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Sodium nitrite

Xiaofeng Yu, Lijun Zhao, Zhiping Yu, Changzheng Yu, Jianfei Bi, Binglong Sun, Haibo Cong
As a specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, sivelestat sodium hydrate has primarily been used in the treatment of acute lung injury caused by various factors since its approval in 2002. Sivelestat sodium hydrate also improves post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA), although its underlying mechanisms of action have yet to be elucidated. The aim of the current study was to determine if sivelestat sodium hydrate improves post-traumatic KOA through nuclear factor (NF)-κB in a rat model. Treatment with sivelestat sodium hydrate significantly inhibited the induction of structural changes and significantly increased the vertical episode count and ipsilateral static weight bearing of the joint in KOA rats (all P<0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xinmei Dong, Lorand Kiss, Ilona Petrikovics, David E Thompson
Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is a promising antidotal candidate for cyanide intoxication. DMTS acts as a sulfur donor in the conversion of cyanide to the less-toxic thiocyanate. The alternate reaction pathways of DMTS in the blood are not well understood. We report changes in the hemoglobin absorption spectrum upon reaction with DMTS. These changes closely match those induced by the known methemoglobin former, sodium nitrite. The kinetics of methemoglobin formation with DMTS are slower than with sodium nitrite...
August 15, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Roman Falls, Michael Seman, Sabine Braat, Joshua Sortino, Jason D Allen, Christopher J Neil
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is a frequent reason for hospitalization worldwide and effective treatment options are limited. It is known that AHF is a condition characterized by impaired vasorelaxation, together with reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, an endogenous vasodilatory compound. Supplementation of inorganic sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is an indirect dietary source of NO, through bioconversion. It is proposed that oral sodium nitrate will favorably affect levels of circulating NO precursors (nitrate and nitrite) in AHF patients, resulting in reduced systemic vascular resistance, without significant hypotension...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
Z Q Zhang, L Lin, C Z Zhang
Objective: To investigate the influence of sodium nitrite exposure on sulfhemoglobin and hydroxyl radicals in mice. Methods: A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into low-, middle-, and high-dose groups (the concentrations of sodium nitrite were 0.055 mg/ml, 0.110 mg/ml, and 0.220 mg/ml, respectively) and control group (treated with distilled water) , with 15 mice in each group (male/female ratio=1: 1) . A free-drink model was applied and the duration of exposure was 2 weeks. The body weight of all mice was recorded before exposure and at weeks 1 and 2 of exposure...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Gaius Debi Eyu, Geoffrey Will, Willem Dekkers, Jennifer MacLeod
The effect of potassium iodide (KI) and sodium nitrite (NaNO₂ inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in chloride bicarbonate solution has been studied using electrochemical techniques. Potentiodynamic polarisation data suggest that, when used in combination, KI and NaNO₂ function together to inhibit reactions at both the anode and the cathode, but predominantly anodic. KI/NO₂(-) concentration ratios varied from 2:1 to 2:5; inhibition efficiency was optimized for a ratio of 1:1. The surface morphology and corrosion products were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD)...
October 26, 2016: Materials
Chih-Hui Lo, Teh-Min Hu
The morphology of particles, along with other particle attributes, has been shown to affect the biological fate of particles administered into the body. Particles with collapsed surfaces or shells (dimpled, buckled or crumpled) can have different appearances, under the microscope, that resemble many things encountered in our daily life, such as apples/cherries, doughnuts, and bowls. Recent studies have demonstrated that they are not just particles with interesting geometries, but they can also be used as functional blocks for assembled complex materials...
