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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813301/stress-and-child-development-a-review-of-the-family-stress-model
#1
REVIEW
April S Masarik, Rand D Conger
In the present report, we provide an illustrative review of the Family Stress Model (FSM) framework [1] to understand how family stress influences children across development in physical, social-emotional, and cognitive domains. We note that the FSM as a theory has evolved through inspection of: (a) new explanatory pathways (mediators); (b) factors that moderate FSM pathways; and (c) joint tests of competing models. Also important, most researchers cited in this review used longitudinal designs to test the proposed causal ordering of FSM pathways, which replicated among a diverse set of families varied in structure, ethnic background, and geographic location...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812432/addressing-compassion-fatigue-and-stress-of-special-education-teachers-and-professional-staff-using-mindfulness-and-prayer
#2
Lori M Sharp Donahoo, Beverly Siegrist, Dawn Garrett-Wright
Alternative therapies are promising nursing interventions for improvement of compassion fatigue in educators working in special education. A convenience sample of 27 teachers and professional staff working in special education participated in a quasi-experimental pilot study and completed a pre/posttest of demographic questions, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) (10-item) and Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL). All attended a presentation on stress, compassion satisfaction (CS), mindfulness, prayer, and social support...
January 1, 2017: Journal of School Nursing: the Official Publication of the National Association of School Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812318/the-development-and-flexibility-of-gaze-alternations-in-bonobos-and-chimpanzees
#3
Kelsey Lucca, Evan L MacLean, Brian Hare
Infants' early gaze alternations are one of their first steps towards a sophisticated understanding of the social world. This ability, to gaze alternate between an object of interest and another individual also attending to that object, has been considered foundational to the development of many complex social-cognitive abilities, such as theory of mind and language. However, to understand the evolution of these abilities, it is important to identify whether and how gaze alternations are used and develop in our closest living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)...
August 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808897/should-posttraumatic-stress-be-a-disorder-or-a-specifier-towards-improved-nosology-within-the-dsm-categorical-classification-system
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey Guina, Matthew Baker, Kelly Stinson, Jon Maust, Joseph Coles, Pamela Broderick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since 1980, posttraumatic stress (PTS) disorder has been controversial because of its origin as a social construct, its discriminating trauma definition, and the Procrustean array of symptoms/clusters chosen for inclusion/exclusion. This review summarizes the history of trauma-related nosology and proposed changes, within current categorical models (trauma definitions, symptoms/clusters, subtypes/specifiers, disorders) and new models. RECENT FINDINGS: Considering that trauma is a risk factor for virtually all mental disorders (particularly depressive, anxiety, dissociative, personality), the multi-finality of trauma (some survivors are resilient, and some develop PTS and/or non-PTS symptoms), and the various symptoms that trauma survivors express (mood, cognitive, perceptual, somatic), it is difficult to classify PTS...
August 15, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#5
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807041/the-feasibility-and-re-aim-evaluation-of-the-tame-health-pilot-study
#6
Zakkoyya H Lewis, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, Steve R Fisher, Kristofer Jennings, Arleen F Brown, Maria C Swartz, Eloisa Martinez, Elizabeth J Lyons
BACKGROUND: Conducting 5 A's counseling in clinic and utilizing technology-based resources are recommended to promote physical activity but little is known about how to implement such an intervention. This investigation aimed to determine the feasibility and acceptability, using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework, of a pragmatic, primary care-based intervention that incorporated 5 A's counseling and self-control through an activity monitor...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806111/-effectiveness-of-mindfulness-based-cancer-recovery-mbcr-program-among-hungarian-cancer-patients
#7
Magda Rohánszky, Károly Berényi, Dóra Fridrik, Henriette Pusztafalvi
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Employment of mindfulness-based programs and techniques in the treatment of cancer patients have spread exponentially in the past decade. A large number of studies have proved the effectiveness of the program in the reduction of stress symptoms, depression and anxiety, and the improvement of sleep and mood patterns. The present study was done at Firebird Foundation and examines the effectiveness of the complex, MBCR (mindfulness-based cancer recovery)-based psycho-social intervention in the treatment of cancer patients...
