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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812848/the-elephants-in-the-room-sex-hiv-and-lgbt-populations-in-mena-intersectionality-in-lebanon-comment-on-improving-the-quality-and-quantity-of-hiv-data-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-key-challenges-and-ways-forward
#1
Rachel L Kaplan, Cynthia El Khoury
In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812325/ambiguity-in-a-masculine-world-being-a-brca1-2-mutation-carrier-and-a-man-with-prostate-cancer
#2
C Moynihan, E K Bancroft, A Mitra, A Ardern-Jones, E Castro, E C Page, R A Eeles
BACKGROUND: Increased risk of prostate cancer(PCa) is observed in men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations. Sex and gender are key determinants of health and disease although unequal care exists between the sexes. Stereotypical male attitudes are shown to lead to poor health outcomes. METHODS: Men with BRCA1/2 mutations and diagnosed with PCa were identified and invited to participate in a qualitative interview study. Data were analysed using a Framework approach. 'Masculinity theory' was used to report the impact of having both a BRCA1/2 mutation and PCa...
August 15, 2017: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811877/alternative-reproductive-strategies-and-the-maintenance-of-female-color-polymorphism-in-damselflies
#3
Rosa A Sánchez-Guillén, Maren Wellenreuther, Jesús R Chávez-Ríos, Christopher D Beatty, Anais Rivas-Torres, María Velasquez-Velez, Adolfo Cordero-Rivera
Genetic polymorphisms are powerful model systems to study the maintenance of diversity in nature. In some systems, polymorphisms are limited to female coloration; these are thought to have arisen as a consequence of reducing male mating harassment, commonly resulting in negative frequency-dependent selection on female color morphs. One example is the damselfly Ischnura elegans, which shows three female color morphs and strong sexual conflict over mating rates. Here, we present research integrating male tactics, and female evolutionary strategies (female mating behavior and morph-specific female fecundity) in populations with different morph-specific mating frequencies, to obtain an understanding of mating rates in nature that goes beyond the mere measure of color frequencies...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811802/clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-in-migraine-patients
#4
Chunlin Li, Shengyuan Yu, Huiying Li, Jin Zhou, Jieqiong Liu, Wenjing Tang, Lei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Clinical and basic research increasingly suggests a correlation between migraine and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, we aimed to explore the clinical features and risk factors for IBS in migraine patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,112 consecutive patients from the internal medicine and emergency departments of three hospitals from June 2014 through 2016. A comprehensive interviewer-administered questionnaire was designed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version)...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811564/computational-identification-of-y-linked-markers-and-genes-in-the-grass-carp-genome-by-using-a-pool-and-sequence-method
#5
Aidi Zhang, Rong Huang, Liangming Chen, Lv Xiong, Libo He, Yongming Li, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
The molecular analysis of sex in vertebrates is important, as it has the potential to provide vital information for theoretical and applied research alike. Teleost fish are the ancient vertebrates that present a broad sex chromosome system but lack differentiated sex chromosomes in most species. Hence understanding the sex in fish would not only illuminate the sex determination evolution in vertebrates but also shed light on fish farming. In the present study, we used grass carp as a teleost fish model, studied the Y chromosome by using a pool-and-sequence strategy in combination with fragment-ratio method...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810983/evaluation-of-a-novel-field-expedient-musculoskeletal-readiness-screening-tool-in-an-army-basic-training-population
#6
Darren Hearn, Daniel Rhon, Donald Goss, Mark Thelen
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal injuries present a significant challenge to military readiness accounting for over 29% of ambulatory medical visits and 25 million limited duty days across the U.S. Army. Although U.S. Military Health Systems perform periodic general health and deployment assessments, there is no validated tool to determine when a service member is at increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury. METHOD: 292 U.S. Army basic training recruits completed a novel injury screening test called the Musculoskeletal Readiness Screening Tool (MRST)...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810461/a-journey-to-hiv-prevention-research-from-social-psychology-to-social-health-via-multidisciplinarity
#7
Susan Kippax
This article is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention and how and why I navigated my way from social psychology to 'social health' via multidisciplinarity. My work in HIV prevention - from 1984 to the present day - developed my understandings of epistemology, building on and expanding the ways in which I undertook research. This article describes those whose writings and research influenced me and the input of colleagues and students. It also demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810024/effect-of-an-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mette Yun Johansen, Christopher Scott MacDonald, Katrine Bagge Hansen, Kristian Karstoft, Robin Christensen, Maria Pedersen, Louise Seier Hansen, Morten Zacho, Anne-Sophie Wedell-Neergaard, Signe Tellerup Nielsen, Ulrik Wining Iepsen, Henning Langberg, Allan Arthur Vaag, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Mathias Ried-Larsen
Importance: It is unclear whether a lifestyle intervention can maintain glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Objective: To test whether an intensive lifestyle intervention results in equivalent glycemic control compared with standard care and, secondarily, leads to a reduction in glucose-lowering medication in participants with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, assessor-blinded, single-center study within Region Zealand and the Capital Region of Denmark (April 2015-August 2016)...