August 3, 2017: Soft Matter
Monalisa Pereira Dutra, Giselle Pereira Cardoso, Paulo Rogério Fontes, Douglas Roberto Guimarães Silva, Marcio Tadeu Pereira, Alcinéia de Lemos Souza Ramos, Eduardo Mendes Ramos
The effects of different doses of gamma radiation (0-20kGy) on the color and lipid oxidation of mortadella prepared with increasing nitrite levels (0-300ppm) were evaluated using a central composite rotatable design. Higher radiation doses increased the redox potential, promoted the lipid oxidation and elevating the hue color of the mortadellas. Nevertheless, higher addition of sodium nitrite elevated the residual nitrite content, reduced the lipid oxidation and promoted the increase of redness and the reduce of hue color of the mortadellas, regardless of the radiation dose applied...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Nathan P Snow, Justin A Foster, Eric H VanNatta, Katherine E Horak, Simon T Humphrys, Linton D Staples, David G Hewitt, Kurt C VerCauteren
BACKGROUND: An acute and orally-delivered toxic bait containing micro-encapsulated sodium nitrite (MESN), is under development to provide a novel and humane technology to help curtail damage caused by invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated potential secondary risks for non-target species by: 1) testing whether four different types of micro-encapsulation coatings could reduce vomiting by invasive wild pigs, 2) testing the levels of residual sodium nitrite (SN) in tissues of invasive wild pigs, 3) testing the environmental persistence of SN in vomitus, and 4) conducting a risk assessment for scavengers...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
Su-Tae Kang, Hee-Kyoung Son, Hyun-Joo Lee, Jung-Seok Choi, Yang-Il Choi, Jae-Joon Lee
This study investigated the antioxidative and functional effects of a curing agent containing grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on the quality and storage characteristics of chicken breast. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of GSE were 45.06 mg/g and 36.06 mg/g, respectively. The IC50 value of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydroxyl scavenging of GSE was 333.33 μg/mL. The chicken breast comprised six groups: no-treatment (N), 0.2% ascorbic acid + 70 ppm sodium nitrite (C), 0.05% GSE (G0.05), 0.1% GSE (G0...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
(no author information available yet)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of DO on nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating low ammonia wastewater (40 mg N/L) at low temperature (14oC). During the 130 days of operation, three DO levels (5-6 mg DO/L, 2-3 mg DO/L and 0.8-1.0 mg DO/L) were tested. DO reduction resulted in lower ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity with decreasing ammonia conversion ratio (ACR) and increasing nitrite accumulation ratio (NAR). The maximum growth rates of AOB and NOB determined in this study (0...
July 19, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Gregers Druedal Wibe Munch, Mette Rugbjerg, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Niels Secher, Ylva Hellsten, Peter Lange, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Pia Thaning, Stefan P Mortensen
Skeletal muscle blood flow is regulated to match the oxygen demand and dysregulation could contribute to exercise intolerance in patients with COPD. We measured leg hemodynamics and metabolites from vasoactive compounds in muscle interstitial fluid and plasma at rest, during one-legged knee-extensor exercise, and during arterial infusions of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh), respectively. Ten patients with moderate to severe COPD and eight age- and sex matched healthy controls were studied...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Heath G Gasier, Anthony R Reinhold, Allison R Loiselle, Shawn E Soutiere, David M Fothergill
A reduction in oxygen transport contributes to impaired exercise capacity at high altitude. Since blood flow is mediated, in part, by nitric oxide (NO), we hypothesized that sodium nitrate provided before forearm grip exercise performed at a simulated altitude of 4300 m (hypobaric hypoxia (HH)) would increase forearm blood flow and oxygenation, and decrease the decrement in grip performance. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 10 healthy subjects (9 males and 1 female) performed continuous (CGrip) and repeated rhythmic (RGrip) isometric forearm exercise until task failure in normobaric normoxia (NN), 2...
July 3, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Yogesh N V Reddy, Mads J Andersen, Masaru Obokata, Katlyn E Koepp, Garvan C Kane, Vojtech Melenovsky, Thomas P Olson, Barry A Borlaug
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffening and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability may contribute to the pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: This study compared indices of arterial stiffness at rest and during exercise in subjects with HFpEF and hypertensive control subjects to examine their relationships to cardiac hemodynamics and determine whether exertional arterial stiffening can be mitigated by inorganic nitrite. METHODS: A total of 22 hypertensive control subjects and 98 HFpEF subjects underwent hemodynamic exercise testing with simultaneous expired gas analysis to measure oxygen consumption...
