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Medical research policy in the united states

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221624/international-medical-graduates-in-nephrology-roles-rules-and-future-risks
#1
Jeffrey S Berns, Muriel Ghosn, Rodolfo R Altamirano
International medical graduates (IMGs) have become an increasingly essential part of many residency and fellowship programs in the United States. IMGs, who may be of either US or non-US citizenship, contribute significantly to the physician workforce across this country, particularly in underserved areas, as well as in their home countries on their return after training. Approximately 65% of nephrology fellows are IMGs, with most of these being non-US citizens. Non-US IMG applications for nephrology fellowship have been declining, exacerbating an ongoing shortage of nephrology trainees...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177710/reflections-on-recent-research-into-animal-assisted-interventions-in-the-military-and-beyond
#2
REVIEW
Christina B Rumayor, Amy M Thrasher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review was threefold: to address the current state of Animal-Assisted Interactions (AAI) within the military; to summarize recent literature (within the past three years) in the field of AAI; and to discuss trends in AAI research since 2014. RECENT FINDINGS: With regard to AAI within the military, several canine interaction programs have been utilized to assist service members in coping with various issues. Therapy dogs have been deployed with Combat-Operational Stress Control units; they have been integrated into medical clinics and behavioral health treatment programs in garrison; and policy has been developed to address the use of therapy animals in military treatment facilities...
November 25, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175290/trends-and-key-correlates-of-prescription-opioid-injection-misuse-in-the-united-states
#3
Christopher M Jones
BACKGROUND: Despite concerns over increasing harms associated with prescription opioid injection misuse, there is a paucity of research on the magnitude, characteristics, injection practices, and syringe sources for people who inject prescription opioids; limiting the implementation of targeted policy and programmatic initiatives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the 2003 through 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health were used to estimate prescription opioid injection trends and examine risky injection practices and syringe sources for people who inject prescription opioids...
November 22, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078785/trends-in-healthcare-expenditure-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-10%C3%A2-years-of-nationally-representative-data
#4
Tiarney D Ritchwood, Kinfe G Bishu, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: While previous studies have examined HIV cost expenditures within the United States, the majority of these studies focused on data collected prior to or shortly after the advent and uptake of antiretroviral therapy, focused only on a short time frame, or did not provide cost comparisons between HIV/AIDS and other chronic conditions. It is critical that researchers provide accurate and updated information regarding the costs of HIV care to assist key stakeholders with economic planning, policy development, and resource allocation...
October 27, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073129/receipt-of-selected-preventive-health-services-for-women-and-men-of-reproductive-age-united-states-2011-2013
#5
Karen Pazol, Cheryl L Robbins, Lindsey I Black, Katherine A Ahrens, Kimberly Daniels, Anjani Chandra, Anjel Vahratian, Lorrie E Gavin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072119/prevalence-perceptions-and-consequences-of-substance-use-in-medical-students
#6
Erin E Ayala, Destiny Roseman, Jeffrey S Winseman, Hyacinth R C Mason
BACKGROUND: Research regarding the health and wellness of medical students has led to ongoing concerns regarding patterns of alcohol and drug use that take place during medical education. Such research, however, is typically limited to single-institution studies or has been conducted over 25 years ago. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the investigation was to assess the prevalence and consequences of medical student alcohol and drug use and students' perceptions of their medical school's substance-use policies...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055821/prevalence-and-pathways-of-recovery-from-drug-and-alcohol-problems-in-the-united-states-population-implications-for-practice-research-and-policy
#7
John F Kelly, Brandon Bergman, Bettina B Hoeppner, Corrie Vilsaint, William L White
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems confer a global, prodigious burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality. Even so, little is known regarding how, and by what means, individuals successfully resolve AOD problems. Greater knowledge would inform policy and guide service provision. METHOD: Probability-based survey of US adult population estimating: 1) AOD problem resolution prevalence; 2) lifetime use of "assisted" (i.e., treatment/medication, recovery services/mutual help) vs...
October 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048963/a-21st-century-public-health-approach-to-abortion
#8
Sarah C M Roberts, Liza Fuentes, Nancy F Berglas, Amanda J Dennis
In the United States, groups advocating for and against abortion rights often deploy public health arguments to advance their positions. Recently, these arguments have evolved into state laws that use the government health department infrastructure to increase law enforcement and regulatory activities around abortion. Many major medical and public health associations oppose these new laws because they are not evidence-based and do not protect women's health. Yet state health departments have been defending these laws in court...
