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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786908/opposing-patterns-of-intraspecific-and-interspecific-differentiation-in-sex-chromosomes-and-autosomes
#1
Peter A Moran, Sonia Pascoal, Timothee Cezard, Judith E Risse, Michael G Ritchie, Nathan W Bailey
Linking intraspecific and interspecific divergence is an important challenge in speciation research. X chromosomes are expected to evolve faster than autosomes and disproportionately contribute to reproductive barriers, and comparing genetic variation on X and autosomal markers within and between species can elucidate evolutionary processes that shape genome variation. We performed RADseq on a 16-population transect of two closely-related Australian cricket species, Teleogryllus commodus and T. oceanicus, covering allopatry and sympatry...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785706/goal-striving-stress-is-associated-with-chronic-kidney-disease-among-participants-in-the-jackson-heart-study
#2
Loretta R Cain, LáShauntá Glover, Bessie Young, Mario Sims
OBJECTIVE: Research that assesses the relationship between psychosocial factors and chronic kidney disease (CKD) among African Americans (AAs) is limited. Using the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) cohort data, we investigated the association of goal-striving stress (GSS)-the stress experienced from not reaching goals-with prevalent CKD among AAs. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional analysis of JHS exam 1 data that assessed the relationship between GSS and CKD. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilized a sample from the JHS (n = 4967), an AA sample of women and men, 35-84 years old from the Jackson, MS metro area...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785687/education-is-associated-with-the-magnitude-of-cortisol-responses-to-psychosocial-stress-in-college-students
#3
Andrew W Manigault, Alex Woody, Peggy M Zoccola, Sally S Dickerson
PURPOSE: Researchers benefit from controlling for individual differences that systematically account for variance in acute cortisol responses (e.g., sex). Similarly, some suggest that education could be used as a cortisol covariate because prior work found a negative relationship between education and the magnitude of acute cortisol responses in middle-aged adults. Nevertheless, education is seldom controlled for in tests of cortisol responses to acute stress, in part because the effect of education on acute cortisol responses has yet to be tested in a college sample...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785396/expression-characterization-of-six-genes-possibly-involved-in-gonad-development-for-stellate-sturgeon-individuals-acipenser-stellatus-pallas-1771
#4
Alexandru Burcea, Gina-Oana Popa, Iulia Elena Florescu Gune, Marilena Maereanu, Andreea Dudu, Sergiu Emil Georgescu, Marieta Costache
Nowadays, in sturgeon's aquaculture, there is a necessity for sex identification at early stages in order to increase the efficiency of this commercial activity. The basis for a correct identification is studying the different factors that influence the gonad development. The research has been directed towards molecular methods that have been employed with various degrees of success in identifying genes with different expression patterns between male and female sturgeons during their development stages. For the purpose of understanding the sexual development of 4-year-old stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) individuals, we have selected six genes ( foxl2 , cyp17a1 , ar , dmrt1 , sox9 , and star )...
2018: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785354/geographical-variation-in-colour-of-female-threespine-stickleback-gasterosteus-aculeatus
#5
Connor M French, Travis Ingram, Daniel I Bolnick
The ecological multifunctionality of colour often results in multiple selective pressures operating on a single trait. Most research on colour evolution focuses on males because they are the most conspicuous sex in most species. This bias can limit inferences about the ecological drivers of colour evolution. For example, little is known about population divergence in colour of female threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ), which is among the most intensively-studied model vertebrates in evolution, ecology, and behaviour...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785141/validity-of-a-method-for-the-self-screening-of-cardiovascular-risk
#6
María Barroso, Silvia Pérez-Fernández, M Mar Vila, M Dolors Zomeño, Ruth Martí-Lluch, Ferran Cordon, Rafel Ramos, Roberto Elosua, Irene R Degano, Montse Fitó, Carmen Cabezas, Gemma Salvador, Conxa Castell, María Grau
Background: The validity of a cardiovascular risk self-screening method was assessed. The results obtained for self-measurement of blood pressure, a point-of-care system's assessment of lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin, and a self-administered questionnaire (sex, age, diabetes, tobacco consumption) were compared with the standard screening (gold standard) conducted by a health professional. Methods: Crossover clinical trial on a population-based sample from Girona (north-eastern Spain), aged 35-74, with no cardiovascular disease at recruitment...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784522/expanding-couples-based-hiv-testing-and-counseling-in-the-united-states-findings-from-a-nationwide-online-survey-of-partnered-adults
#7
Ji-Young Lee, Jason W Mitchell
Couples-based HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is currently available only for gay male couples in the United States, but other types of couples could benefit from this service. Our cross-sectional, online study collected data from 536 partnered adults to assess interest in using CHTC and associated factors. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated with ordinal logistic regression to analyze factors associated with greater interest in using CHTC. Most participants were female, White, non-Hispanic, and/or students who were dating exclusively and sexually active...
