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Medical research policy in the united states

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419268/the-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-s-2015-wage-survey-of-medical-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#1
Edna Garcia, Patrick B Fisher
Objectives: To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. Methods: The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois...
April 15, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417658/resident-involvement-in-professional-otolaryngology-organizations-current-trends-in-the-united-states
#2
Kevin Wong, Minyoung Jang, Amir Gilad, Jessica R Levi
Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences...
April 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404533/costs-of-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-in-poland-and-internationally
#3
Dorota Kopciuch, Tomasz Zaprutko, Anna Paczkowska, Elżbieta Nowakowska
OBJECTIVES: Despite its low prevalence, cystic fibrosis (CF) may have a considerable impact on healthcare system expenditures in terms of direct healthcare costs and lost productivity. This study was aimed at calculation of costs associated with CF treatment in Poland, as well as at comparison of average costs of treatment of CF patients in selected countries, taking into account the purchasing power parity. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: The researchers undertook a retrospective study of adult patients with CF taking into account the broadest social perspective possible...
April 7, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399859/sex-differences-in-healthcare-expenditures-among-adults-with-diabetes-evidence-from-the-medical-expenditure-panel-survey-2002-2011
#4
Joni S Williams, Kinfe Bishu, Clara E Dismuke, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: The evidence assessing differences in medical costs between men and women with diabetes living in the United States is sparse; however, evidence suggests women generally have higher healthcare expenditures compared to men. Since little is known about these differences, the aim of this study was to assess differences in out-of-pocket (OOP) and total healthcare expenditures among adults with diabetes. METHODS: Data were used from 20,442 adults (≥18 years of age) with diabetes from the 2002-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
April 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393587/addressing-discriminatory-benefit-design-for-people-living-with-hiv-a-california-case-study
#5
Sara B McMenamin, Riti Shimkhada, Sarah P Hiller, Garen Corbett, Ninez Ponce
Concern is growing in the United States regarding the potential for health insurance benefit designs to discriminate against persons living with HIV as research demonstrates that such practices are occurring. A recent complaint filed against health insurers in seven states alleges that some health insurance companies have been using benefit designs that discourage enrollment of people living with HIV either by not covering essential HIV medications or by requiring cost-sharing for these prohibitively expensive medications...
April 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369692/age-of-migration-life-expectancy-with-functional-limitations-and-morbidity-in-mexican-americans
#6
Marc A Garcia, Luis M Valderrama-Hinds, Chi-Tsun Chiu, Miriam S Mutambudzi, Nai-Wei Chen, Mukaila Raji
The U.S. Mexican American population enjoys longer life expectancies relative to other racial/ethnic groups but is disproportionately affected by chronic conditions and functional limitations. Studying the impact of heterogeneity in age, time and other characteristics of migration among older Mexican Americans can inform our understanding of health disparities and healthcare needs in later-life. This research used 20 years of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the proportion of life spent with functional limitations and one or more morbidity (according to age of migration and sex) in the U...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351177/direct-and-indirect-cost-of-managing-alzheimer-s-disease-and-related-dementias-in-the-united-states
#7
Arijita Deb, James Douglas Thornton, Usha Sambamoorthi, Kim Innes
Introduction Care of individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias (ADRD) poses special challenges. As the disease progresses, individuals with ADRD require increasing levels of medical care, caregiver support, and long-term care which can lead to substantial economic burden. Areas Covered In this expert review, we synthesized findings from studies of costs of ADRD in the United States that were published between January 2006 and February 2017, highlighted major sources of variation in costs, identified knowledge gaps and briefly outlined directions for future research and implications for policy and program planning...
March 29, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339797/the-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-s-2015-wage-survey-of-medical-laboratories-in-the-united-states
#8
Edna Garcia, Patrick B Fisher
Objectives: To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. Methods: The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, & Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335754/the-structural-and-health-policy-environment-for-delivering-integrated-hiv-and-substance-use-disorder-treatments-in-puerto-rico
#9
Jared A Leff, Diana Hernández, Paul A Teixeira, Pedro C Castellón, Daniel J Feaster, Allan E Rodriguez, Jorge L Santana-Bagur, Sandra Miranda De León, José Vargas Vidot, Lisa R Metsch, Bruce R Schackman
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence in Puerto Rico is nearly twice that of the mainland United States, a level that was substantially fueled by injection drug use. Puerto Rico has a longstanding history of health provision by the public sector that directly affects how HIV and substance use disorder (SUD) treatment services are provided and funded. As part of pre-implementation research for a randomized trial of a community-level intervention to enhance HIV care access for substance users in San Juan, Puerto Rico, we sought to understand the structural and health policy environment for providing HIV and SUD treatments...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325240/cancer-care-access-and-outcomes-for-american-indian-populations-in-the-united-states-challenges-and-models-for-progress
#10
REVIEW
B Ashleigh Guadagnolo, Daniel G Petereit, C Norman Coleman
Low socioeconomic and health care access realities of being American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) in the United States combined with decades of data documenting poor cancer outcomes for this population provide a population nested within the United States that is analogous to the cancer care landscape of low- and middle-income countries internationally. We reviewed the medical literature with respect to cancer prevention, access to cancer treatment, and access to effective supportive and palliative care for AI/AN populations in the United States...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314636/comparing-non-safety-with-safety-device-sharps-injury-incidence-data-from-two-different-occupational-surveillance-systems
#11
A H Mitchell, G B Parker, H Kanamori, W A Rutala, D J Weber
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295461/what-do-uk-medical-students-value-most-in-their-careers-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#12
Jennifer A Cleland, Peter Johnston, Verity Watson, Nicolas Krucien, Diane Skåtun
CONTEXT: Many individual- and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Previous research has extensively studied medical trainees' (residents') and students' views of the factors that are important. However, how trainees and students trade off these factors at times of important careers-related decision making is under-researched. Information about trade-offs is crucial to the development of effective policies to enhance the recruitment and retention of junior doctors...
