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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098811/aspalathin-protects-the-heart-against-hyperglycemia-induced-oxidative-damage-by-up-regulating-nrf2-expression
#1
Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Christo J F Muller, Elizabeth Joubert, Johan Louw, M Faadiel Essop, Kwazi B Gabuza, Samira Ghoor, Barbara Huisamen, Rabia Johnson
Aspalathin (ASP) can protect H9c2 cardiomyocytes against high glucose (HG)-induced shifts in myocardial substrate preference, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The protective mechanism of ASP remains unknown. However, as one of possible, it is well known that phytochemical flavonoids reduce oxidative stress via nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) activation resulting in up-regulation of antioxidant genes and enzymes. Therefore, we hypothesized that ASP protects the myocardium against HG- and hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating Nrf2 expression in H9c2 cardiomyocytes and diabetic (db/db) mice, respectively...
January 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098781/distinct-neurotoxicity-profile-of-listeriolysin-o-from-listeria-monocytogenes
#2
Jana Maurer, Sabrina Hupp, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Foertsch, Timothy J Mitchell, Trinad Chakraborty, Asparouh I Iliev
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098775/mammary-gland-involution-provides-a-unique-model-to-study-the-tgf-%C3%AE-cancer-paradox
#3
REVIEW
Qiuchen Guo, Courtney Betts, Nathan Pennock, Elizabeth Mitchell, Pepper Schedin
Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer has been termed the "TGF-β paradox", acting as both a tumor suppresser and promoter. The complexity of TGF-β signaling within the tumor is context dependent, and greatly impacted by cellular crosstalk between TGF-β responsive cells in the microenvironment including adjacent epithelial, endothelial, mesenchymal, and hematopoietic cells. Here we utilize normal, weaning-induced mammary gland involution as a tissue microenvironment model to study the complexity of TGF-β function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098761/pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-basic-biology-current-treatment-strategies-and-prospects-for-the-future
#4
REVIEW
Akihiro Ohmoto, Hirofumi Rokutan, Shinichi Yachida
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs) are rare tumors accounting for only 1%-2% of all pancreatic tumors. pNENs are pathologically heterogeneous and are categorized into three groups (neuroendocrine tumor: NET G1, NET G2; and neuroendocrine carcinoma: NEC) on the basis of the Ki-67 proliferation index and the mitotic count according to the 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of gastroenteropancreatic NENs. NEC in this classification includes both histologically well-differentiated and poorly differentiated subtypes, and modification of the WHO 2010 classification is under discussion based on genetic and clinical data...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098621/long-term-follow-up-of-retinal-pigment-epithelium-restoration-after-a-triple-tear
#5
Sarwar Zahid, Rosa Dolz Marco, K Bailey Freund
PURPOSE: To demonstrate longitudinal multimodal imaging findings in a case of neovascular age-related macular degeneration presenting with multiple retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears showing progressive RPE restoration. METHODS: Observational clinical case report. RESULTS: A 79-year-old woman diagnosed with neovascular age-related macular degeneration developed 3 consecutive RPE tears in her right eye during the course of treatment with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy...
December 19, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097693/distinguishing-between-biochemical-and-cellular-function-are-there-peptide-signatures-for-cellular-function-of-proteins
#6
Shruti Jain, Kausik Bhattacharyya, Rachit Bakshi, Ankita Narang, Vani Brahmachari
The genome annotation and identification of gene function depends on conserved biochemical activity. However, in the cell, proteins with the same biochemical function can participate in different cellular pathways and cannot complement one another. Similarly, two proteins of very different biochemical functions are put in the same class of cellular function; for example, the classification of a gene as an oncogene or a tumour suppressor gene is not related to its biochemical function, but is related to its cellular function...
January 18, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097474/igf-1r-regulates-the-extracellular-level-of-active-mmp-2-pathological-neovascularization-and-functionality-in-retinas-of-oir-mouse-model
#7
Valeria E Lorenc, Paula V Subirada Caldarone, María C Paz, Darío G Ferrer, José D Luna, Gustavo A Chiabrando, María C Sánchez
In ischemic proliferative diseases such as retinopathies, persistent hypoxia leads to the release of numerous neovascular factors that participate in the formation of abnormal vessels and eventually cause blindness. The upregulation and activation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) represent a final common pathway in this process. Although many regulators of the neovascular process have been identified, the complete role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) appears to be significantly more complex...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097467/strenuous-exercise-and-cardiovascular-disease-outcomes
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan H Kim, Aaron L Baggish
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes several issues at the forefront of recent controversies involving the appropriate exercise dose including epidemiologic data describing mortality trends in those who engage in high levels of physical activity and recent observational data suggesting adverse cardiovascular outcomes among long-term endurance athletes. RECENT FINDINGS: The benefits of habitual and moderate levels of exercise on cardiovascular disease outcomes in the general population have been well established...
