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heart remodelling

Teemu J Niiranen, Mir Henglin, Brian Claggett, Vito M R Muggeo, Elizabeth McCabe, Mohit Jain, Ramachandran S Vasan, Martin G Larson, Susan Cheng
Importance: Given that hypertension remains a leading risk factor for chronic disease globally, there are substantial ongoing efforts to define the optimal range of blood pressure (BP). Objective: To identify a common threshold level above which BP rise tends to accelerate in progression toward hypertension. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal, community-based epidemiological cohort study of adults enrolled in Framingham, Massachusetts, included 1252 participants (mean [SD] age, 35...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Sarah E Motta, Emanuela S Fioretta, Petra E Dijkman, Valentina Lintas, Luc Behr, Simon P Hoerstrup, Maximilian Y Emmert
Tissue-engineered heart valves with self-repair and regeneration properties may overcome the problem of long-term degeneration of currently used artificial prostheses. The aim of this study was the development and in vivo proof-of-concept of next-generation off-the-shelf tissue-engineered sinus valve (TESV) for transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR). Transcatheter implantation of off-the-shelf TESVs was performed in a translational sheep model for up to 16 weeks. Transapical delivery of TESVs was successful and showed good acute and short-term performance (up to 8 weeks), which then worsened over time most likely due to a non-optimized in vitro valve design...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Keisuke Inui, Kuniya Asai, Masaki Tachi, Aya Yoshinaga, Yuki Izumi, Yoshiaki Kubota, Koji Murai, Yayoi Tetsuou Tsukada, Yasuo Amano, Shinichiro Kumita, Wataru Shimizu
T1 mapping using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful for myocardial assessment. However, its prognostic value is not well defined. The aim of this study was to determine whether T1 mapping with CMR can predict reverse cardiac remodeling in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM). We also investigated the predictive prognostic value of T1 mapping with CMR in these patients. We included 33 patients with NIDCM admitted to Nippon Medical School Hospital between February 2012 and October 2015...
March 20, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Amber Kempton, Matt Cefalu, Cody Justice, Tesla Baich, Mohamed Derbala, Benjamin Canan, Paul M L Janssen, Peter J Mohler, Sakima A Smith
Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized and improved the care of the sickest heart failure (HF) patients, and it is imperative that they receive appropriate ventricular unloading. Assessing this critical parameter with current methodologies (labs, imaging) is usually suboptimal in this patient population. Hence it is imperative to elucidate the molecular underpinnings involved in ventricular unloading. We have previously identified the cytoskeletal protein βII spectrin as an essential nodal protein involved in post-translational targeting and βII spectrin protein levels are significantly altered in multiple forms of human and animal HF...
January 2018: Heliyon
Jianjian Shi, Michelle Surma, Lei Wei
Doxorubicin is among the essential medicines with a wide antitumor spectrum, but its clinical application is limited by its cardiotoxicity. We recently discovered that ROCK1 is a key molecule in mediating cardiac remodeling in response to various stresses. To determine the roles of ROCK1 in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, we gave three doses of doxorubicin injections to wild type (WT) and ROCK1-/- mice with one week intervals between treatments, the cumulative dose being 24 mg/kg. ROCK1-/- mice exhibited preserved cardiac function, reduced apoptosis, autophagy and fibrosis compared to the WT mice...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Tomohiro Kimura, Atsuko Kimura, Mindong Ren, Bob Berno, Yang Xu, Michael Schlame, Richard M Epand
Tafazzin is the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes transacylation between a phospholipid and a lysophospholipid in remodeling. Mutations in tafazzin cause Barth syndrome, a potentially life-threatening disease with the major symptom of cardiomyopathy. In the tafazzin-deficient heart, cardiolipin (CL) acyl chains become abnormally heterogeneous unlike those in the normal heart with a single dominant linoleoyl species; tetralinoleoyl CL. In addition, the amount of CL decreases and monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) accumulates...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Raffaele Altara, Fouad A Zouein, Rita Dias Brandão, Saeed N Bajestani, Alessandro Cataliotti, George W Booz
Standard therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been unsuccessful, demonstrating that the contribution of the underlying diastolic dysfunction pathophysiology differs from that of systolic dysfunction in heart failure and currently is far from being understood. Complicating the investigation of HFpEF is the contribution of several comorbidities. Here, we selected three established rat models of diastolic dysfunction defined by three major risk factors associated with HFpEF and researched their commonalities and differences...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Ming Hu, Zhenhui Zhang, Bin Liu, Shuangwei Zhang, Renjie Chai, Xiaohua Chen, Tianyu Kong, Fangcheng Zhang, Jingzhi Zhang, Shiming Liu, Ningning Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cardiac hypertrophy is a major outcome and compensatory response of the cardiovascular system to hemodynamic and additional stress responses that ultimately lead to heart failure. Auranofin (Aur) has been used for treating rheumatic arthritis for several decades. Aur is a 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinase inhibitor, and inhibition of the proteasome is speculated to reverse cardiac hypertrophy. However, the role of the deubiquitinases, especially 19S proteasome-associated deubiquitinases, in the regulation of cardiac remodeling remains poorly understood...
