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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926989/targeting-gm-csf-in-epithelial-and-vascular-remodeling-in-experimental-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#1
Eóin N McNamee, Kathryn A Biette, Juliet Hammer, Rachel Harris, Heather Miyazawa, James J Lee, Glenn T Furuta, Joanne C Masterson
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen-mediated clinicopathologic disease of the esophagus characterized by an eosinophil-predominant inflammatory infiltrate. A clinical hallmark is extensive tissue remodeling including basal zone hyperplasia, fibrosis and angiogenesis. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for these processes are not fully defined. We hypothesized that targeting GM-CSF (an agonist cytokine linked with eosinophil survival and activation) would be protective in a pre-clinical model of EoE...
December 7, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926861/immunometabolic-pathways-in-bcg-induced-trained-immunity
#2
Rob J W Arts, Agostinho Carvalho, Claudia La Rocca, Carla Palma, Fernando Rodrigues, Ricardo Silvestre, Johanneke Kleinnijenhuis, Ekta Lachmandas, Luís G Gonçalves, Ana Belinha, Cristina Cunha, Marije Oosting, Leo A B Joosten, Giuseppe Matarese, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
The protective effects of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) on unrelated infections are thought to be mediated by long-term metabolic changes and chromatin remodeling through histone modifications in innate immune cells such as monocytes, a process termed trained immunity. Here, we show that BCG induction of trained immunity in monocytes is accompanied by a strong increase in glycolysis and, to a lesser extent, glutamine metabolism, both in an in-vitro model and after vaccination of mice and humans...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926672/mechanisms-predisposing-factors-and-prognosis-of-intra-operative-vertebral-subluxation-during-pedicle-subtraction-osteotomy-in-surgical-correction-of-thoracolumbar-kyphosis-secondary-to-ankylosing-spondylitis
#3
Bang-Ping Qian, Sai-Hu Mao, Jun Jiang, Bin Wang, Yong Qiu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the mechanisms, predisposing factors and prognosis of the intraoperative vertebral subluxation (VS) during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) for thoracolumbar kyphosis secondary to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VS is one of the most daunting challenges that surgeons encounter during PSO closure, especially in AS patients with ankylosed and mostly osteoporotic spine...
December 6, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926545/immune-responses-to-bioengineered-organs
#4
Jordi Ochando, Dominique Charron, Pedro M Baptista, Basak E Uygun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Organ donation in the United States registered 9079 deceased organ donors in 2015. This high percentage of donations allowed organ transplantation in 29 851 recipients. Despite increasing numbers of transplants performed in comparison with previous years, the numbers of patients that are in need for a transplant increase every year at a higher rate. This reveals that the discrepancy between the demand and availability of organs remains fundamental problem in organ transplantation...
December 6, 2016: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925619/moderate-hyperoxia-induces-extracellular-matrix-remodeling-by-human-fetal-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#5
Elizabeth R Vogel, Rodney D Britt, Arij Faksh, Ine Kuipers, Hitesh Pandya, Y S Prakash, Richard J Martin, Christina M Pabelick
BACKGROUND: Premature infants are at increased risk for airway diseases, such as wheezing and asthma, because of early exposure to risk factors including hyperoxia. As in adult asthma, airway remodeling and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition is involved. METHODS: We assessed the impact of 24-72 h of moderate hyperoxia (50%) on human fetal airway smooth muscle (fASM) ECM deposition through western blot, modified in-cell western, and zymography techniques...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925474/fiber-development-and-matrix-production-in-tissue-engineered-menisci-using-bovine-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-fibrochondrocytes
#6
Mary Clare McCorry, Lawrence J Bonassar
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated with promising results for meniscus healing and tissue engineering. While MSCs are known to contribute to ECM production, less is known about how MSCs produce and align large organized fibers for application to tissue engineering the meniscus. The goal of this study was to investigate the capability of MSCs to produce and organize extracellular matrix molecules compared to meniscal fibrochondrocytes (FCCs). Bovine FCCs and MSCs were encapsulated in an anatomically accurate collagen meniscus using mono-culture and co-culture of each cell type...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925458/an-engineered-breast-cancer-model-on-a-chip-to-replicate-ecm-activation-in-vitro-during-tumor-progression
#7
Filomena Gioiella, Francesco Urciuolo, Giorgia Imparato, Virginia Brancato, Paolo A Netti
In this work, a new model of breast cancer is proposed featuring both epithelial and stromal tissues arranged on a microfluidic chip. The main task of the work is the in vitro replication of the stromal activation during tumor epithelial invasion. The activation of tumor stroma and its morphological/compositional changes play a key role in tumor progression. Despite emerging evidences, to date the activation of tumor stroma in vitro has not been achieved yet. The tumor-on-chip proposed in this work is built in order to replicate the features of its native counterpart: multicellularity (tumor epithelial cell and stromal cell); 3D engineered stroma compartment composed of cell-assembled extracellular matrix (ECM); reliable 3D tumor architecture...