January 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097372/the-role-of-neuropeptides-in-adverse-myocardial-remodeling-and-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Alexander Widiapradja, Prasad Chunduri, Scott P Levick
In addition to traditional neurotransmitters of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the heart also contains numerous neuropeptides. These neuropeptides not only modulate the effects of neurotransmitters, but also have independent effects on cardiac function. While in most cases the physiological actions of these neuropeptides are well defined, their contributions to cardiac pathology are less appreciated. Some neuropeptides are cardioprotective, some promote adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure, and in the case of others their functions are unclear...
January 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097087/identification-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-signalling-pathway-by-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-rat-condylar-cartilage
#10
Liting Jiang, Yinyin Xie, Li Wei, Qi Zhou, Xing Shen, Xinquan Jiang, Yiming Gao
Angiogenesis mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to play an important role in regulating cartilage remodelling and endochondral ossification. However, the details of how VEGF signalling mechanisms affect condyle remodelling in response to alterations in functional loading remains unclear. To explore this, eighty 16-day-old male SD rats were divided into two equal groups which were fed either a soft/powdery diet or a hard diet for 4 weeks; the stiffness of the diet results in alteration of mastication force and hence temporomandibular joint (TMJ) development...
January 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097005/the-cardioprotective-efficacy-of-tvp1022-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-cardiac-remodeling-in-rats
#11
Assaf Malka, Offir Ertracht, Noa Bachner-Hinenzon, Irina Reiter, Ofer Binah
Following acute myocardial infarction (MI), early and successful reperfusion is the most effective strategy for reducing infarct size and improving the clinical outcome. However, immediate restoration of blood flow to the ischemic zone results in myocardial damage, defined as "reperfusion-injury". Whereas we previously reported that TVP1022 (the S-isomer of rasagiline, FDA-approved anti-Parkinson drug) decreased infarct size 24 h post ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats, in this study we investigated the chronic cardioprotective efficacy of TVP1022 14 days post-I/R...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096639/association-between-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-levels-and-bone-mineral-density-in-normal-postmenopausal-women
#12
Vasundhara Kamineni, Akkenapally Prasanna Latha, K Ramathulasi
AIM: This study was conducted with the objective of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in postmenopausal women (PMW), to detect osteopenia or osteoporosis in PMW and to establish a correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and bone mineral density (BMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 healthy PMW were selected, and a prospective observational study was conducted to correlate the BMD with serum 25(OH)D levels. Their laboratory investigations along with serum 25(OH)D levels were done...
October 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096349/structure-of-eukaryotic-cmg-helicase-at-a-replication-fork-and-implications-to-replisome-architecture-and-origin-initiation
#13
Roxana Georgescu, Zuanning Yuan, Lin Bai, Ruda de Luna Almeida Santos, Jingchuan Sun, Dan Zhang, Olga Yurieva, Huilin Li, Michael E O'Donnell
The eukaryotic CMG (Cdc45, Mcm2-7, GINS) helicase consists of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring along with five accessory factors. The Mcm2-7 heterohexamer, like other hexameric helicases, is shaped like a ring with two tiers, an N-tier ring composed of the N-terminal domains, and a C-tier of C-terminal domains; the C-tier contains the motor. In principle, either tier could translocate ahead of the other during movement on DNA. We have used cryo-EM single-particle 3D reconstruction to solve the structure of CMG in complex with a DNA fork...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096288/mid-regional-pro-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-to-predict-clinical-course-in-heart-failure-patients-undergoing-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#14
Mattia Arrigo, Quynh A Truong, Jackie Szymonifka, Mercedes Rivas-Lasarte, Heli Tolppanen, Malha Sadoune, Etienne Gayat, Alain Cohen-Solal, Frank Ruschitzka, James L Januzzi, Jagmeet P Singh, Alexandre Mebazaa
AIMS: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) induces reverse cardiac remodelling in heart failure (HF), but many patients receiving CRT remain non-responders. This study assessed the role of amino-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), mid-regional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), and mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) at the time of device implantation to predict favourable clinical course (CRT response and/or risk of MACE) in HF patients receiving CRT...