March 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mingjie Zhang, Zhiyu Feng, Rui Huang, Chongrui Sun, Zhuoming Xu
BACKGROUND Establishing a shunt-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) model in mice would be of great scientific value, but no such models have been reported to date. Here, we established a shunt-associated PAH in mice to investigate the characteristics of pulmonary vascular remodeling, which provides a new platform for the in-depth study of PAH associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty mice were randomly divided into the heavy shunt group (n=32), the small shunt group (n=32), the sham operation group (n=8), and the control group (n=8)...
March 19, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Colleen M Witzenburg, Jeffrey W Holmes
The ability to predict long-term growth and remodeling of the heart in individual patients could have important clinical implications, but the time to customize and run current models makes them impractical for routine clinical use. Therefore, we adapted a published growth relation for use in a compartmental model of the left ventricle (LV). The model was coupled to a circuit model of the circulation to simulate hemodynamic overload in dogs. We automatically tuned control and acute model parameters based on experimentally reported hemodynamic data and fit growth parameters to changes in LV dimensions from two experimental overload studies (one pressure, one volume)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ana Isabel Padrão, Rita Nogueira-Ferreira, Rui Vitorino, Dulce Carvalho, Catarina Correia, Maria João Neuparth, Maria João Pires, Ana Isabel Faustino-Rocha, Lúcio Lara Santos, Paula Alexandra Oliveira, José Alberto Duarte, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, Rita Ferreira
Limiting cancer-induced cardiac damage has become an increasingly important issue to improve survival rates and quality of life. Exercise training has been shown to reduce cardiovascular complications in several diseases; however, its therapeutic role against cardiovascular consequences of cancer is in its infancy. In order to add new insights on the potential therapeutic effect of exercise training on cancer-related cardiac dysfunction, we used an animal model of urothelial carcinoma submitted to 13 weeks of treadmill exercise after 20 weeks of exposure to the carcinogenic N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)-nitrosamine (BBN)...
