Windham, James S Pankow, Eliseo Guallar, Erin D Michos
BACKGROUND: The effects of some atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk factors vary according to whether an individual has a family history (FHx) of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Physical activity (PA) is associated with reduced risk of ASCVD, but whether this association varies by FHx status is not well established. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 9996 participants free of ASCVD at baseline. FHx of premature CHD was defined as CHD occurring in a father before age 55 or mother before age 60...
August 30, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Gabriela Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Eduardo Meaney, Miguel A Lanaspa, Christina Cicerchi, Richard J Johnson, Sundeep Dugar, Pam Taub, Israel Ramírez-Sánchez, Francisco Villarreal, George Schreiner, Guillermo Ceballos
BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic disruptions such as insulin resistance, obesity, high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemias, are known to increase the risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Several screening tools for assessing cardiometabolic risk have been developed including the TG/HDLc ratio, which has been, demonstrated to possess a strong association with insulin resistance and coronary disease. Dietary modifications, together with regular moderate exercise have proven to be effective in attenuating cardiometabolic disruptions...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Corinna Serviente, Lisa M Troy, Maxine de Jonge, Daniel D Shill, Nathan T Jenkins, Sarah Witkowski
Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are characteristics of subclinical atherosclerosis and may increase through progressive menopausal stages. Evaluating endothelial responses to acute exercise can reveal underlying dysfunction not apparent in resting conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate markers of endothelial function and inflammation before and after acute exercise in healthy low active perimenopausal (PERI) and late postmenopausal (POST) women. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), CD31(+)/CD42b(-) and CD62E(+) endothelial microparticles (EMPs), and the circulating inflammatory factors monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), were measured before and 30 minutes following acute exercise...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Ichiro Wakabayashi
BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic index (CMI) is a new index for discriminating diabetes mellitus and has been demonstrated to be associated with the degree of atherosclerosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of CMI with smoking, a major risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. METHODS: The subjects included 31,742 Japanese men (35 - 60 years old) receiving health-checkup examinations at their workplaces...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
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