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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107947/contributing-to-the-debate-on-categorising-shared-sanitation-facilities-as-unimproved-an-account-based-on-field-researchers-observations-and-householders-opinions-in-three-regions-tanzania
#1
Khalid Massa, Fadhili Kilamile, Emmanuela Safari, Amour Seleman, Anyitike Mwakitalima, Jonas G Balengayabo, Telemu Kassile, Peter E Mangesho, Godfrey M Mubyazi
BACKGROUND: Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104541/identification-and-differential-abundance-of-mitochondrial-genome-encoding-small-rnas-mitosrna-in-breast-muscles-of-modern-broilers-and-unselected-chicken-breed
#2
Walter G Bottje, Bhuwan Khatri, Stephanie A Shouse, Dongwon Seo, Barbara Mallmann, Sara K Orlowski, Jeonghoon Pan, Seongbae Kong, Casey M Owens, Nicholas B Anthony, Jae K Kim, Byungwhi C Kong
Background: Although small non-coding RNAs are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, thousands of small non-coding RNAs encoded by the mitochondrial genome, termed as mitosRNAs were recently reported in human, mouse and trout. In this study, we first identified chicken mitosRNAs in breast muscle using small RNA sequencing method and the differential abundance was analyzed between modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (characterized by rapid growth and large muscle mass) and the foundational Barred Plymouth Rock (BPR) chickens (characterized by slow growth and small muscle mass)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077893/differential-mrna-expression-of-nutrient-transporters-in-male-and-female-chickens
#3
N A Kaminski, E A Wong
Male chickens grow faster than female chickens, which may be due to greater nutrient uptake. The transport of nutrients from the intestine to the blood is mediated by transporters located on the surface of epithelial cells lining the villi. The objective of this study was to profile the mRNA expression of an aminopeptidase and selected amino acid and monosaccharide transporters in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of male and female chickens at d of hatch (doh) and at d 7 and d 14 post hatch. The mRNA abundance of aminopeptidase N (APN), a peptide (PepT1), 6 amino acid transporters (ASCT1, bo,+AT, CAT1, EAAT3, LAT1, and y+LAT2), and 3 monosaccharide (GLUT2, GLUT5, and SGLT1) transporters was assayed by real-time PCR...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056347/addressing-professionalism-social-and-communication-competencies-in-surgical-residency-via-integrated-humanities-workshops-a-pilot-curriculum
#4
Jennifer Colvin, Judith French, Allan Siperstein, Tony R Capizzani, Vikram D Krishnamurthy
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct professionalism and social competencies (PSC) training by integrating humanities into structured workshops, and to assess reception of this curriculum by first-year surgical residents. DESIGN: An IRB-approved, pilot curriculum consisting of 4 interactive workshops for surgical interns was developed. The workshops were scheduled quarterly, often in small group format, and supplemental readings were assigned. Humanities media utilized to illustrate PSC included survival scenarios, reflective writing, television portrayals, and social media...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023056/ameliorative-effect-of-arctium-lappa-against-cadmium-genotoxicity-and-histopathology-in-kidney-of-wistar-rat
#5
Asma Suliman Al-Gebaly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential metal whose dispersion in the environment has increased recently, Cd may enhance cell oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage and apoptotic cell death. The study aimed to evaluate the antioxidative capability of Burdock root 'Arctium lappa' on cadmium-induced oxidative stress and histopathology of the kidney of Wistar rats. METHODOLOGY: Cadmium was applied in a form of cadmium chloride to three groups (15 mg Cd kg-1) for five weeks with two groups pre-treated with 'Arctium lappa' administration, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 b...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992032/effects-of-a-multi-strain-bacillus-spp-direct-fed-microbial-and-a-protease-enzyme-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-blood-characteristics-fecal-microbiota-and-noxious-gas-emissions-of-grower-pigs-fed-corn-soybean-meal-based-diets-a-meta-analysis
#6
L Payling, I H Kim, M C Walsh, E Kiarie
Three studies involving 352 grower pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with multistrain spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) and protease, alone or in combination, on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, fecal microbiota, and noxious gas emissions, and to use a meta-analysis to increase the reliability of the findings. Treatments ( = 4) were set up as a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 levels of protease (0 and 5.000/6.000 units/kilogram of feed [U/KG]) and 2 levels of DFM (0 and 1...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962758/alginate-coated-chitosan-nanogel-for-the-controlled-topical-delivery-of-silver-sulfadiazine
#7
Gina S El-Feky, Sally T El-Banna, G S El-Bahy, E M Abdelrazek, Mustafa Kamal
Burn wounds environment favors the growth of micro-organisms causing delay in wound healing. The traditional treatment with antimicrobial creams offer inaccurate doses. The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate different silver sulfadiazine loaded nanogel formulations. A factorial design experiment was used for the identification of critical process parameters and for the optimization of the respective process conditions. The prepared drug loaded nanogels were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and swelling index in order to demonstrate their physicochemical properties, in addition, FTIR, TEM, SEM and in vitro release were used for characterization...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951289/use-of-a-nomogram-to-predict-the-closure-rate-of-diverting-ileostomy-after-low-anterior-resection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#8
Shinya Abe, Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Keisuke Hata, Tomomichi Kiyomatsu, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Kensuke Otani, Kazuhito Sasaki, Manabu Kaneko, Koji Murono, Shigenobu Emoto, Toshiaki Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: Although temporary ileostomy is widely used to prevent complications due to anastomotic leakage after middle and low rectal cancer surgery, some patients fail to achieve stoma closure after primary surgery. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for permanent stoma following low anterior resection (LAR) or intersphincteric resection (ISR) with a temporary ileostomy for rectal cancer, while focusing on the time course, to develop a nomogram that can predict the rate of unreversed ileostomy 1 year after initial surgery...