August 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809934/long-term-exposure-to-air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-nested-case-control-study
#9
Chiu-Ying Chen, Hui-Jung Hung, Kuang-Hsi Chang, Chung Y Hsu, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chon-Haw Tsai, Trong-Neng Wu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that chronic exposure to air pollution can significantly increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD), but this relationship is inconclusive as large-scale prospective studies are limited and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure in a nationwide population using a longitudinal approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study using the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD), which consisted of 1,000,000 beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Program (NHI) in the year 2000 and their medical records from 1995 to 2013 and using public data on air pollution concentrations from monitoring stations across Taiwan released from the Environmental Protection Administration to identify people with ages ≥ 40 years living in areas with monitoring stations during 1995-1999 as study subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808909/oxytocin-and-anxiety-disorders-translational-and-therapeutic-aspects
#10
REVIEW
Wadih Jean Naja, Michaelangelo Pietro Aoun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate the most recent literature examining the oxytocin (OXT) system's role in human anxiety by surveying various fields of preclinical and clinical research supporting this role, and queries whether the OXT system might be a target for novel anxiolytics. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence from the diverse body of literature presented here, from translational research, genetic and neuroimaging studies, to clinical trials of intranasal (IN) OXT reveals a positive association...
August 15, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808839/individuals-with-autism-have-higher-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-levels-than-controls-but-no-correlation-with-quantitative-assay-of-paraoxonase-1-serum-levels
#11
Bianca Pop, Alexandru-Ștefan Niculae, Tudor Lucian Pop, Andreea Liana Răchișan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808503/prognostic-efficacy-of-inflammation-based-markers-in-patients-with-curative-colorectal-cancer-resection
#12
Özgür Akgül, Erdinç Çetinkaya, Metin Yalaza, Sabri Özden, Mesut Tez
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and other clinicopathological factors in patients undergoing curative resection of colon cancer. METHODS: 183 patients with histologically proven colorectal cancer who had undergone potentially curative resection between 2010 and 2016 at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively analyzed and clinicopathological characteristics included age, sex, tumor type, grade, size and localization, the number of metastatic and total number of lymph nodes removed, vascular and perineural invasion of the tumor, TNM stages, tumor marker levels (CEA, CA19-9, AFP, CA-125, CA15-3), complete blood counts, albumin levels, overall survival (months), NLR, PLR, LMR and PNI ratios were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed from the electronic database...
