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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166690/-facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162572/protocol-a-cluster-randomised-control-trial-study-exploring-stigmatisation-and-recovery-based-perspectives-regarding-mental-illness-and-substance-use-problems-among-primary-healthcare-providers-across-toronto-ontario
#2
Akwatu Khenti, Robert Mann, Jaime C Sapag, Sireesha J Bobbili, Emily K Lentinello, Mark van der Maas, Branka Agic, Hayley Hamilton, Heather Stuart, Scott Patten, Marcos Sanches, Patrick Corrigan
INTRODUCTION: Primary care settings are often the first and only point of contact for persons with mental health and/or substance use problems. However, staff experience and training in this area are often limited. These factors as well as a multitude of other components such as structural and systemic stigma experienced by staff can lead to clients being stigmatised, leading to poorer outcomes. By developing a comprehensive intervention for primary care staff working at community health centres (CHCs) aimed at reducing stigma towards people with mental health and substance use problems (MHSUP), we sought to test an innovative and contact-based intervention consisting of staff training, raising awareness, a recovery-focused art programme and an analysis of internal policies and procedures...
November 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#3
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159579/examining-the-effectiveness-of-naturalistic-social-skills-training-in-developing-social-skills-and-theory-of-mind-in-preschoolers-with-asd
#4
Grzegorz Szumski, Joanna Smogorzewska, Paweł Grygiel, Ann-Marie Orlando
We compared the effectiveness of two programs for developing social skills, 'Play Time/Social Time' (PT/ST) and 'I Can Problem Solve' (ICPS), in improving the social skills and theory of mind (ToM) of preschoolers with ASD. The experiment took place in a classroom setting. Fifty-two children attended and data were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Comparison with a control group indicated that both programs were effective in developing social skills. The PT/ST program was more effective than ICPS in developing interaction skills; both programs improved children's ability to cope with difficult social situations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157284/malaria-control-in-rural-malawi-implementing-peer-health-education-for-behaviour-change
#5
Tumaini Malenga, Alinune Nathanael Kabaghe, Lucinda Manda-Taylor, Asante Kadama, Robert S McCann, Kamija Samuel Phiri, Michèle van Vugt, Henk van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Interventions to reduce malaria burden are effective if communities use them appropriately and consistently. Several tools have been suggested to promote uptake and use of malaria control interventions. Community workshops on malaria, using the 'Health Animator' approach, are a potential behaviour change strategy for malaria control. The strategy aims to influence a change in mind-set of vulnerable populations to encourage self-reliance, using community volunteers known as Health Animators...
November 20, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156426/theory-of-mind-and-schizophrenia-in-young-and-middle-aged-patients-influence-of-executive-functions
#6
Marta Croca, Aurèlie Lagodka, Remi Gadel, Marie Chantal Bourdel, Narjes Bendjemaa, Raphael Gaillard, Jean Pierre Olié, M Champagne-Lavau, Marie Odile Krebs, Isabelle Amado
Theory of Mind (ToM) is compromised in schizophrenia, and responsible for social disability. We aim to study the correlation between ToM deficits and Executive Functions (EF), using the Faux Pas Test (FPT) for ToM evaluation, Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for EF assessment. Two groups of patients with schizophrenia were included: 22 young (18-35 years-old) and 18 middle-aged (>50 years-old) Patients, compared to age-matched Controls. We found worst FPT performances in both groups of patients, but with a more generalized pattern of dysfunction in the middle-aged patient group...