November 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884254/elderly-onset-and-adult-onset-ulcerative-colitis-are-more-similar-than-previously-reported-in-a-nationwide-cohort
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Vinayak Kumar, Yash Shah, Dhruvan Patel, Nabeel Khan
BACKGROUND: Elderly-onset ulcerative colitis (EO-UC) is recognized as a distinct subpopulation of UC. To our knowledge, there have been no nationwide studies of EO-UC populations in the USA. AIMS: We aim to characterize differences in presentation at diagnosis and clinical course between EO-UC and adult-onset UC (AO-UC) patients in a national cohort. METHODS: Complete medical records of patients newly diagnosed with UC from October 2001 to October 2011 in the Veterans Affairs health system were obtained...
October 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763861/-a-bioinformatics-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-genes-associated-with-liver-cancer
#10
W X Bai, J Gao, C Qian, X Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate differentially expressed genes associated with liver cancer using bioinformatics methods, and to screen out molecular markers for early diagnosis of liver cancer and potential molecular targets for immunotherapy. Methods: The microarray data associated with liver cancer were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. JMP software was used for correlation analysis of GSE datasets, Limma program in R language was used to screen out differentially expressed genes, and the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed for differentially expressed genes...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688464/parkinson-disease-and-melanoma-confirming-and-reexamining-an-association
#11
Lauren A Dalvin, Gena M Damento, Barbara P Yawn, Barbara A Abbott, David O Hodge, Jose S Pulido
OBJECTIVE: To examine an association between melanoma and Parkinson disease (PD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Phase I: Rochester Epidemiology Project records were used to identify (between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 2013) patients with PD in Olmsted County, Minnesota, with 3 matched controls per case. After review, JMP statistical software with logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk of preexisting melanoma in patients with PD vs controls. Phase II: All Rochester Epidemiology Project cases of melanoma were identified (between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 2014), with 1 control per case...
July 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681299/valorization-of-crataegus-azarolus-stones-for-the-removal-of-textile-anionic-dye-by-central-composite-rotatable-design-using-cubic-model-optimization-isotherm-and-kinetic-studies
#12
Noreddine Boudechiche, Hynda Yazid, Mohamed Trari, Zahra Sadaoui
In this study, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in the optimization of the operating parameters for the removal of the direct blue 86 (DB86), an anionic dye, because of its hazardous impact on human health and aquatic environment. In addition, DB86 is a recalcitrant and non-biodegradable dye whose presence considerably inhibits photosynthesis. Its removal in aqueous medium was achieved by biosorption onto the novel biosorbent Crataegus azarolus stones (CAS). The parameters like the solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial DB86 concentration, and temperature were studied in the ranges 2-6, 0...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653369/recognition-of-chronic-migraine-by-medicine-trainees-a-cross-sectional-survey
#13
Priyanka Yadav, Alec L Bradley, Jonathan H Smith
OBJECTIVE: Chronic migraine is a diagnosis that can be abstracted through the clinical history, although some providers may struggle in properly applying diagnostic criteria. We aimed to learn how well medicine trainees would be able to recognize the diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine and apply that medical knowledge to case vignettes illustrating different symptom interpretation strategies of the identical information. METHODS: An electronic, anonymous and multiple-choice response questionairre assessing selected trainee characteristics, headache case vignettes, and chronic migraine diagnostic criteria was distributed to all regional medicine program directors and coordinators in Kentucky and surrounding states...