January 16, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096264/adherens-junctions-on-the-move-membrane-trafficking-of-e-cadherin
#15
Lena Brüser, Sven Bogdan
Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell-cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and undergoes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed conserved, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096260/fgf21-mediates-the-thermogenic-and-insulin-sensitizing-effects-of-dietary-methionine-restriction-but-not-its-effects-on-hepatic-lipid-metabolism
#16
Desiree Wanders, Laura A Forney, Kirsten P Stone, David H Burk, Alicia Pierse, Thomas W Gettys
Dietary methionine restriction (MR) produces a rapid and persistent remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT), increase in energy expenditure (EE), and enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Recent work established that hepatic expression of FGF21 is robustly increased by MR. Based on the known physiological effects of FGF21, Fgf21(-/-) mice were used to test whether FGF21 is an essential mediator of the physiological effects of dietary MR. The MR-induced increase in energy intake and EE, and activation of thermogenesis in WAT and BAT were lost in Fgf21(-/-) mice...
January 17, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096241/the-chromodomain-helicase-dna-binding-chromatin-remodelers-family-traits-that-protect-from-and-promote-cancer
#17
Alea A Mills
A plethora of mutations in chromatin regulators in diverse human cancers is emerging, attesting to the pivotal role of chromatin dynamics in tumorigenesis. A recurrent theme is inactivation of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (CHD) family of proteins-ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers that govern the cellular machinery's access to DNA, thereby controlling fundamental processes, including transcription, proliferation, and DNA damage repair. This review highlights what is currently known about how genetic and epigenetic perturbation of CHD proteins and the pathways that they regulate set the stage for cancer, providing new insight for designing more effective anti-cancer therapies...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096098/avoiding-untimely-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-implantation-by-intensified-heart-failure-therapy-optimization-supported-by-the-wearable-cardioverter-defibrillator-the-prolong-study
#18
David Duncker, Thorben König, Stephan Hohmann, Johann Bauersachs, Christian Veltmann
BACKGROUND: Optimal timing of implantation of an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) after newly diagnosed heart failure is unclear given that late reverse remodelling may occur. We aimed to analyze left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after diagnosis of an LVEF ≤35% during optimization of heart failure drug therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred fifty-six patients with newly diagnosed LVEF ≤35% receiving a wearable cardioverter/defibrillator (WCD) were analyzed...
January 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095754/3d-co-culture-of-meniscal-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-collagen-type-i-hydrogel-on-a-small-intestinal-matrix-a-pilot-study-towards-equine-meniscus-tissue-engineering
#19
Antje Kremer, Iris Ribitsch, Jenny Reboredo, Julia Dürr, Monika Egerbacher, Florien Jenner, Heike Walles
Meniscal injuries are the most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries in the equine stifle joint. Due to the inherent limited repair potential of meniscal tissue, meniscal injuries do not only affect the meniscus itself but also lead to impaired joint homeostasis and secondary osteoarthritis. The presented study compares 3D co-culture constructs of primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and meniscus cells (MC) seeded on three different scaffolds - a cell-laden collagen type I hydrogel (Col I gel), a tissue-derived small intestinal matrix scaffold (SIS-muc) and a combination thereof - for their qualification to be applied for meniscus tissue engineering...
January 18, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095649/the-effect-of-mechanical-stress-on-the-proliferation-adipogenic-differentiation-and-gene-expression-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#20
Nora E Paul, Bernd Denecke, Bong-Sung Kim, Alice Dreser, Jürgen Bernhagen, Norbert Pallua
To allow for a better implementation of external volume expansion to clinical applications for soft tissue regeneration, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying mechanisms. Since human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) play a crucial role in soft tissue enlargement, we investigated the impact of cyclic stretch on gene expression, proliferation rate, and adipogenic differentiation of these cells. After cyclic stretching, RNA was extracted and subjected to DNA microarray analysis and RT-qPCR...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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