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Chronic inflammation prevention

Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2) are gut hormones that may directly affect the glucose homeostasis and their activity seems to be significantly affected by chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the postprandial glucose and insulin levels among individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and healthy controls. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study, which involved individuals awaiting for bariatric/metabolic surgery and healthy controls...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
S I Achkasov, Yu A Shelygin, A I Moskalev, Yu L Trubacheva, S A Senashenko
AIM: To estimate efficacy of laparoscopic-assisted procedures for chronic complications of diverticular disease (DD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was made a prospective comparative study within 2007-2015. Inclusion criteria were verified chronic DD (>6 weeks after the first attack) and bowel resection followed by primary anastomosis. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: contraindications for pneumoperitoneum, BMI ≥35 kg/m2 , infiltrate dimension >10 cm, preoperatively non-excluded neoplasm...
2018: Khirurgiia
Petrus Linge, Paul R Fortin, Christian Lood, Anders A Bengtsson, Eric Boilard
Dysregulation of lymphocyte function, accumulation of autoantibodies and defective clearance of circulating immune complexes and apoptotic cells are hallmarks of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Moreover, it is now evident that an intricate interplay between the adaptive and innate immune systems contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE, ultimately resulting in chronic inflammation and organ damage. Platelets circulate in the blood and are chiefly recognized for their role in the prevention of bleeding and promotion of haemostasis; however, accumulating evidence points to a role for platelets in both adaptive and innate immunity...
March 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Heather Armstrong, Michael Bording-Jorgensen, Stephanie Dijk, Eytan Wine
Cancer is a multifaceted condition, in which a senescent cell begins dividing in an irregular manner due to various factors such as DNA damage, growth factors and inflammation. Inflammation is not typically discussed as carcinogenic; however, a significant percentage of cancers arise from chronic microbial infections and damage brought on by chronic inflammation. A hallmark cancer-inducing microbe is Helicobacter pylori and its causation of peptic ulcers and potentially gastric cancer. This review discusses the recent developments in understanding microbes in health and disease and their potential role in the progression of cancer...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Vincenzo Sorrenti, Gabriella Contarini, Stefania Sut, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Francesca Confortin, Andrea Pagetta, Pietro Giusti, Morena Zusso
Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces an acute inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) ("neuroinflammation") characterized by altered functions of microglial cells, the major resident immune cells of the CNS, and an increased inflammatory profile that can result in long-term neuronal cell damage and severe behavioral and cognitive consequences. Curcumin, a natural compound, exerts CNS anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective functions mainly after chronic treatment. However, its effect after acute treatment has not been well investigated...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
David Z Silberstein, Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Hnin Hnin Aung, Ching-Hsien Chen, Carroll E Cross, Karen A McDonald
Proteases and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have long been implicated in playing key roles in host tissue injury at sites of inflammatory processes dominated by macrophage activations and/or neutrophil infiltrations. Imbalances between proteases/antiproteases and ROS/antioxidants are recognized to contribute to amplification of inflammatory-based host tissue injury. This has been especially well-documented in such respiratory tract diseases as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome...
March 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Wataru Uchida, Yuji Narita, Aika Yamawaki-Ogata, Yoshiyuki Tokuda, Masato Mutsuga, Kazuro Lee Fujimoto, Tomonobu Abe, Hideki Oshima, Akihiko Usui
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of aortic aneurysm (AA) is associated with chronic inflammation in the aortic wall with increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Clarithromycin (CAM) has been reported to suppresses MMP activity. In this study, we investigated whether CAM could prevent the formation and rupture of AA. METHODS: Male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (28-30 weeks of age) were infused with angiotensin II for 28 days. CAM (100 mg/kg/d) or saline (as a control) was administered orally to the mice every day (CAM group, n = 13; control group, n = 13)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Mayila Yiliyasi, Akira Kuwahara, Sumika Matsui, Minoru Irahara
Energy balance and reproductive functions are closely linked in some species. The sex hormones (estrogens and androgens) are involved in the regulation of appetite, metabolism, body weight (BW), and body composition in mammals. Previously, we showed that the effects of testosterone on BW, appetite, and fat weight were markedly affected by alterations to the gonadal hormonal milieu. In this study, we examined whether testosterone administration changes food preferences and whether these effects of testosterone depend on gonadal status in female rats...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Matthew G K Benesch, Iain T K MacIntyre, Todd P W McMullen, David N Brindley
A quarter-century after the discovery of autotaxin in cell culture, the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate (LPA)-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis is now a promising clinical target for treating chronic inflammatory conditions, mitigating fibrosis progression, and improving the efficacy of existing cancer chemotherapies and radiotherapy. Nearly half of the literature on this axis has been published during the last five years. In cancer biology, LPA signaling is increasingly being recognized as a central mediator of the progression of chronic inflammation in the establishment of a tumor microenvironment which promotes cancer growth, immune evasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance...