September 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588661/quantification-of-the-articular-view-of-the-elbow-afforded-by-standard-portals-using-30%C3%A2-arthroscopy
#14
Robert Moverley, Henry B Colaco, Bran Rudran, Matthew Szarko, Magnus Arnander, Duncan Tennent
BACKGROUND: The present study quantifies the field of view (FOV) from standard arthroscopy portals and aims to identify anatomical regions where the FOV is limited. METHODS: Eleven cadaveric elbows were examined through standard anteromedial, anterolateral and posterior portals. The FOV was marked with dye using a spinal needle. The articular surfaces were then exposed and the percentage FOV seen was calculated. FOV percentage areas were compared using a Student's t-test (JMP, version 10, SAS Institute Inc...
July 2017: Shoulder & Elbow
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549961/preliminary-results-of-aorfix%C3%A2-stent-graft-to-treat-infrarenal-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-with-severe-proximal-aortic-neck-angulation
#15
Pietro Volpe, Mafalda Massara, Antonino Alberti, Santo Marino, Alberto Volpe, Daniela Mazzaccaro, Silvia Stegher, Giovanni Nano
BACKGROUND: We report a preliminary experience about endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (iAAA) with severe proximal aortic neck angulation (NA) using the Aorfix™ stent graft. METHODS: Data of consecutive patients with iAAA with severe proximal NA submitted to endovascular repair between September 2012 and December 2014 in 2 Italian centers of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery were retrospectively reviewed, and outcomes were analyzed using the software JMP 5...
May 24, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508544/a-decision-tree-for-nonmetric-sex-assessment-from-the-skull
#16
Natalie R Langley, Beatrix Dudzik, Alesia Cloutier
This study uses five well-documented cranial nonmetric traits (glabella, mastoid process, mental eminence, supraorbital margin, and nuchal crest) and one additional trait (zygomatic extension) to develop a validated decision tree for sex assessment. The decision tree was built and cross-validated on a sample of 293 U.S. White individuals from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. Ordinal scores from the six traits were analyzed using the partition modeling option in JMP Pro 12. A holdout sample of 50 skulls was used to test the model...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431146/response-of-broiler-chickens-fed-wheat-based-diets-to-xylanase-supplementation
#17
G Gonzalez-Ortiz, D Sola-Oriol, M Martinez-Mora, J F Perez, M R Bedford
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xylanase supplementation on performance, footpad score (FPS), nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphometry in broiler chickens. Two-hundred-eighty-eight Ross 308 broiler chicks (one d old) were placed in one of 3 experimental treatments: positive control (PC), negative control (NC) (-150 kcal/kg), and XYL (NC supplemented with xylanase). Each treatment had 8 replicates with 12 animals each. Starter (zero to 21 d) and grower (21 to 42 d) diets, based on wheat and soy-bean meal, were available ad libitum...
August 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419653/hcv-viraemia-associates-with-nk-cell-activation-and-dysfunction-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-hiv-hcv-co-infected-subjects
#18
E Papasavvas, L Azzoni, X Yin, Q Liu, J Joseph, A Mackiewicz, B Ross, K M Lynn, J M Jacobson, K Mounzer, J R Kostman, L J Montaner
The impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels on immune status in chronically HCV mono-infected when compared to HIV/HCV co-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains poorly understood. A total of 78 African American subjects HCV viraemic/naïve to HCV treatment (33 HCV genotype 1 mono-infected, 45 ART-treated HIV/HCV genotype 1 co-infected) were studied. Clinical and liver enzyme measurements were performed. Whole blood was analysed for immune subset changes by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used for same-day constitutive and in vitro Interferon (IFN)-α-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) phosphorylation, K562 target cell lysis and K562 target cell recognition-mediated IFN-γ production...
October 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391558/a-survey-of-the-knowledge-of-african-american-women-about-prostate-cancer-screening
#19
Taryn Y Eastland
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer diagnosed in men. Its incident and mortality rates are generally higher in populations of African descent. The scientific community recommends that men should be informed of the benefits, risks, and limitations of screening in order to make an informed decision regarding participation in prostate cancer screening. Women are known to act as the healthcare gatekeeper for the family. As such, African-American (AA) women could facilitate the informed decision-making process by providing prostate cancer and screening information to AA men...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318644/comparison-of-outcomes-for-mr-guided-versus-ct-guided-high-dose-rate-interstitial-brachytherapy-in-women-with-locally-advanced-carcinoma-of-the-cervix
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sophia C Kamran, Matthias M Manuel, Linda P Cho, Antonio L Damato, Ehud J Schmidt, Clare Tempany, Robert A Cormack, Akila N Viswanathan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to compare local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and dose to the organs at risk (OAR) in women with locally advanced cervical cancer treated with MR-guided versus CT-guided interstitial brachytherapy (BT). METHODS: 56 patients (29 MR, 27 CT) were treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) interstitial BT between 2005-2015. The MR patients had been prospectively enrolled on a Phase II clinical trial. Data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier (K-M) and Cox proportional hazards statistical modeling in JMP® & R®...
May 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
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