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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332047/sally-anne-test-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#1
Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada
Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331659/mindfulness-related-differences-in-neural-response-to-own-infant-negative-versus-positive-emotion-contexts
#2
Heidemarie K Laurent, Dorianne Wright, Megan Finnegan
Mindfulness is thought to promote well-being by shaping the way people respond to challenging social-emotional situations. Current understanding of how this occurs at the neural level is based on studies of response to decontextualized emotion stimuli that may not adequately represent lived experiences. In this study, we tested relations between mothers' dispositional mindfulness and neural responses to their own infant in different emotion-eliciting contexts. Mothers (n = 25) engaged with their 3-month-old infants in videorecorded tasks designed to elicit negative (arm restraint) or positive (peekaboo) emotion...
January 5, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#3
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327593/the-impact-of-age-and-gender-on-the-icf-based-assessment-of-chronic-low-back-pain
#4
Elisabeth Fehrmann, Simone Kotulla, Linda Fischer, Thomas Kienbacher, Kerstin Tuechler, Patrick Mair, Gerold Ebenbichler, Birgit Paul
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of age and gender on the international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF)-based assessment for chronic low back pain. METHODS: Two hundred forty-four chronic low back pain patients (52% female) with a mean age of 49 years (SD =17.64) were interviewed with the comprehensive ICF core set for activities and participation, and environmental factors. After conducting explorative factor analysis, the impact of age and gender on the different factors was analyzed using analyzes of variances...
January 12, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324244/how-social-status-influences-our-understanding-of-others-mental-states
#5
Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen
The current study investigated whether children's relative social status within a context influences their ability to identify others' mental states. Across two experiments, 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 103) were randomly assigned to hold either an advantaged or disadvantaged social status and were assessed on their ability to accurately identify others' mental states (via false-belief and belief-emotion "theory of mind" assessments). When participants' status was manipulated by a structural factor (gender; Experiment 1), participants with disadvantaged status were more likely than participants with advantaged status to pass the false-belief and belief-emotion assessments...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317182/a-collective-perspective-shared-attention-and-the-mind
#6
REVIEW
Garriy Shteynberg
I review the recent literature on shared attention, instances in which one's personal perspective is also another's. As described by Shteynberg [6••], shared attention involves the activation of a psychological perspective that is personal and plural and irreducibly collective-a perspective in which the world is experienced from 'our attention'. When shared attention is perceived, information under shared attention receives deeper cognitive processing. By updating mutual knowledge, shared attention facilitates communication and, quite possibly, the creation of shared attitudes and beliefs...
December 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306056/subclinical-maternal-depressive-symptoms-modulate-right-inferior-frontal-response-to-inferring-affective-mental-states-of-adults-but-not-of-infants
#7
Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284802/being-a-forensic-psychiatrist-in-india-responsibilities-difficulties-and-criticalities
#8
REVIEW
B C Malathesh, Soumitra Das
Forensic psychiatry is in its infancy in India. There is a clear module or a well-structured training in the country except for recently opened few courses. Lack of trainer in the field might lead to compromised state when one has to take decision between the well-being of a person versus society. Starting from social contexts, such as marriage and mental illness, to the interpretation of criminal mind, there is a multitude of situations where forensic psychiatrist has a handful of jobs which suffer due to lack of infrastructure...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284331/empathy-mind-set-moderates-the-association-between-low-empathy-and-social-aggression
#9
Arti U Gandhi, Sindes Dawood, Hans S Schroder
Empathy plays an important role in creating and maintaining adaptive interpersonal relationships. Accordingly, existing studies often report a negative correlation between empathy and interpersonal aggression. However, findings are sometimes inconsistent, and concerns have been raised about the size of the overall effect. Here, we examined the potential moderating role of empathy mind-sets-beliefs about the malleability of empathy. We hypothesized that the association between low empathy and aggression would be especially strong if individuals also believed that their levels of empathy were unchangeable (i...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282067/the-current-situation-of-human-resources-for-health-in-the-province-of-cabinda-in-angola-is-it-a-limitation-to-provide-universal-access-to-healthcare
#10
Damas Macaia, Luís Velez Lapão
BACKGROUND: Angola is among sub-Saharan African countries dealing with a crisis of Human Resources for Health (HRH). The province of Cabinda, besides the efforts, still suffers from both HRH shortage and a badly distributed health workforce. In Cabinda, one can find urban concentration and rural shortages of healthcare professionals, many rural areas' healthcare facilities often secured only by basic or medium level HRH; and difficulties in developing HRH retention strategies in rural areas where most services are covered by foreign HRH...
December 28, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280756/creating-structured-opportunities-for-social-engagement-to-promote-well-being-and-reduce-burnout-in-medical-students-and-residents
#11
Roy C Ziegelstein
Increasing attention is being paid to medical student and resident well-being, as well as to enhancing resilience and avoiding burnout in medical trainees. Medical schools and residency programs are implementing wellness initiatives that often include meditation and other mindfulness activities, self-reflection, journaling, and lectures or workshops on resilience tools such as metacognition and cognitive restructuring. These interventions have in common the creation of opportunities for trainees to become more aware of their experiences, to better recognize stressors, and to regulate their thoughts and feelings so that stressors are less likely to have harmful effects...
