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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774765/-staying-safe-a-narrative-review-of-falls-prevention-in-people-with-parkinson-s-pdsafe
#1
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772521/myricetin-attenuates-neurodegeneration-and-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinsonism
#2
Vijayraja Dhanraj, Jeyaprakash Karuppaiah, Rengasamy Balakrishnan, Namasivayam Elangovan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease due to dopaminergic neuron degeneration. It mostly affects the aged population, leads to memory decline and loss of motor coordination. The present study investigates the neuroprotective role of myricetin a flavonol isolated from the brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata in rotenone induced Drosophila model of PD. Rotenone administration led to dopaminergic neuronal degeneration, dopamine depletion, impaired muscular coordination, gait disturbances, memory decline oxidative stress and apoptosis...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772432/silymarin-prevents-apoptosis-through-inhibiting-the-bax-caspase-3-expression-and-suppresses-toll-like-receptor-4-pathway-in-the-snc-of-6-ohda-intoxicated-rats
#3
Rasool Haddadi, Alireza Mohajjel Nayebi, Shahla Eyvari Brooshghalan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several lines of evidence show that apoptosis, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are associated with the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the effect of pre-treatment with silymarin (SM) on oxidative stress, apoptosis and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in substantia nigra pars copmacta (SNc) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. METHODS: Animals were pretreated with 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg of SM daily for 5 days and at 6th day 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl) was infused unilaterally into the central region of the SNc...
May 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769744/nadph-ameliorates-mptp-induced-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-through-inhibiting-p38mapk-activation
#4
Jing-Si Zhou, Zhou Zhu, Feng Wu, Ying Zhou, Rui Sheng, Jun-Chao Wu, Zheng-Hong Qin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although the pathogenic mechanism underlying PD remains largely unknown, decreased nigral glutathione (GSH) in postmortem brains of PD patients supports the presence of oxidative stress in PD. We found that Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), which is important for maintaining the level of GSH, protected dopaminergic (DA) neurons from neurotoxicity of MPTP/MPP+ ...
May 16, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768946/neuroprotective-role-of-astroglia-in-parkinson-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-dopamine-induced-activation-of-pentose-phosphate-pathway
#5
Kyoko Mashima, Shinichi Takahashi, Kazushi Minami, Yoshikane Izawa, Takato Abe, Naoki Tsukada, Takako Hishiki, Makoto Suematsu, Mayumi Kajimura, Norihiro Suzuki
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson disease. Although released dopamine at the synaptic terminal is mostly reabsorbed by dopaminergic neurons, some dopamine is presumably taken up by astroglia. This study examined the dopamine-induced astroglial protective function through the activation of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) to reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro experiments were performed using striatal neurons and cortical or striatal astroglia prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats or C57BL/6 mice...
January 2018: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764704/current-understanding-of-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-cell-based-therapeutic-opportunities
#6
REVIEW
Ye Xiong, Asim Mahmood, Michael Chopp
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that TBI is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Despite improved supportive and rehabilitative care of TBI patients, unfortunately, all late phase clinical trials in TBI have yet to yield a safe and effective neuroprotective treatment. The disappointing clinical trials may be attributed to variability in treatment approaches and heterogeneity of the population of TBI patients as well as a race against time to prevent or reduce inexorable cell death...
April 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760292/-targeting-transcellular-transport-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-for-developing-disease-modifying-therapies-for-synucleinopathy
#7
Takafumi Hasegawa
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and it is characterized by progressive physical disability along with a variety of non-motor symptoms. Drugs that replenish dopamine can partly alleviate the motor symptoms; however, they do not cure the disease itself. Therefore, there is an urgent need for disease modifying therapies that would delay or prevent neurodegeneration. Increasing evidence suggests that α-synuclein, a key molecule in PD, is secreted into the extracellular environment and can be transported from cell-to-cell, thereby affecting the physiological state of the neighboring cells in a prion-like manner...