March 14, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259441/the-burden-of-skin-disease-in-the-united-states
#13
Henry W Lim, Scott A B Collins, Jack S Resneck, Jean L Bolognia, Julie A Hodge, Thomas A Rohrer, Marta J Van Beek, David J Margolis, Arthur J Sober, Martin A Weinstock, David R Nerenz, Wendy Smith Begolka, Jose V Moyano
Since the publication of the last US national burden of skin disease report in 2006, there have been substantial changes in the practice of dermatology and the US health care system. These include the development of new treatment modalities, marked increases in the cost of medications, increasingly complex payer rules and regulations, and an aging of the US population. Recognizing the need for up-to-date data to inform researchers, policy makers, public stakeholders, and health care providers about the impact of skin disease on patients and US society, the American Academy of Dermatology produced a new national burden of skin disease report...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257397/translating-comparative-effectiveness-research-into-practice-effects-of-interventions-on-lifestyle-medication-adherence-and-self-care-for-type-2-diabetes-hypertension-and-obesity-among-black-hispanic-and-asian-residents-of-chicago-and-houston-2010-to-2013
#14
Jamila R Rashid, Brenda A Leath, Benedict I Truman, Donna Durant Atkinson, Lisa C Gary, Nanmathi Manian
CONTEXT: In the United States, racial/ethnic minorities account for disproportionate disease and death from type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; however, interventions with measured efficacy in comparative effectiveness research are often not adopted or used widely in those communities. OBJECTIVE: To assess implementation and effects of comparative effectiveness research-proven interventions translated for minority communities. DESIGN: Mixed-method assessment with pretest-posttest single-group evaluation design...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230450/characteristics-and-medication-use-of-psoriasis-patients-who-may-or-may-not-qualify-for-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
William Malatestinic, Beth Nordstrom, Jashin J Wu, Orin Goldblum, Kathleen Solotkin, Chen-Yen Lin, Kristin Kistler, Kathy Fraeman, Joseph Johnston, Lcdr Lesley Hawley, Nicholas Sicignano, Andre Araujo
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials impose exclusion criteria that may limit the generalizability of results. OBJECTIVES: To (a) determine the percentage of real-world patients who would qualify for psoriasis randomized controlled trials; (b) ascertain differences between moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients who would be eligible, ineligible, or potentially eligible for clinical trials; and (c) compare their biologic treatment patterns. METHODS: Moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients were identified from the U...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222735/advancing-gender-equality-through-the-athena-swan-charter-for-women-in-science-an-exploratory-study-of-women-s-and-men-s-perceptions
#16
Pavel V Ovseiko, Alison Chapple, Laurel D Edmunds, Sue Ziebland
BACKGROUND: While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom...
February 21, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190671/observations-of-the-role-of-science-in-the-united-states-medical-cannabis-state-policies-lessons-learnt
#17
Jelica Grbic, Perilou Goddard, David Ryder
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown cannabis to be effective in the treatment of some medical conditions and there is mounting public and political pressure to enact laws enabling the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. To date, 28 United States (U.S.) states and the District of Columbia have enacted medical cannabis laws. This study sought to identify the main issues pertaining to the development of medical cannabis laws in the U.S, including the role of scientific evidence. METHODS: Data were collected from three groups of participants: government officials, lobbyists and medical professionals involved in the medical cannabis debate in five selected states in the U...
February 9, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167309/provider-ambivalence-about-using-forensic-medical-evaluation-to-respond-to-child-abuse-a-content-and-discourse-analysis
#18
Marian Morris, Stephanie Rivaux, Monica Faulkner
Forensic medical evaluation rates for child abuse victims in Texas are low relative to national rates. In exploring reasons, researchers collected quantitative and qualitative interview and focus group data from multidisciplinary child abuse response team members across the state. This paper presents results of a secondary analysis of (N=19) health care providers' interview and focus group transcripts, looking specifically at experiences with conducting forensic evaluations - thoughts, struggles, and ethical issues...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166331/the-illness-experience-of-undocumented-immigrants-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#19
Lilia Cervantes, Stacy Fischer, Nancy Berlinger, Maria Zabalaga, Claudia Camacho, Stuart Linas, Debora Ortega
Importance: The exclusion of undocumented immigrants from Medicare coverage for hemodialysis based on a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requires physicians in some states to manage chronic illness in this population using emergent-only hemodialysis. Emergent-only dialysis is expensive and burdensome for patients. Objective: To understand the illness experience of undocumented immigrants with ESRD who lack access to scheduled hemodialysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A qualitative, semistructured, interview study was conducted in a Colorado safety-net hospital from July 1 to December 31, 2015, with 20 undocumented immigrants (hereinafter referred to as undocumented patients) with ESRD and no access to scheduled hemodialysis...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160817/under-recording-of-work-related-injuries-and-illnesses-an-osha-priority
#20
Kathleen M Fagan, Michael J Hodgson
INTRODUCTION: A 2009 Government Accounting Office (GAO) report, along with numerous published studies, documented that many workplace injuries are not recorded on employers' recordkeeping logs required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and consequently are under-reported to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), resulting in a substantial undercount of occupational injuries in the United States. METHODS: OSHA conducted a Recordkeeping National Emphasis Program (NEP) from 2009 to 2012 to identify the extent and causes of unrecorded and incorrectly recorded occupational injuries and illnesses...
February 2017: Journal of Safety Research
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