July 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Jin-Hye Lee, Yun-Kyung Lee, Yoon Hyuk Chang
The present study was carried out to determine the effects of selenylation on structural and antioxidant activities of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Ulmus pumila L. (PPU). Selenylation of PPU (Se-PPU) was synthesized by different concentrations of sodium selenites (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0g). Structural properties of Se-PPUs were characterized using ICP-OES, HPGPC, FE-SEM, XRD, FT-IR and NMR. After selenylation, the selenium contents and the molecular weights of PPU increased. In FT-IR analysis, a new intensive absorption band at around 667cm(-1) was observed in Se-PPU...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Changfeng Sun, Guoping Yang, Jinning Yuan, Xuan Peng, Chunxi Zhang, Xiaoqian Zhai, Tao Luo, Lang Bao
PURPOSE: The DosR/DosS two-component regulatory system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis regulates the expression of numerous genes under stress conditions and is important for the long-term survival of M. tuberculosis in the host. The rv2626c gene of M. tuberculosis is one of the most strongly induced transcripts of the dormancy regulon. This study focused on the immunological effects and possible function of Rv2626c in maintaining mycobacterial survival under various stress conditions. METHODOLOGY: We heterologously expressed the Rv2626c protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis by constructing a recombinant strain Ms_rv2626c...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wen Xu, Haiyan Jia, Longmei Zhang, Haiyan Wang, Hui Tang, Liping Zhang
In this paper, three mutants from wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae HBU2.558, called U2.558, UN2.558, and UNA2.558, were screened by UV, sodium nitrite, Atmospheric and room temperature plasma, respectively. Glutathione production of the three mutants increased by 41.86, 72.09 and 56.76%, respectively. We detected the activity of glutathione synthetases and found that its activity was improved. Amino acid sequences of three mutant colonies were compared with HBU2.558. Four mutants: Leu51→Pro51 (L51P), Glu62→Val62 (E62V), Ala332→Glu332 (A332E) and Ser653→Gly653 (S653G) were found in the analysis of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase...
August 2017: Protein Journal
Stefan Ehling, Todime M Reddy
Nitrite (NO₂(–)) is an inorganic anion that can be foundin various powdered milk- and soy-based nutritional ingredients as an incidental contaminant. Reliable determination of NO₂(–) in nutritional ingredients is of paramount importance to ensure the safety of finished products. The derivatization reaction of NO₂(–) with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene with the formation of fluorescent 2,3-naphtotriazole has been adapted to milk- and soy-based nutritional ingredients. The sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation with Carrez solution, simple pass-through cleanup of extracts utilizing a carbon black-based cartridge and derivatization, followed by batch fluorometry...
June 30, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
Jean Nyakayiru, Imre W K Kouw, Naomi M Cermak, Joan M Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Nitrate (NO3(-)) ingestion has been shown to have vasoactive and ergogenic effects that have been attributed to increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Recent observations in rodents suggest skeletal muscle tissue to serve as an endogenous NO3(-) "reservoir". The current study determined NO3(-) contents in human skeletal muscle tissue in a post-absorptive state, and following ingestion of a sodium nitrate bolus (NaNO3). Seventeen male, type 2 diabetes patients (age 72±1 y; BMI 26.5±0.5 m·kg(-2)) were randomized to ingest a dose of NaNO3 (NIT; 9...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Shaikh Nisar Ali, Riaz Mahmood
Nitrite is present as a noxious contaminant in drinking water and causes oxidative damage in various tissues of humans and animals. It is a well-known methemoglobin-forming agent that has been shown to damage blood cells. The protective effect of taurine, a semi-essential sulfur-containing amino acid, was studied on sodium nitrite (NaNO2)-induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Erythrocytes were incubated with NaNO2, in the presence and absence of taurine, and changes in oxidative stress parameters determined...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Priyanka R Sharma, Ritika Joshi, Sunil K Sharma, Benjamin S Hsiao
A simple approach was developed to prepare carboxycellulose nanofibers directly from untreated biomass using nitric acid or nitric acid-sodium nitrite mixtures. Experiments indicated that this approach greatly reduced the need for multichemicals, and offered significant benefits in lowering the consumption of water and electric energy, when compared with conventional multiple-step processes at bench scale (e.g., TEMPO oxidation). Additionally, the effluent produced by this approach could be efficaciously neutralized using base to produce nitrogen-rich salts as fertilizers...
July 6, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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