November 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154648/nimble-negotiators-how-theory-of-mind-tom-interconnects-with-persuasion-skills-in-children-with-and-without-tom-delay
#7
Candida C Peterson, Virginia Slaughter, Henry M Wellman
Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). High-level, informationally rich persuasive arguments increased with age in all groups in both studies, as did ToM. In both studies, ToM scores predicted persuasion skill over and above age, language ability, and deafness/ASD status...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153315/what-are-the-keys-to-a-longer-happier-life-answers-from-five-decades-of-health-psychology-research
#8
Blair T Johnson, Rebecca L Acabchuk
RATIONALE: It has long been known that factors of the mind and of interpersonal relationships influence health, but it is only in the last 50 years that an independent scientific field of health psychology appeared, dedicated to understanding psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: This article (a) reviews important research that answers the question of how human beings can have longer, happier lives; and (b) highlights trends in health psychology featuring articles in Social Science & Medicine as well as other related literature...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149850/a-cross-sectional-examination-of-psychological-distress-positive-mental-health-and-their-predictors-in-medical-students-in-their-clinical-clerkships
#9
Inge van Dijk, Peter L B J Lucassen, Chris van Weel, Anne E M Speckens
BACKGROUND: Medical students can experience the transition from theory to clinical clerkships as stressful. Scientific literature on the mental health of clinical clerkship students is scarce and mental health is usually defined as absence of psychological distress without assessing psychological, emotional and social wellbeing, together called 'positive mental health'. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of psychological distress and positive mental health and explores possible predictors in a Dutch sample of clinical clerkship students...
November 17, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145942/teachers-dispositional-mindfulness-and-the-quality-of-their-relationships-with-children-in-head-start-classrooms
#10
Brandon D Becker, Kathleen C Gallagher, Robert C Whitaker
The quality of teachers' relationships with children is a key predictor of children's later social emotional competence and academic achievement. Interventions to increase mindfulness among teachers have focused primarily on the impacts on teachers' subjective well-being, but not on the quality of their relationships with children. Furthermore, none of these interventions have involved preschool teachers. To consider the potential of mindfulness-based interventions to improve the quality of teachers' relationships with preschool-aged children, we examined data from an online survey of 1001 classroom teachers in 37 Pennsylvania Head Start Programs...
December 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140497/integrating-complementary-and-traditional-practices-in-middle-eastern-supportive-cancer-care
#11
Eran Ben-Arye, Noah Samuels, Michel Daher, Ibrahim Turker, Omar Nimri, Maryam Rassouli, Michael Silbermann
The Middle East is a promising arena in which researchers can explore the interchange between cross-cultural traditional medicine and supportive cancer care, as provided within an integrative oncology setting. Integrative oncology research and clinical practice in this part of the world have been focusing, for the most part, on the use of herbal medicine and mind-body-spiritual modalities, both of which are deeply rooted in traditional medical care. A regional, multinational, and interdisciplinary collaboration is currently being undertaken as part of the academic activities of the Middle-East Research Group in Integrative Oncology (MERGIO)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140081/the-human-milk-glycome-as-a-defense-against-infectious-diseases-rationale-challenges-and-opportunities
#12
Kelly M Craft, Steven D Townsend
Each year over 3 million people die from infectious diseases with most of these deaths being poor and young children who live in low- and middle-income countries. Infectious diseases emerge for a multitude of reasons. On the social front, reasons include a breakdown of public health standards, international travel, and immigration (for financial, civil, and social reasons). At the molecular level, the modern rise of infectious diseases is tied to the juxtaposition of drug-resistant pathogens and a lack of new antimicrobials...
November 15, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137936/the-field-of-medical-anthropology-in-social-science-medicine
#13
Catherine Panter-Brick, Mark Eggerman
Conceptually and methodologically, medical anthropology is well-positioned to support a "big-tent" research agenda on health and society. It fosters approaches to social and structural models of health and wellbeing in ways that are critically reflective, cross-cultural, people-centered, and transdisciplinary. In this review article, we showcase these four main characteristics of the field, as featured in Social Science & Medicine over the last fifty years, highlighting their relevance for an international and interdisciplinary readership...
October 31, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137529/disorderly-households-self-presentation-and-mortality-evidence-from-a-national-study-of-older-adults
#14
Markus H Schafer, Laura Upenieks, Andie MacNeil
This article examines whether disorderly household conditions and bodily self-presentation predict mortality, above and beyond four sets of variables conceptually linked to both death and disorder. Data come from 2005/2006 and 2010/2011 waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We used naturalistic observation of respondents' homes and bodies, along with a diverse range of additional covariates, to predict probability of death. Older adults living in disorderly households were at highest risk of death over 5 years, primarily because they confronted high levels of frailty...