December 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042343/systems-based-training-in-graduate-medical-education-for-service-learning-in-the-state-legislature-in-the-united-states-pilot-study
#9
Shikhar H Shah, Maureen D Clark, Kimberly Hu, Jalene A Shoener, Joshua Fogel, William C Kling, James Ronayne
BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of advocacy training in graduate medical education in the United States. To address this void, the Legislative Education and Advocacy Development (LEAD) course was developed as an interprofessional experience, partnering a cohort of pediatrics residents, fourth-year medical students, and public health students to be trained in evidence-informed health policy making. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the usefulness and acceptability of a service-based legislative advocacy course...
October 17, 2017: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028375/health-disparities-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-blueprint-for-action-an-official-american-thoracic-society-statement
#10
REVIEW
Arunabh Talwar, Joe G N Garcia, Halley Tsai, Matthew Moreno, Tim Lahm, Roham T Zamanian, Roberto Machado, Steven M Kawut, Mona Selej, Stephen Mathai, Laura Hoyt D'Anna, Sonu Sahni, Erik J Rodriquez, Richard Channick, Karen Fagan, Michael Gray, Jessica Armstrong, Josanna Rodriguez Lopez, Vinicio de Jesus Perez
BACKGROUND: Health disparities have a major impact in the quality of life and clinical care received by minorities in the United States. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare cardiopulmonary disorder that affects children and adults and that, if untreated, results in premature death. The impact of health disparities in the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome of patients with PAH has not been systematically investigated. OBJECTIVES: The specific goals of this research statement were to conduct a critical review of the literature concerning health disparities in PAH, identify major research gaps and prioritize direction for future research...
October 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993073/the-use-of-cannabis-in-response-to-the-opioid-crisis-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Marianne Beare Vyas, Virginia T LeBaron, Aaron M Gilson
BACKGROUND: A staggering number of Americans are dying from overdoses attributed to prescription opioid medications (POMs). In response, states are creating policies related to POM harm reduction strategies, overdose prevention, and alternative therapies for pain management, such as cannabis (medical marijuana). However, little is known about how the use of cannabis for pain management may be associated with POM use. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to examine state medical cannabis (MC) use laws and policies and their potential association with POM use and related harms...
September 21, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988848/ed-utilization-of-medical-clearance-testing-for-psychiatric-admission-national-hospital-ambulatory-medical-care-survey-analysis
#12
Brian J Yun, Shih-Chuan Chou, Justine M Nagurney, Benjamin A White, Curtis W Wittmann, Ali S Raja
INTRODUCTION: Routine medical clearance testing of emergency department (ED) patients with acute psychiatric illnesses in the absence of a medical indication has minimal proven utility. Little is known about the variations in clinical practice of ordering medical clearance tests. METHODS: This study was an analysis of data from the annual United States National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2010 to 2014. The study population was defined as ED visits by patients ≥18years old admitted to a psychiatric facility...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975247/association-of-prehospital-mode-of-transport-with-mortality-in-penetrating-trauma-a-trauma-system-level-assessment-of-private-vehicle-transportation-vs-ground-emergency-medical-services
#13
Michael W Wandling, Avery B Nathens, Michael B Shapiro, Elliott R Haut
Importance: Time to definitive care following injury is important to the outcomes of trauma patients. Prehospital trauma care is provided based on policies developed by individual trauma systems and is an important component of the care of injured patients. Given a paucity of systems-level trauma research, considerable variability exists in prehospital care policies across trauma systems, potentially affecting patient outcomes. Objective: To evaluate whether private vehicle prehospital transport confers a survival advantage vs ground emergency medical services (EMS) transport following penetrating injuries in urban trauma systems...
September 20, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973067/cancer-survivorship-care-in-advanced-primary-care-practices-a-qualitative-study-of-challenges-and-opportunities
#14
Ellen B Rubinstein, William L Miller, Shawna V Hudson, Jenna Howard, Denalee O'Malley, Jennifer Tsui, Heather Sophia Lee, Alicja Bator, Benjamin F Crabtree
Importance: Despite a decade of effort by national stakeholders to bring cancer survivorship to the forefront of primary care, there is little evidence to suggest that primary care has begun to integrate comprehensive services to manage the care of long-term cancer survivors. Objective: To explain why primary care has not begun to integrate comprehensive cancer survivorship services. Design, Setting, and Participants: Comparative case study of 12 advanced primary care practices in the United States recruited from March 2015 to February 2017...