December 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925287/treatment-sequence-matters-anabolic-and-antiresorptive-therapy-for-osteoporosis
#8
Felicia Cosman, Jeri W Nieves, David Dempster
The majority of osteoporosis medications are antiresorptive agents, which reduce the rate of bone remodeling. Within this group are the bisphosphonates, which inhibit protein prenylation in the mature osteoclast, reducing osteoclast capacity to resorb bone(1) and denosumab, a monoclonal antibody to rank ligand that inhibits osteoclast formation, function and survival(2) . Although several new anabolic agents are in development(3-5) , teriparatide is currently the only available anabolic therapy for osteoporosis in the United States, with the addition of only PTH(1-84) in the EU [referred to as PTH)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925201/vascular-inter-regulation-of-inflammation-molecular-and-cellular-targets-for-cns-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Marta Machado-Pereira, Tiago Santos, Liliana Bernardino, Raquel Ferreira
Angiogenesis and inflammation are clearly interconnected and interdependent processes that are dysregulated in a series of systemic and brain pathologies. Herein, key aspects regarding endothelial cell function and tissue remodelling that are particularly affected or aggravated by inflammation are presented. Most importantly, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the vascular regulation of the inflammatory processes occurring in several brain disorders and how they impact on disease/injury progression are detailed, highlighting potential targets for therapy...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925185/effects-of-carbocysteine-and-beclomethasone-on-histone-acetylation-deacetylation-processes-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#10
E Pace, S Di Vincenzo, M Ferraro, L Siena, G Chiappara, P Dino, P Vitulo, A Bertani, F Saibene, L Lanata, M Gjomarkaj
Histone deacetylase expression/activity may control inflammation, cell senescence, and responses to corticosteroids. Cigarette smoke exposure, increasing oxidative stress, may negatively affect deacetylase expression/activity. The effects of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on chromatin remodelling processes in human bronchial epithelial cells are largely unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of cigarette smoke, carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression/activity, N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) expression, histone acetyltransferases (HAT) (p300/CBP) expression, p-CREB and IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924873/cardiac-specific-overexpression-of-mitochondrial-omi-htra2-induces-myocardial-apoptosis-and-cardiac-dysfunction
#11
Ke Wang, Yuexing Yuan, Xin Liu, Wayne Bond Lau, Lin Zuo, Xiaoliang Wang, Lu Ma, Kun Jiao, Jianyu Shang, Wen Wang, Xinliang Ma, Huirong Liu
Myocardial apoptosis is a significant problem underlying ischemic heart disease. We previously reported significantly elevated expression of cytoplasmic Omi/HtrA2, triggers cardiomyocytes apoptosis. However, whether increased Omi/HtrA2 within mitochondria itself influences myocardial survival in vivo is unknown. We aim to observe the effects of mitochondria-specific, not cytoplasmic, Omi/HtrA2 on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function. Transgenic mice overexpressing cardiac-specific mitochondrial Omi/HtrA2 were generated and they had increased myocardial apoptosis, decreased systolic and diastolic function, and decreased left ventricular remodeling...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924760/p-wave-dispersion-an-update
#12
REVIEW
Andrés Ricardo Pérez-Riera, Luiz Carlos de Abreu, Raimundo Barbosa-Barros, José Grindler, Acácio Fernandes-Cardoso, Adrian Baranchuk
P-wave dispersion (PWD, Pd or Pdis) is a noninvasive electrocardiographic (ECG) marker for atrial remodeling and predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). PWD is defined as the difference between the widest and the narrowest P-wave duration recorded from the 12 ECG leads. Increased P-wave duration and PWD reflect prolongation of intraatrial and interatrial conduction time with lack of a well-coordinated conduction system within the atrial muscles, with inhomogeneous, asynchronic, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effect mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with the CG + GG genotype IL-6 -634C/G polymorphism [1] and discontinuous propagation of sinus impulses mainly between the left and right atria, interstitial/extracellular fibroblast activation and collagen deposition with fibrosis (via TGF-β) in atrial tissue, insufficient blood supply, significant not isotropic myoelectric activity, and thin wall thickness and consequent expansion tendency all well-known electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrial arrhythmias and especially paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) [2]...
July 2016: Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924678/a-novel-role-for-14-kda-phosphohistidine-phosphatase-in-lamellipodia-formation
#13
Anjian Xu, Xiaojin Li, Siwen Li, Lan Sun, Shanna Wu, Bei Zhang, Jian Huang
Cell migration involves dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, which exhibits rapid actin polymerization at the leading edge of migrating cells. This process relies on regulated recruitment of actin nucleators and actin-binding proteins to the leading edge to polymerize new actin filaments. Many of these proteins have been identified, including the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex, which has emerged as the core player in the initiation of actin polymerization. However, the functional coordination of these proteins is unclear...