April 23, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784114/hookup-app-use-sexual-behavior-and-sexual-health-among-adolescent-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#8
Kathryn Macapagal, David A Moskowitz, Dennis H Li, Andrés Carrión, Emily Bettin, Celia B Fisher, Brian Mustanski
PURPOSE: Geosocial networking applications (e.g., "hookup apps") are widely used among adult men who have sex with men (MSM). Little is known about adolescent MSM's (AMSM) use of these apps. Exploratory research is needed as AMSM's app use poses various ethical, legal, and sexual health concerns. This article examined AMSM's app use patterns and its associations with their sexual health and behavior. METHODS: Two hundred sexually experienced AMSM in the United States (M age = 16...
June 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784112/technology-based-interventions-to-reduce-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-unintended-pregnancy-among-youth
#9
REVIEW
Laura Widman, Jacqueline Nesi, Kristyn Kamke, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, J L Stewart
PURPOSE: Technology-based interventions to promote sexual health have proliferated in recent years, yet their efficacy among youth has not been meta-analyzed. This study synthesizes the literature on technology-based sexual health interventions among youth. METHODS: Studies were included if they (1) sampled youth ages 13-24; (2) utilized technology-based platforms; (3) measured condom use or abstinence as outcomes; (4) evaluated program effects with experimental or quasi-experimental designs; and (5) were published in English...
June 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783279/bone-area-histomorphometry
#10
Janna M Andronowski, Christian Crowder
Quantifying the amount of cortical bone loss is one variable used in histological methods of adult age estimation. Measurements of cortical area tend to be subjective and additional information regarding bone loss is not captured considering cancellous bone is disregarded. We describe whether measuring bone area (cancellous + cortical area) rather than cortical area may improve histological age estimation for the sixth rib. Mid-shaft rib cross-sections (n = 114) with a skewed sex distribution were analyzed...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780764/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-between-built-environment-and-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review
#11
Joanna Sara Valson, V Raman Kutty
Non-communicable diseases are on the rise globally. Risk factors of non-communicable diseases continue to be a growing concern in both developed and developing countries. With significant rise in population and establishment of buildings, rapid changes have taken place in the built environment. Relationship between health and place, particularly with non-communicable diseases has been established in previous literature. This systematic review assesses the current evidence on influence of gender in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780345/addiction-like-mobile-phone-behavior-validation-and-association-with-problem-gambling
#12
Andreas Fransson, Mariano Chóliz, Anders Håkansson
Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD), and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP) together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779929/prescription-medication-use-and-antinuclear-antibodies-in-the-united-states-1999-2004
#13
Gregg E Dinse, Christine G Parks, Helen C S Meier, Caroll A Co, Edward K L Chan, Todd A Jusko, James Yeh, Frederick W Miller
BACKGROUND: Clinical reports link specific medications with the development of antinuclear antibodies (ANA), but population-based evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated associations between prescription medication use and ANA in a representative sample of the adult noninstitutionalized US population, first focusing on medications previously related to ANA and then considering all medications reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779683/strabismus-strabismus-surgery-and-reoperation-rate-in-the-united-states-analysis-from-the-iris-registry
#14
Michael X Repka, Flora Lum, Bhavya Burugapalli
PURPOSE: To describe the rates of strabismus, strabismus surgery, and strabismus surgery reoperations among all age groups in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of electronic health record data. PARTICIPANTS: Patients from the IRIS (Intelligent Research in Sight) Registry. METHODS: Description of the types and rates of strabismus and strabismus surgery from 2013 to 2016 with subgroups by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and region of the United States...