December 26, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278455/genetic-diagnosis-of-down-syndrome-in-an-underserved-community
#12
Andrew K Sobering, Joshua B Stevens, Janice L Smith, Beverly Nelson, Tyhiesia Donald, Sarah H Elsea
It is a matter of course that in high-income countries, infants born with features suggestive of Down syndrome (DS) are offered genetic testing for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis. Benefits of a definitive diagnosis include an end to the diagnostic odyssey, informed prognosis, opportunities for caregiver support, inclusion to social support networks, and more meaningful genetic counseling. The healthcare experience for families of children born with DS in low- and middle-income nations is in stark contrast with such a level of care...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278221/people-powered-health%C3%A2-taking-front-line-ownership-to-the-next-level
#13
Leslee J Thompson, Louise Clement
Collaboration is a powerful force of social change. History has shown us time and time again that when people come together with a shared passion for making things better, high impact change can happen. Minds are opened. Voices are heard. Lives are saved. Our experience at Health Standards Organization (HSO) and Accreditation Canada shows that when people feel involved, empowered and engaged in a meaningful way to bring about improvement, then the chances that it will be sustained over time increase as well...
2017: HealthcarePapers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275839/the-multifaceted-role-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-emotion-decision-making-social-cognition-and-psychopathology
#14
REVIEW
Jaryd Hiser, Michael Koenigs
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been implicated in a variety of social, cognitive, and affective functions that are commonly disrupted in mental illness. In this review, we summarize data from a diverse array of human and animal studies demonstrating that the vmPFC is a key node of cortical and subcortical networks that subserve at least three broad domains of psychological function linked to psychopathology. One track of research indicates that the vmPFC is critical for the representation of reward- and value-based decision making, through interactions with the ventral striatum and amygdala...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275505/the-impact-of-a-mind-body-program-on-multiple-dimensions-of-resiliency-among-geographically-diverse-patients-with-neurofibromatosis
#15
Emily L Zale, Catherine Pierre-Louis, Eric A Macklin, Eric Riklin, Ana-Maria Vranceanu
The neurofibromatoses (NF) are incurable genetic disorders that can cause nerve sheath tumors, chronic pain, and disfiguration. Patients with NF report lower quality of life and greater distress, and may benefit from programs that promote resiliency. To test effects of an 8-week mind-body program (Relaxation Response Resiliency Program for NF [3RP-NF]) on resiliency, using data derived from a larger randomized controlled trial of the 3RP-NF versus attention placebo control (Vranceanu et al. in Neurology 87:806-814, 2016)...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273009/overweight-in-children-and-its-perception-by-parents-cross-sectional-observation-in-a-general-pediatric-outpatient-clinic
#16
Daniela Nemecek, Christian Sebelefsky, Astrid Woditschka, Peter Voitl
BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight is a growing problem in industrialized countries. Parents play a major role in the development and the treatment of overweight in their children. A key factor here is the perception of their child's weight status. As we know of other studies, parental perception of children's weight status is very poor. This study aimed to determine factors associated with childhood overweight and parental misperception of weight status. The height and weight of children, as reported by parents were compared with measured data...
December 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259152/neural-computations-underpinning-the-strategic-management-of-influence-in-advice-giving
#17
Uri Hertz, Stefano Palminteri, Silvia Brunetti, Cecilie Olesen, Chris D Frith, Bahador Bahrami
Research on social influence has focused mainly on the target of influence (e.g., consumer and voter); thus, the cognitive and neurobiological underpinnings of the source of the influence (e.g., politicians and salesmen) remain unknown. Here, in a three-sided advice-giving game, two advisers competed to influence a client by modulating their own confidence in their advice about which lottery the client should choose. We report that advisers' strategy depends on their level of influence on the client and their merit relative to one another...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250867/through-your-eyes-or-mine-the-neural-correlates-of-mental-state-recognition-in-huntington-s-disease
#18
Clare M Eddy, Hugh E Rickards, Peter C Hansen
Huntington's disease (HD) can impair social cognition. This study investigated whether patients with HD exhibit neural differences to healthy controls when they are considering mental and physical states relating to the static expressions of human eyes. Thirty-two patients with HD and 28 age-matched controls were scanned with fMRI during two versions of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task: The standard version requiring mental state judgments, and a comparison version requiring judgments about age. HD was associated with behavioral deficits on only the mental state eyes task...
December 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246733/individualizing-urinary-incontinence-treatment-research-needs-identified-at-a-national-institute-of-diabetes-and-digestive-and-kidney-diseases-workshop
#19
Jenna M Norton, Catherine S Bradley, Sonya S Brady, Linda Brubaker, Daniel Gossett, Jeffrey P Henderson, Donna Mazloomdoost, Carol M Musil, Eric Rovner, Tamara Bavendam
Despite intensive work in the field, urinary incontinence (UI) treatment is characterized by unintended side effects, uncertain durability, high risk of complications, and inconsistent outcomes. Therapy is generally directed toward underlying anatomic and physiologic causes, with little attention to important cognitive, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of UI. Recognition that the variability in UI treatment success is likely driven at least in part by individual variability-combined with a demonstrated need for better outcomes for patients with UI; a torrent of technical advances involving -omic, mobile health, and data science technologies; and growth of intra- and transdisciplinary research-has made the development of a science base to enable better targeting of UI treatments based on individual patient characteristics both interesting and feasible...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237297/the-evolutionary-psychology-of-war-offense-and-defense-in-the-adapted-mind
#20
Anthony C Lopez
The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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