July 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808184/obesity-is-associated-with-the-arg389gly-adrb1-but-not-with-the-trp64arg-adrb3-polymorphism-in-children-from-san-luis-potos%C3%A3-and-le%C3%A3-n-m%C3%A3-xico
#13
Celia Aradillas-Garc X Cd, Miguel Cruz, Elva Pérez-Luque, María E Garay-Sevilla, Juan M Malacara, Aduna R, Jesús Peralta, Ana Burguete-García, Jorge A Alegría-Torres
This research was designed to analyze the possible associations of Arg389Gly ADRB1 and Trp64Arg ADRB3 polymorphisms in children with obesity. A cross-sectional study included 1,046 school-age Mexican participants (6-12 years old) from the cities of San Luis PotosÍ and León. Children were classified as non-obese or obese according to their body mass index (BMI) percentile; obese children had a BMI≥95th percentile for sex and age. Biochemical data were collected. Polymorphisms were detected using TaqMan qPCR assay...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807719/maternal-hypothyroidism-an-overview-of-current-experimental-models
#14
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
Maternal hypothyroidism (MH) is the most common cause of transient congenital hypothyroidism. Different animal models are used for assessing developmental effects of MH in offspring. The severity and status of hypothyroidism in animal models must be a reflection of the actual conditions in humans. To obtain comparable results with different clinical conditions, which lead to MH in humans, several factors have been suggested for researchers to consider before designing the experimental models. Regarding development of fetal body systems during pregnancy, interference at different times provides different results and the appropriate time for induction of hypothyroidism should be selected based on accurate time of development of the system under assessment...
August 11, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807652/severity-indices-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review
#15
Esther Toledano, M Jesús García de Yébenes, Isidoro González-Álvaro, Loreto Carmona
OBJECTIVE: To identify tools designed to evaluate the severity of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in order to use them in the investigation of prognostic markers in early arthritis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies that developed/validated an index for RA disease severity. They were analyzed using the COSMIN checklist to assess their methodological quality. In addition, all the variables included were evaluated for their clarity of definition, feasibility and probability of being present in each outcome during the first 2 years of the disease course...
August 11, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807634/-severity-assessment-strategies-based-on-administrative-data-using-stroke-as-an-example
#16
Ingrid Schubert, Antje Hammer, Ingrid Köster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information on disease severity is relevant for many studies with claims data in health service research, but only limited information is available in routine data. Stroke serves as an example, to analyse whether the combination of different information in claims data can provide insight into the severity of a disease. METHOD: As a first step, a literature search was conducted. Strategies to assess the severity of a disease by means of routine data were examined with regards and applicability to German sickness fund data...
August 11, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807605/adjuvant-hpv-vaccination-for-anal-cancer-prevention-in-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-time-is-now
#17
Ashish A Deshmukh, Scott B Cantor, Elisabeth Fenwick, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Alan G Nyitray, Elizabeth A Stier, Stephen E Goldstone, Timothy Wilkin, Jagpreet Chhatwal
IMPORTANCE: Outcomes of treating high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), a precursor to anal cancer, remain uncertain. Emerging evidence shows that post HSIL treatment adjuvant quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccination improves the effectiveness of treatment. However, no recommendations exist regarding the use of qHPV vaccine as an adjuvant form of therapy. Our objective was to determine whether post-treatment adjuvant vaccination should be adopted in HIV-infected MSM (individuals at highest risk for anal cancer) on the basis of cost-effectiveness determined using existing evidence or whether future research is needed...
August 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807597/reference-values-of-intrinsic-muscle-strength-of-the-hand-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#18
Chao-Ying Chen, Corey W McGee, Tonya L Rich, Cecília N Prudente, Bernadette T Gillick
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional clinical measurement study. INTRODUCTION: Measuring intrinsic hand muscle strength helps evaluate hand function or therapeutic outcomes. However, there are no established normative values in adolescents and young adults between 13 and 20 years of age. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To measure hand intrinsic muscle strength and identify associated factors that may influence such in adolescents and young adults through use of the Rotterdam intrinsic hand myometer...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#19
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806491/the-association-between-dysregulated-adipocytokines-in-early-pregnancy-and-development-of-gestational-diabetes
#20
Sally K Abell, Soulmaz Shorakae, Cheryce L Harrison, Danielle Hiam, Alba Moreno-Asso, Nigel K Stepto, Barbora De Courten, Helena J Teede
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association of adipocytokines and other inflammatory markers with development of GDM. METHODS: Serum adipocytokines and inflammatory markers were studied at 12-15 weeks gestation using biobanked control samples from a randomised trial. Study participants were identified as high risk for GDM using a validated clinical risk prediction tool. Markers were tested using commercial ELISA kits for high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, visfatin, omentin-1, sex-hormone binding globulin, monocyte chemoattractant protein and asymmetrical dimethylarginine...
August 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
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