September 25, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930065/trends-in-perceived-access-to-marijuana-among-adolescents-in-the-united-states-2002-2015
#15
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Sehun Oh, Trenette Clark Goings, Michael G Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: There is concern that changes in marijuana-related policy and public opinion may lead to increased access to marijuana among young people in the United States. However, little research has been conducted on changes in youth's perceptions of marijuana access, and studies have yet to systematically examine trends in perceived access across key sociodemographic and externalizing behavioral subgroups. METHOD: Using population-based data collected between 2002 and 2015 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we examined trends in perceived marijuana access among non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic adolescents (ages 12-17, n = 221,412)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895680/optimising-preconception-health-in-women-of-reproductive-age
#16
Adina Y Lang, Jacqueline A Boyle, Grace Fitzgerald, Helena Teede, Danielle Mazza, Lisa J Moran, Cheryce Harrison
There is a growing realisation that efforts to optimise the health of women and reduce the risk of adverse maternal, perinatal and neonatal outcomes during pregnancy should commence in the preconception period. The preconception period (prior to or between pregnancies) provides an opportune time to address reproductive intentions and promote and support wellbeing and healthy behaviour change regardless of pregnancy intention. Research over the last 30 years has explored the influence of a range of preconception risk factors and determinants of health on pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes including: pregnancy planning, diet and micronutrient supplementation, physical activity, weight, smoking, recreational drug and alcohol use, mental health, oral hygiene, and chronic health and medical conditions...
September 12, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895239/trends-and-age-period-and-cohort-effects-for-marijuana-use-prevalence-in-the-1984-2015-us-national-alcohol-surveys
#17
William C Kerr, Camillia Lui, Yu Ye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological trends show marijuana use in the United States to have increased in recent years. Previous research has identified cohort effects as contributing to the rising prevalence, in particular birth cohorts born after 1945. However, given recent policy efforts to regulate marijuana use at the state level, period effects could also play a contributory role. This study aimed to examine whether cohort or period effects play a larger role in explaining trends in marijuana use...
September 12, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886946/postmarketing-safety-surveillance-of-trivalent-recombinant-influenza-vaccine-reports-to-the-vaccine-adverse-event-reporting-system
#18
Emily Jane Woo, Pedro L Moro, Maria Cano, Christopher Jankosky
On January 16, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration approved recombinant hemagglutinin influenza vaccine (RIV3) (Spodoptera frugiperda cell line; Flublok), which is the first completely egg-free flu vaccine licensed in the United States. To improve our understanding of the safety profile of this vaccine, we reviewed and summarized reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following RIV3. Through June 30, 2016, VAERS received 88 reports. Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, were the most common type of adverse event...
September 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841868/a-systematic-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-policies-restricting-access-to-pregabalin
#19
Brett R Stacey, Jonathan Liss, Regina Behar, Alesia Sadosky, Bruce Parsons, Elizabeth T Masters, Patrick Hlavacek
BACKGROUND: Formularies often employ restriction policies to reduce pharmacy costs. Pregabalin, an alpha-2-delta ligand, is approved for treatment of fibromyalgia (FM); neuropathic pain (NeP) due to postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN), spinal cord injury; and as adjunct therapy for partial onset seizures. Pregabalin is endorsed as first-line therapy for these indications by several US and EU medical professional societies. However, restriction policies such as prior authorization (PA) and step therapy (ST) often favor less costly generic pain medications over pregabalin...
August 25, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830413/a-network-perspective-on-patient-experiences-and-health-status-the-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-2004-to-2011
#20
Yi-Sheng Chao, Hau-Tieng Wu, Marco Scutari, Tai-Shen Chen, Chao-Jung Wu, Madeleine Durand, Antoine Boivin
BACKGROUND: There is a growing emphasis on the need to engage patients in order to improve the quality of health care and improve health outcomes. However, we are still lacking a comprehensive understanding on how different measures of patient experiences interact with one another or relate to health status. This study takes a network perspective to 1) study the associations between patient characteristics and patient experience in health care and 2) identify factors that could be prioritized to improve health status...
August 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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