August 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805441/examining-overlap-in-behavioral-and-neural-representations-of-morals-facts-and-preferences
#8
Jordan Theriault, Adam Waytz, Larisa Heiphetz, Liane Young
Metaethical judgments refer to judgments about the information expressed by moral claims. Moral objectivists generally believe that moral claims are akin to facts, whereas moral subjectivists generally believe that moral claims are more akin to preferences. Evidence from developmental and social psychology has generally favored an objectivist view; however, this work has typically relied on few examples, and analyses have disallowed statistical generalizations beyond these few stimuli. The present work addresses whether morals are represented as fact-like or preference-like, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods, in combination with statistical techniques that can (a) generalize beyond our sample stimuli, and (b) test whether particular item features are associated with neural activity...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804654/histoplasmosis-by-histoplasma-capsulatum-var-duboisii-observed-at-the-laboratory-of-pathological-anatomy-of-lom%C3%A3-in-togo
#9
Tchin Darré, Bayaki Saka, Abas Mouhari-Touré, Améyo Monique Dorkenoo, Koffi Amégbor, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, Gado Napo-Koura
Our study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of African histoplasmosis in Togo through a descriptive and cross-sectional study on histological diagnosed African histoplasmosis in Pathology Department of Lomé from 2002 to 2016 (15 years). A total of 17 cases of African histoplasmosis were diagnosed. The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.8. The annual incidence was 1.1 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.2 ± 0.4 years. All our patients were of social categories with a low socioeconomic level...
2017: Journal of Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803040/attachment-and-thought-problems-in-an-adolescent-inpatient-sample-the-mediational-role-of-theory-of-mind
#10
Jessica R Hart, Amanda Venta, Carla Sharp
BACKGROUND: Previous research has documented increased incidence of insecure attachment and theory of mind (ToM) deficits in individuals experiencing psychotic disorders. ToM has been theorized as a possible mediator of the relation between attachment and psychosis (Korver-Nieberg et al., 2014). The current study sought to extend this area of research to adolescents for the first time by examining adolescent-parent attachment and ToM in inpatient adolescents. METHODS: Participants were 362 inpatient adolescents and their parents; participants completed the Child Attachment Interview, Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, Youth Self Report, and Child Behavior Checklist...
July 13, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801936/normative-data-and-psychometric-properties-of-a-farsi-translation-of-the-strange-stories-test
#11
Zahra Shahrivar, Mehdi Tehrani-Doost, Anahita Khorrami Banaraki, Azar Mohammadzadeh, Francesca Happe
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Strange Stories test is one of the most commonly used tests to evaluate advanced "theory of mind," i.e. attribution of mental states. Normative data and psychometric properties of a new Farsi translation of this test were evaluated in a large community-based sample of Iranian school-aged children. METHODS: Through randomized cluster sampling, 398 children aged 9-11 years studying at 20 elementary schools were recruited from 4 central regions of Tehran, Iran...
August 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801002/legal-support-for-palliative-care-patients
#12
Tamar Ezer, Naomi Burke-Shyne, Kiera Hepford
CONTEXT: Palliative care patients face legal issues which impact their quality of life. Legal support, embedded in holistic palliative care services, has developed globally over the last decade to address this. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to trace the origins of legal support for palliative care patients, detail models of legal support, and describe achievements and challenges. METHODS: The paper draws on years of work in this area, as well as the available literature...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793373/reflection-on-the-cause-and-avoidance-of-recurrent-venous-leg-ulcers-an-interpretive-descriptive-approach
#13
Ann Stewart, Helen Edwards, Kathleen Finlayson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the experience of recurrent venous leg ulcers from the individual's perspective and provide knowledge on potential risks of recurrence not previously investigated. BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are a consequence of chronic venous disease and frequently recur. They are costly and can impact on physical and psychological health. Despite research suggesting the risk can be reduced through compression and lifestyle changes, recurrence rates are often high...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792567/-efficacy-of-mental-health-prevention-and-promotion-strategies-in-higher-education
#14
Marc Martineau, Guy Beauchamp, Diane Marcotte
Recent studies inform of increases in reported mental health problems in higher education students worldwide, with suicide and homicide being the most dramatic outcomes. Improving first-hand intervention and implementing mental health prevention and promotion strategies in colleges and universities are amongst the most commonly mentioned means of addressing these concerns. While institutions increasingly favor mental health promotion, most programs have not been properly evaluated and most strategies cannot be replicated...