December 7, 2016: Cell Adhesion & Migration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924566/cell-based-assays-to-study-erk-pathway-caveolin1-interactions
#14
Raffaele Strippoli, Asier Echarri, Miguel Angel Del Pozo
Caveolin1, the main component of caveolae, plays a major role in regulating cell motility, gene expression, and cytoskeleton remodeling downstream of many membrane receptors. Here, we summarize different techniques set up to study changes in cell morphology and cell motility regulated by ERK/caveolin1 interactions during induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in mesothelial cells (MCs).
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924393/autologous-augmentation-of-hiatal-hernia-repair-with-filtered-platelet-concentrate-improves-tissue-remodeling-in-a-swine-model
#15
Maria S Altieri, Gabriel Pagnotti, Angelique Corthals, Kenneth Shroyer, Aurora D Pryor, Mark Talamini, Dana A Telem
INTRODUCTION: Autologus augmentation of wound remodeling with platelet concentrate is a burgeoning field with promising results. We hypothesized that the addition of filtered platelet concentrate (fPC) to an acellular biologic graft would improve crural healing and tissue integrity in hiatal hernia repair. METHODS: Sixteen healthy Yorkshire female pigs were divided into three groups: hiatus repair (HR) (n = 7), HR with biologic graft (HRM; n = 8, and HR with biologic graft and fPC (fPC; n = 9)...
December 6, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924165/assessment-of-global-dna-methylation-in-the-first-trimester-fetal-tissues-exposed-to-maternal-cigarette-smoking
#16
Svetlana Fa, Trine Vilsbøll Larsen, Katrine Bilde, Tina F Daugaard, Emil H Ernst, Rasmus H Olesen, Linn S Mamsen, Erik Ernst, Agnete Larsen, Anders L Nielsen
AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies. Maternal smoking induces gene-specific DNA methylation alterations as well as global DNA hypermethylation in the term placentas and hypomethylation in the cord blood. Early pregnancy represents a developmental time where the fetal epigenome is remodeled and accordingly can be expected to be highly prone to exposures with an epigenetic impact...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924156/deficiency-of-atp6v1h-causes-bone-loss-by-inhibiting-bone-resorption-and-bone-formation-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-pathway
#17
Xiaohong Duan, Jin Liu, Xueni Zheng, Zhe Wang, Yanli Zhang, Ying Hao, Tielin Yang, Hongwen Deng
Vacuolar-type H (+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) is a highly conserved, ancient enzyme that couples the energy of ATP hydrolysis to proton transport across vesicular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Previously reported mutations of various V-ATPase subunits are associated with increased bone density. We now show that haploinsufficiency for the H subunit of the V1 domain (ATP6V1H) is associated with osteoporosis in humans and mice. A genome-wide SNP array analysis of 1625 Han Chinese found that 4 of 15 tag SNPs (26...
2016: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924075/histone-variants-on-the-move-substrates-for-chromatin-dynamics
#18
Paul B Talbert, Steven Henikoff
Most histones are assembled into nucleosomes behind the replication fork to package newly synthesized DNA. By contrast, histone variants, which are encoded by separate genes, are typically incorporated throughout the cell cycle. Histone variants can profoundly change chromatin properties, which in turn affect DNA replication and repair, transcription, and chromosome packaging and segregation. Recent advances in the study of histone replacement have elucidated the dynamic processes by which particular histone variants become substrates of histone chaperones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and histone-modifying enzymes...
December 7, 2016: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923978/smooth-muscle-cell-specific-tgfbr1-deficiency-attenuates-neointimal-hyperplasia-but-promotes-an-undesired-vascular-phenotype-for-injured-arteries
#19
Mingmei Liao, Pu Yang, Fen Wang, Scott A Berceli, Yasmin H Ali, Kelvin L Chan, Zhihua Jiang
Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and inward wall remodeling cause arterial restenosis and failure of bypass vein grafts. Previous studies from our group suggest that transforming growth factor (TGF) β promotes these pathologies via regulating cell kinetics at the early stage and matrix metabolism at the late stage. Although these temporal TGFβ effects may result from its signaling in different cell groups, the responsible cell type has not been identified. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific TGFβ signaling through its type I receptor TGFBR1 on NIH and wall remodeling of the injured femoral arteries (FAs)...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923923/antiviral-innate-immune-response-interferes-with-the-formation-of-replication-associated-membrane-structures-induced-by-a-positive-strand-rna-virus
#20
Diede Oudshoorn, Barbara van der Hoeven, Ronald W A L Limpens, Corrine Beugeling, Eric J Snijder, Montserrat Bárcena, Marjolein Kikkert
: Infection with nidoviruses like corona- and arteriviruses induces a reticulovesicular network of interconnected endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) and other membrane structures. This network is thought to accommodate the viral replication machinery and protect it from innate immune detection. We hypothesized that the innate immune response has tools to counteract the formation of these virus-induced replication organelles in order to inhibit virus replication...
December 6, 2016: MBio
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