March 15, 2018: Cancers
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Carine Smith
The modern lifestyle is characterised by various factors that cause accelerating ageing by the upregulation of oxidative stress and inflammation-two processes that are inextricably linked in an endless circle of self-propagation. Inflammation in particular is commonly accepted as aetiological factor in many chronic disease states, such as obesity, diabetes and depression. In terms of disease prevention or treatment, interventions aimed at changing dietary and/or exercise habits have had limited success in practise, mostly due to poor long-term compliance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Yuhui Yang, Xue Liu, Yunpeng Liu, Hui Fu, Ying Gao, Xing Liu, Xiaoliang Jiang
Background and objective: Chronic inflammatory is involved in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. PSGL-1 plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Methods and results: In this study, we used PSGL-1-/- and PSGL-1+/+ mice fed with high salt diet to measure the blood pressure, inflammatory response and vascular injury. We found that, in PSGL-1+/+ mice, high salt diet resulted in high blood pressure with the increased expression of serum inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNFɑ, vascular injury markers MCP-1, ET-1, and VWF, and renal macrophages and T cells infiltration, and endothelium-dependent acetylcholine vasodilation dysfunction...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Zhen-Guo Ma, Xin Zhang, Yu-Pei Yuan, Ya-Ge Jin, Ning Li, Chun-Yan Kong, Peng Song, Qi-Zhu Tang
T cell infiltration and the subsequently increased intracardial chronic inflammation play crucial roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, has been reported to have powerful anti-inflammatory and T cells-inhibiting properties. However, the effect of A77 1726 on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Herein, we found that A77 1726 treatment attenuated pressure overload or angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo, as well as agonist-induced hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Guan Yun Frances Wang, Xiang Qun Shi, Wenjia Wu, Maria Gueorguieva, Mu Yang, Ji Zhang
Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a set of heterogeneous musculoskeletal conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or the masticatory muscles. Up to 33% of the population has had at least one symptom of TMD with 5-10% of them requiring treatment. Common symptoms include limited jaw movement, joint sound, and pain in the orofacial area. Once TMD becomes chronic, it can be debilitating with comorbidities that greatly reduce one's overall quality of life. However, the underlying mechanism of TMD is unclear due to the multicausative nature of the disease...
March 12, 2018: Pain
I Arias de la Rosa, A Escudero-Contreras, S Rodríguez-Cuenca, M Ruiz-Ponce, Y Jiménez-Gómez, P Ruiz-Limón, C Pérez-Sánchez, M C Ábalos-Aguilera, I Cecchi, R Ortega, J Calvo, R Guzmán-Ruiz, M M Malagón, E Collantes-Estevez, A Vidal-Puig, Ch López-Pedrera, N Barbarroja
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are at increased risk of insulin resistance (IR); however, the specific mechanisms mediating this association are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the inflammatory activity associated with RA accounts for the observed defective glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism in these patients. METHODS: We followed two main strategies: (i) extensive metabolic profiling of a RA cohort of 100 patients and 50 healthy control subjects and (ii) mechanistic studies carried out in both a collagen-induced arthritis mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with conditioned serum from RA patients...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
John Jarrell
Historically, the evolutionary origins of menstruation have been based on two theories: the ability to eliminate infectious agents carried to the uterus with spermatozoa and the comparative conservation of energy with menstruation compared to its absence. In the menstruating species, more recent theories have identified spontaneous decidualization as the key adaptive mechanism. Spontaneous decidualization is seen as a mechanism to provide the mother with protection from the invasive characteristics of the embryo...
February 8, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Kyoung A Jhang, Jin-Sun Park, Hee-Sun Kim, Young Hae Chong
BACKGROUND: Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) activity necessary for amyloid-stimulated phagocytosis strongly implicates that MerTK dysregulation might contribute to chronic inflammation implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. However, the precise mechanism involved in the regulation of MerTK expression by amyloid-β (Aβ) in proinflammatory environment has not yet been ascertained. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanism involved in Aβ-mediated decrease in MerTK expression through Aβ-mediated regulation of MerTK expression and its modulation by sulforaphane in human THP-1 macrophages challenged with Aβ1-42...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Perumal Yogeeswari
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Brij Bhushan Mehta, Anil Tiwari, Saniya Sharma, Ashu Shukla, Maryada Sharma, Rakesh K Vasishta, Ramesh K Sen, Aman Sharma, Manni Luthra-Guptasarma
Tenascin-C (TN-C) levels are elevated in the synovial tissue and fluid, as well as cartilage of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. In addition, the presence of TN-C fragments has also been documented in arthritic cartilage. We have previously shown that a single chain variable fragment antibody (TN64), directed against the fibronectin type III repeats 1-5 (TNfnIII 1-5) of TN-C, effectively inhibits fibrotic pathology. Given that fibrosis results from chronic inflammation, and the fact that increased levels of TN-C in the synovial fluid of patients with RA contributes to synovial inflammation and joint destruction, we aimed to investigate the role of TNfnIII 1-5 region of TN-C in RA pathogenesis...
March 9, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
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