January 1, 2017: Research on Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132809/reframing-the-issue-of-direct-social-perception-comment-on-seeing-mental-states-an-experimental-strategy-for-measuring-the-observability-of-other-minds-by-cristina-becchio-et-al
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132490/rehabilitation-of-a-complex-oro-facial-defect-by-modified-prosthetic-approach
#16
Saumyendra V Singh, Himanshi Aggarwal, Vinit Shah, Pradeep Kumar, Deeksha Arya
Loss of part of the face is associated with physical disability, social isolation and immense psychological trauma. Proper rehabilitation of such a patient is a challenging yet satisfying task for a maxillofacial prosthodontist. Facial prostheses are commonly fabricated of silicone because of many favorable properties, though it predisposes to fungal growth.This report is of a patient with history of uncontrolled diabetes and associated invasive fungal infection, leading to a complex oro-facial defect, which was rehabilitated successfully with a silicone facial prosthesis lined by a material more resistant to fungal growth along with a cast partial obturator...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122609/structural-connections-support-emotional-connections-uncinate-fasciculus-microstructure-is-related-to-the-ability-to-decode-facial-emotion-expressions
#17
Bethany M Coad, Mark Postans, Carl J Hodgetts, Nils Muhlert, Kim S Graham, Andrew D Lawrence
The Uncinate Fasciculus (UF) is an association fibre tract connecting regions in the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. UF disruption is seen in several disorders associated with impaired social behaviour, but its functional role is unclear. Here we set out to test the hypothesis that the UF is important for facial expression processing, an ability fundamental to adaptive social behaviour. In two separate experiments in healthy adults, we used high-angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (HARDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography to virtually dissect the UF, plus a control tract (the corticospinal tract (CST)), and quantify, via tissue fractional anisotropy (FAT), individual differences in tract microstructure...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122031/contempt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-where-the-modularity-of-the-mind-meets-the-modularity-of-the-brain
#18
Danilo Bzdok, Leonhard Schilbach
"Contempt" is proposed to be a unique aspect of human nature, yet a non-natural kind. Its psychological construct is framed as a sentiment emerging from a stratification of diverse basic emotions and dispositional attitudes. Accordingly, "contempt" might transcend traditional conceptual levels in social psychology, including experience and recognition of emotion, dyadic and group dynamics, context-conditioned attitudes, time-enduring personality structure, and morality. This strikes us as a modern psychological account of a high-level, social-affective cognitive facet that joins forces with recent developments in the social neuroscience by drawing psychological conclusions from brain biology...
January 2017: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120841/mindfulness-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-depression-and-social-functioning-impairment-in-chinese-adolescents-following-a-tornado-mediation-of-posttraumatic-cognitive-change
#19
Wei Xu, Gan Fu, Yuanyuan An, Guangzhe Yuan, Xu Ding, Yuyang Zhou
Previous studies have shown that mindfulness is associated with less negative traumatic outcomes in people who experienced traumatic events. The present study investigated how mindfulness is related to posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) symptoms, depression and social functioning impairment in Chinese traumatized adolescents by considering the role of posttraumatic cognitive change (PCC). A total of 247 Chinese adolescents, who had experienced a severe tornado six months prior to this study, were recruited to complete a series of questionnaires...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115674/let-s-talk-parents-mental-talk-not-mind-mindedness-or-mindreading-capacity-predicts-children-s-false-belief-understanding
#20
Rory T Devine, Claire Hughes
Although one might expect parents' mind-mindedness (MM; the propensity to view children as mental agents) to relate to everyday mental-state talk (MST) and theory-of-mind capacity, evidence to support this view is lacking. In addition, both the uniqueness and the specificity of relations between parental MM, parental MST, and children's false belief understanding (FBU) are open to question. To address these three gaps, this study tracked 117 preschoolers (60 boys) and their parents across a 13-month period (Mage  = 3...
November 8, 2017: Child Development
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