May 17, 2018: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779451/mixed-emotions-an-incentive-motivational-model-of-sexual-deviance
#15
Wineke J Smid, Edwin C Wever
Sexual offending behavior is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. Most existing etiological models describe sexual offending behavior as a variant of offending behavior and mostly include factors referring to disinhibition and sexual deviance. In this article, we argue that there is additional value in describing sexual offending behavior as sexual behavior in terms of an incentive model of sexual motivation. The model describes sexual arousal as an emotion, triggered by a competent stimulus signaling potential reward, and comparable to other emotions coupled with strong bodily reactions...
May 1, 2018: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779160/an-event-level-analysis-of-condomless-anal-intercourse-with-a-hiv-discordant-or-hiv-status-unknown-partner-among-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-from-a-multi-site-study
#16
Cui Yang, Carl Latkin, Karin Tobin, David Seal, Beryl Koblin, Geetanjali Chander, Daniel Siconolfi, Stephen Flores, Pilgrim Spikes
Despite the high HIV incidence and prevalence among black men who have sex with men (BMSM), little research has examined partner characteristics, partner seeking venue, sexual position, substance use, and sexual risk behavior at the sex event-level among BMSM. Using the baseline data from a multi-site study of 807 BMSM stratified by their HIV status, the goal of this study was to conduct a detailed event-level analysis of 1577 male anal sex events to assess the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) with a HIV-discordant or HIV status-unknown partner...
May 19, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779064/sex-offender-risk-assessment-where-are-we-and-where-are-we-going
#17
REVIEW
L Maaike Helmus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risk assessment is one of the most ubiquitous tasks in the criminal justice system, informing virtually every decision made about offenders. This review, intended for researchers and practitioners, outlines some of the most important recent advances, emerging issues, and recommendations in sex offender risk assessment. RECENT FINDINGS: The underlying nature and purpose of risk scales is reviewed, with implications for how we should evaluate them...
May 19, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778776/identification-and-medical-utilization-of-incident-cases-of-alcohol-dependence-a-population-based-case-control-study
#18
Chun-Hung Pan, Min-Shan Li, Tien-Wey Yang, Ming-Chyi Huang, Sheng-Shiang Su, Yen-Ni Hung, Chiao-Chicy Chen, Chian-Jue Kuo
BACKGROUND: Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) often seek help from medical professionals due to alcohol-related diseases, but the overall distribution of medical specialties identifying new AD cases is unclear. We investigated how such cases were identified and how medical resources were utilized before the identification of AD in a nationwide cohort. METHODS: We enrolled a population-based cohort (N = 1,000,000) using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan; 8181 cases with incident AD were retrieved between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010...
May 5, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778737/cancer-immunotherapy-efficacy-and-patients-sex-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Fabio Conforti, Laura Pala, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Tommaso De Pas, Marco Martinetti, Giuseppe Viale, Richard D Gelber, Aron Goldhirsch
BACKGROUND: Despite the acknowledged sex-related dimorphism in immune system response, little is known about the effect of patients' sex on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors as cancer treatments. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the heterogeneity of immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy between men and women. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus, from database inception to Nov 30, 2017, for randomised controlled trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors (inhibitors of PD-1, CTLA-4, or both) that had available hazard ratios (HRs) for death according to patients' sex...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778065/reliability-of-the-sub-components-of-the-instrumented-timed-up-and-go-test-in-ambulatory-children-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-typically-developed-controls
#20
Mark A Newman, Mark A Hirsch, Richard D Peindl, Nahir A Habet, Tobias J Tsai, Michael S Runyon, Toan Huynh, Nigel Zheng
BACKGROUND: Studies have evaluated the test-re-test reliability of subcomponents of the timed up and-go test in adults by using body-worn inertial sensors. However, studies in children have not been reported in the literature. RESEARCH QUESTION: To evaluate the within-session reliability of subcomponents of a newly developed electronically augmented timed 'upand-go' test (EATUG) in ambulatory children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with typical development (TD)...
May 16, 2018: Gait & Posture
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