2017: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790830/social-training-cognition-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#15
Davide Palumbo, Armida Mucci, Giuseppe Piegari, Valentina D'Alise, Annapaola Mazza, Silvana Galderisi
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a new social cognition (SC) remediation intervention, the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab (SoCIAL), for subjects with schizophrenia. The training includes a module for emotion recognition and one for theory of mind. A comparison with a validated cognitive remediation intervention, the Social Skills And Neurocognitive Individualized Training (SSANIT), was conducted to verify the efficacy of the SoCIAL in improving SC. Ten stabilized patients with schizophrenia accepted to participate...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790343/strategic-tradeoffs-in-competitor-dynamics-on-adaptive-networks
#16
Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Antoine Allard, Pierre-André Noël, Jean-Gabriel Young, Eric Libby
Recent empirical work highlights the heterogeneity of social competitions such as political campaigns: proponents of some ideologies seek debate and conversation, others create echo chambers. While symmetric and static network structure is typically used as a substrate to study such competitor dynamics, network structure can instead be interpreted as a signature of the competitor strategies, yielding competition dynamics on adaptive networks. Here we demonstrate that tradeoffs between aggressiveness and defensiveness (i...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782467/current-and-under-development-treatment-modalities-of-psoriasis-a-review
#17
Abdul Albaghdadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Psoriasis is a chronic and complex autoimmune inflammatory skin disease that affects over 125 million people worldwide. It can exhibit at any age, in spite of the fact that children are less normally influenced than adults. It is characterized by distinct erythematous plaques shielded with conspicuous silvery scales that shows up in different areas of the skin. Knowledge of pathophysiology, especially the pathogenesis of psoriasis, has significantly progressed in the recent decade...
August 4, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780927/white-matter-microstructure-predicts-longitudinal-social-cognitive-outcomes-after-paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#18
N P Ryan, S Genc, M H Beauchamp, K O Yeates, S Hearps, C Catroppa, V A Anderson, T J Silk
BACKGROUND: Deficits in social cognition may be among the most profound and disabling sequelae of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the neuroanatomical correlates of longitudinal outcomes in this domain remain unexplored. This study aimed to characterize social cognitive outcomes longitudinally after paediatric TBI, and to evaluate the use of sub-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to predict these outcomes. METHODS: The sample included 52 children with mild complex-severe TBI who were assessed on cognitive theory of mind (ToM), pragmatic language and affective ToM at 6- and 24-months post-injury...
August 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776431/internet-delivered-acceptance-based-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-social-anxiety-disorder-with-and-without-therapist-support-a-randomized-trial
#19
Marina Gershkovich, James D Herbert, Evan M Forman, Leah M Schumacher, Laura E Fischer
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the United States. Although evidenced-based behavioral treatments are available, less than 20% of those with SAD receive treatment. Internet-based interventions can address barriers to treatment access, and guided Internet-based treatments have been demonstrated to be effective for SAD. However, the optimal role (if any) of the therapist in such programs remains unclear. We examined the acceptability and efficacy of a novel Internet-based cognitive-behavior therapy for SAD that utilizes traditional behavioral interventions (e...
September 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771398/robin-a-telepresence-robot-to-support-older-users-monitoring-and-social-inclusion-development-and-evaluation
#20
Gabriella Cortellessa, Francesca Fracasso, Alessandra Sorrentino, Andrea Orlandini, Giulio Bernardi, Luca Coraci, Riccardo De Benedictis, Amedeo Cesta
INTRODUCTION: This article describes an enhanced telepresence robot named ROBIN, part of a telecare system derived from the GIRAFFPLUS project for supporting and monitoring older adults at home. ROBIN is integrated in a sensor-rich environment that aims to continuously monitor physical and psychological wellbeing of older persons living alone. The caregivers (formal/informal) can communicate through it with their assisted persons. Long-term trials in real houses highlighted several user requirements that inspired improvements on the robotic platform...
August 3, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
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