March 13, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Alexander Schmeisser, Thomas Rauwolf, Ali Ghanem, Thomas Groscheck, Daniela Adolf, Frank Grothues, Katharina Fischbach, Ortrud Kosiek, Christof Huth, Siegfried Kropf, Stefan Lange, Blerim Luani, Jan Smid, Marc Henning Schäfer, Jens Schreiber, Ivan Tanev, Fabian Wengler, Naira Beniki Yeritsyan, Paul Steendijk, Ruediger C Braun-Dullaeus
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is recognized as a cardinal prognostic marker in systolic heart failure patients. Conflicting data exist on the interaction of RV function and left ventricular (LV) reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). This prospective monocentric trial was set up to assess the predictive value of baseline RV function and corresponding RV-pulmonary artery (PA) coupling on LV reverse remodeling after CRT. METHODS: 110 patients with a CRT indication were prospectively enrolled...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Sven Persoon, Michael Paulus, Stephan Hirt, Carsten Jungbauer, Alexander Dietl, Andreas Luchner, Christof Schmid, Lars S Maier, Christoph Birner
Implantation of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as bridge to transplant in end-stage heart failure allows for analyzing reverse remodeling processes of the supported heart. Whether this therapy influences the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, which is currently under thorough investigation for developing new heart failure therapeutics, is unknown. In fourteen end-stage heart failure patients (8 with dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM; 6 with ischemic cardiomyopathy, ICM) tissue specimens of left ventricles were collected at LVAD implantation and afterwards at receiver heart explantation, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Heart and Vessels
Sini M Kinnunen, Marja Tölli, Mika J Välimäki, Erhe Gao, Zoltan Szabo, Jaana Rysä, Mónica P A Ferreira, Pauli Ohukainen, Raisa Serpi, Alexandra Correia, Ermei Mäkilä, Jarno Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Hélder A Santos, Heikki Ruskoaho
Transcription factors are fundamental regulators of gene transcription, and many diseases, such as heart diseases, are associated with deregulation of transcriptional networks. In the adult heart, zinc-finger transcription factor GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac repair and remodelling. Previous studies also suggest that NKX2-5 plays function role as a cofactor of GATA4. We have recently reported the identification of small molecules that either inhibit or enhance the GATA4-NKX2-5 transcriptional synergy...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Venkatraman Ravi, Aditi Jain, Faiz Ahamed, Nowrin Fathma, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Nagalingam R Sundaresan
Heart is a dynamic organ that undergoes remodeling in response to both physiological and pathological stimuli. One of the fundamental cellular processes that facilitates changes in the size and shape of this muscular organ is the protein synthesis. Traditionally changes in cardiac protein synthesis levels were measured by radiolabeled tracers. However, these methods are often cumbersome and suffer from radioactive risk. Recently a nonradioactive method for detecting protein synthesis under in vitro conditions called the Surface Sensing of Translation (SUnSET) was described in cell lines of mouse dendrites and T cells...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benedikt Schrage, Daniel Kalbacher, Michael Schwarzl, Nicole Rübsamen, Christoph Waldeyer, Peter Moritz Becher, Eike Tigges, Daniel Burkhoff, Stefan Blankenberg, Edith Lubos, Ulrich Schäfer, Dirk Westermann
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous mitral valve edge-to-edge repair (pMVR) with a MitraClip is beneficial for the clinical symptoms of patients irrespective of the ejection fraction (EF). Nevertheless, the consequences on hemodynamics are poorly understood. Therefore, we used data from noninvasive pressure-volume loops to investigate the left ventricular (LV) remodeling of patients after pMVR dependent on their baseline EF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 130 patients with successful pMVR, the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship (EDPVR) and end-systolic pressure-volume relationship were estimated noninvasively from echocardiographic data...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Andrew R Kompa, Jiayu Lu, Thomas J Weller, Darren J Kelly, Henry Krum, Thomas G von Lueder, Bing H Wang
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) enhances beneficial natriuretic peptides by inhibiting their breakdown through neprilysin. Although the first-in-class ARNi sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) reduced mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF) compared to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), mechanistic data on ARNi are scarce. ARNi may be superior to ACEi in attenuating adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction post-myocardial infarction (MI)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Kexin Wang, Yang Xu, Qiong Sun, Jiangang Long, Jiankang Liu, Jian Ding
The multipurpose organelle mitochondria play an essential role(s) in controlling cardiac muscle contraction. Mitochondria, not only function as the powerhouses and the energy source of myocytes, but also modulate intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, the production of intermediary metabolites/reactive oxygen species (ROS), and other cellular processes. Those molecular events can substantially influence myocardial contraction. Mitochondrial dysfunction is usually associated with cardiac remodeling, and is the causal factor of heart contraction defects in many cases...
March 16, 2018: Free Radical Research
Robert D Johnson, Patrizia Camelliti
The heart is a complex organ composed of multiple cell types, including cardiomyocytes and different non-myocyte populations, all working closely together to determine the hearts properties and maintain normal cardiac function. Connexins are abundantly expressed proteins that form plasma membrane hemichannels and gap junctions between cells. Gap junctions are intracellular channels that allow for communication between cells, and in the heart they play a crucial role in cardiac conduction by coupling adjacent cardiomyocytes...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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