May 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760182/alternating-modulation-of-subthalamic-nucleus-beta-oscillations-during-stepping
#8
Petra Fischer, Chiung Chu Chen, Ya Ju Chang, Chien-Hung Yeh, Alek Pogosyan, Damian M Herz, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz, Jonathan Hyam, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Harutomo Hasegawa, Michael Samuel, Keyoumars Ashkan, Peter Brown, Huiling Tan
Gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease are commonly refractory to current treatment options and majorly impair patient's quality of life. Auditory cues facilitate gait and prevent motor blocks. We investigated how neural dynamics in the human subthalamic nucleus of Parkinsons's disease patients (14 male, 2 female) vary during stepping and whether rhythmic auditory cues enhance the observed modulation. Oscillations in the beta band were suppressed after ipsilateral heel strikes, when the contralateral foot had to be raised, and re-appeared after contralateral heel strikes, when the contralateral foot rested on the floor...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760073/regulation-of-myeloid-cell-phagocytosis-by-lrrk2-via-wave2-complex-stabilization-is-altered-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Kwang Soo Kim, Paul C Marcogliese, Jungwoo Yang, Steve M Callaghan, Virginia Resende, Elizabeth Abdel-Messih, Connie Marras, Naomi P Visanji, Jana Huang, Michael G Schlossmacher, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Ruth S Slack, Anthony E Lang, David S Park
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its pathogenic role remains unclear. A previous screen in Drosophila identified Scar/WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verproline) proteins as potential genetic interactors of LRRK2 Here, we provide evidence that LRRK2 modulates the phagocytic response of myeloid cells via specific modulation of the actin-cytoskeletal regulator, WAVE2. We demonstrate that macrophages and microglia from LRRK2-G2019S PD patients and mice display a WAVE2-mediated increase in phagocytic response, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758248/beneficial-effect-of-etazolate-on-depression-like-behavior-and-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Karem H Alzoubi, Enas Mokhemer, Amjad N Abuirmeileh
The aim of this study was to evaluate etazolate against depression-like behavior and, learning and memory impairment induced by 6- hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). This aim was achieved through comparing 6-OHDA lesioned rats in the presence and absence of etazolate. The 6-OHDA was used to induce lesion as a model of PD. Etazolate was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 14 days, starting 7 days after lesion induction. Apomorphine-induced rotation test was used to evaluate 6-OHDA-induced motor deficits, tail suspension test was used to assess depression-like symptoms, and the radial arms water maze (RAWM) was used to evaluate special learning and memory functions...
May 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755536/preclinical-study-of-ibuprofen-loaded-transnasal-mucoadhesive-microemulsion-for-neuroprotective-effect-in-mptp-mice-model
#11
Surjyanarayan Mandal, Snigdha Das Mandal, Krishna Chuttani, Krutika K Sawant, Bharat Bhushan Subudhi
Ibuprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), showed very promising neuroprotection action, but it suffers from high first pass metabolism and limited ability to cross blood brain barrier. Severe gastric toxicity following oral administration further limits its utility. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate whether ibuprofen loaded mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) could enhance the brain uptake and could also protect the dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-mediated neural inflammation. In this work, ibuprofen loaded polycarbophil based mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) was developed by using response surface methodology (RSM)...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755323/environmental-enrichment-prevents-transcriptional-disturbances-induced-by-alpha-synuclein-overexpression
#12
Zinah Wassouf, Thomas Hentrich, Sebastian Samer, Carola Rotermund, Philipp J Kahle, Ingrid Ehrlich, Olaf Riess, Nicolas Casadei, Julia M Schulze-Hentrich
Onset and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, including synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, have been associated with various environmental factors. A highly compelling association from a therapeutic point of view has been found between a physically active lifestyle and a significantly reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. Mimicking such conditions in animal models by promoting physical activity, social interactions, and novel surroundings yields in a so-called enriched environment known to enhance adult neurogenesis, increase synaptic plasticity, and decelerate neuronal loss...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755319/ambra1-mediated-mitophagy-counteracts-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-induced-by-neurotoxicity-in-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells
#13
Anthea Di Rita, Pasquale D'Acunzo, Luca Simula, Silvia Campello, Flavie Strappazzon, Francesco Cecconi
Therapeutic strategies are needed to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in PD pathogenesis. Selective autophagy of mitochondria (mitophagy), mainly regulated by PINK1 and PARKIN, plays an important role in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. Mutations in those genes cause accumulation of damaged mitochondria, leading to nigral degeneration and early-onset PD. AMBRA1ActA is a fusion protein specifically expressed at the mitochondria, and whose expression has been shown to induce a powerful mitophagy in mammalian cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755317/microglial-phagocytosis-and-its-regulation-a-therapeutic-target-in-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Elzbieta Janda, Laura Boi, Anna R Carta
The role of phagocytosis in the neuroprotective function of microglia has been appreciated for a long time, but only more recently a dysregulation of this process has been recognized in Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, microglia play several critical roles in central nervous system (CNS), such as clearance of dying neurons and pathogens as well as immunomodulation, and to fulfill these complex tasks they engage distinct phenotypes. Regulation of phenotypic plasticity and phagocytosis in microglia can be impaired by defects in molecular machinery regulating critical homeostatic mechanisms, including autophagy...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754758/novel-valosin-containing-protein-mutations-associated-with-multisystem-proteinopathy
#15
Sejad Al-Tahan, Ebaa Al-Obeidi, Hiroshi Yoshioka, Anita Lakatos, Lan Weiss, Marjorie Grafe, Johanna Palmio, Matt Wicklund, Yadollah Harati, Molly Omizo, Bjarne Udd, Virginia Kimonis
Over fifty missense mutations in the gene coding for valosin-containing protein (VCP) are associated with a unique autosomal dominant adult-onset progressive disease associated with combinations of proximo-distal inclusion body myopathy (IBM), Paget's disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report the clinical, histological, and molecular findings in four new patients/families carrying novel VCP mutations: c.474 G > A (p.M158I); c.478 G > C (p...
April 17, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752635/incidence-of-sarcopenia-and-dynapenia-according-to-stage-in-patients-with-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Tamer Yazar, Hülya Olgun Yazar, Emel Zayimoğlu, Soner Çankaya
AIM: In this study, the aim was to identify the incidence of sarcopenia and dynapenia according to disease stage among idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients and collect data to illuminate precautions related to reducing the disease load. METHOD: The study was completed with 166 patients divided by stage according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (HYR) criteria and 249 healthy volunteers aged from 18 to 39 and 68 to 75 years met the inclusion criteria. In our prospective and cross-sectional study, patients with IPD according to "UK Brain Bank" diagnostic criteria had the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and HYR scales applied...
May 12, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746402/update-in-therapeutic-strategies-for-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Jaime Kulisevsky, Lais Oliveira, Susan H Fox
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in therapeutics for motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroprotection remains a large area of investigation with preliminary safety data on alpha synuclein immunotherapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists. Novel Monoamine Oxidase B and Caetchol-O-methyltransferase-inhibitors for motor fluctuations have shown benefit and are recently approved for clinical use. Long-acting amantadine has also been approved to reduce dyskinesia...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740928/incidence-timing-and-impact-of-comorbidity-on-second-hip-fracture-a-population-based-study
#18
Lara Harvey, Barbara Toson, Rebecca Mitchell, Henry Brodaty, Brian Draper, Jacqueline Close
BACKGROUND: To quantify the incidence and timing of second hip fracture, and to evaluate the relative impact of comorbidities on risk of second hip fracture. METHODS: Hospitalization records for individuals aged ≥65, admitted to a New South Wales hospital for fall-related hip fracture between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2009 were linked. Comorbidities were identified from the records using a 1-year look-back period. To calculate second hip fracture rates, individuals were followed until death, fracture or end of study period (31 December 2012)...
May 8, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739324/zinc-and-linoleic-acid-pre-treatment-attenuates-biochemical-and-histological-changes-in-the-midbrain-of-rats-with-rotenone-induced-parkinsonism
#19
Ngala Elvis Mbiydzenyuy, Herbert Izo Ninsiima, Miriela Betancourt Valladares, Constant Anatole Pieme
BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested the supplementation of Zinc and Linoleic acid in the management of neurodegenerative disorders but none has investigated the combined effects. Little is known about the neuroprotective effects of either Zinc or Linoleic acid or their combination against development of Parkinsonism. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Zinc and Linoleic acid in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. METHODS: Thirty-six young adult female rats weighing 100-150 g divided into six groups were used...
May 9, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737569/huntington-s-disease-current-and-future-therapeutic-prospects
#20
REVIEW
Karl Kieburtz, Ralf Reilmann, C Warren Olanow
Huntington's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which therapies are woefully inadequate and do not prevent inevitable progression. Currently approved therapies are primarily aimed at treating chorea, but do not address the more clinically meaningful motor, behavioral, and cognitive features of the disease. However, there are a number of promising new therapies that are currently being studied in the laboratory, and in the clinic. This article will review the wide variety of therapies currently being tested, the advances in clinical trials and end points, and the many potentially relevant new targets...
May 8, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
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