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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818143/locomotion-strategy-and-magnitude-of-ground-reaction-forces-during-treadmill-training-on-iss
#1
Elena Fomina, Alexandra Savinkina
INTRODUCTION: Creation of the cosmonaut in-flight physical training process is currently based on the leading role of support afferents in the development of hypogravity changes in the motor system. We assume that the strength of support afferents is related to the magnitude of the ground reaction forces (GRF). For this purpose it was necessary to compare the GRF magnitude on the Russian BD-2 treadmill for different locomotion types (walking and running), modes (active and passive), and subjects...
September 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813797/improving-motor-skill-transfer-during-dyadic-robot-training-through-the-modulation-of-the-expert-role
#2
Elisa Galofaro, Pietro Morasso, Jacopo Zenzeri
In daily life it is necessary to learn skills that can be applied in different tasks and different contexts. Usually these skills are acquired by observation or by direct physical training with another expert person. The critical point is to know which is the best possible way to achieve this knowledge acquisition. In this work we have proposed a collaborative environment where subjects with different levels of expertise have to interact through the use of a robotic platform. A motor skill learning algorithm has been designed in order to allow the less skilled subjects-naïves-to explore the virtual environment and to exploit the advantages of working with a skilled partner...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810993/prevalence-and-trends-of-cigarette-smoking-among-military-personnel-in-taiwan-results-of-10-year-anti-smoking-health-promotion-programs-in-military
#3
Nain-Feng Chu, Fu-Huang Lin, Yi-Chang Wu
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and trends of cigarette smoking among young military conscripts, military officers, and military university students during recently 10 years in Taiwan. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional surveys were conducted annually among young military conscripts and military university students from 2006 to 2014. All the young conscripts were reviewed within 1 month at the military training center and before retiring after 1 year of military services...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810971/effect-of-mixed-basic-military-training-on-the-physical-fitness-of-male-and-female-soldiers
#4
Paola S Wood, Catharina C Grant, Peet J du Toit, Lizelle Fletcher
INTRODUCTION: Mixed gender basic military training (BMT) is adopted to integrate the female South African soldier into the military. This study aimed to assess gender differences before, during (12 weeks), and after a 20-week mixed BMT course and determine if BMT significantly reduced these differences. METHODS: A total of 186 soldiers (114 male: mean age = 21.0 ± 1.1 year; 72 female: mean age = 20.5 ± 1.2 year) completed the BMT course and all anthropometric, physical fitness, explosive power, and hand grip strength measurements...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809927/in-middle-aged-and-old-obese-patients-training-intervention-reduces-leptin-level-a-meta-analysis
#5
Ildikó Rostás, László Pótó, Péter Mátrai, Péter Hegyi, Judit Tenk, András Garami, Anita Illés, Margit Solymár, Erika Pétervári, Ákos Szűcs, Andrea Párniczky, Dániel Pécsi, Zoltán Rumbus, Csaba Zsiborás, Nóra Füredi, Márta Balaskó
BACKGROUND: Leptin is one of the major adipokines in obesity that indicates the severity of fat accumulation. It is also an important etiological factor of consequent cardiometabolic and autoimmune disorders. Aging has been demonstrated to aggravate obesity and to induce leptin resistance and hyperleptinemia. Hyperleptinemia, on the other hand, may promote the development of age-related abnormalities. While major weight loss has been demonstrated to ameliorate hyperleptinemia, obese people show a poor tendency to achieve lasting success in this field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804727/development-of-a-prediction-model-for-stress-fracture-during-an-intensive-physical-training-program-the-royal-marines-commandos
#6
Maria T Sanchez-Santos, Trish Davey, Kirsten M Leyland, Adrian J Allsopp, Susan A Lanham-New, Andrew Judge, Nigel K Arden, Joanne L Fallowfield
BACKGROUND: Stress fractures (SFs) are one of the more severe overuse injuries in military training, and therefore, knowledge of potential risk factors is needed to assist in developing mitigating strategies. PURPOSE: To develop a prediction model for risk of SF in Royal Marines (RM) recruits during an arduous military training program. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: RM recruits (N = 1082; age range, 16-33 years) who enrolled between September 2009 and July 2010 were prospectively followed through the 32-week RM training program...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804398/the-transfer-of-skills-from-cognitive-and-physical-training-to-activities-of-daily-living-a-randomised-controlled-study
#7
Magdalena Hagovska, Iveta Nagyova
Ageing is associated with the deterioration of all cognitive functions, including attention, memory and psychomotor speed. It has not yet been clearly confirmed whether the effects of cognitive and physical interventions can improve activities of daily living (ADL). This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive and physical training on cognitive functions and the transfer to ADL. Eighty older people with mild cognitive impairment (mean age 67.07 ± 4.3 years) were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40)...
June 2017: European Journal of Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800755/the-influence-of-3%C3%A2-months-of-physical-exercises-and-verbal-stimulation-on-functional-efficiency-and-use-of-free-time-in-an-older-population-under-institutional-care-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Agnieszka Wiśniowska-Szurlej, Agnieszka Ćwirlej-Sozańska, Anna Wilmowska-Pietruszyńska, Natalia Milewska, Bernard Sozański
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a significant change in the demographics of developed countries, including an increase in the number of older people. This aging population and the associated need for medical care and assistance places great strain on health care systems worldwide. In older populations, improved knowledge and understanding of the relationship between moderate exercise and health might result in greater motivation to engage in such activity; thus improving the overall health of this population...
August 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800160/exercise-attenuates-alveolar-bone-loss-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats-with-periodontitis
#9
Eric F Andrade, Débora R Orlando, Júlia A S Gomes, Renata de C Foureaux, Rafael C Costa, Mary S Varaschin, Gustavo P Rogatto, Rodrigo F de Moura, Luciano J Pereira
AIM: To evaluate the effects of physical training on inflammatory and behavioral parameters of Wistar rats with periodontal disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four animals were distributed in a 2x2 factorial design (with and without exercise, with and without PD). Trained animals swimmed one hour daily during eight weeks. PD was induced by ligature 14 days before the end of experiment and in the last week all animals were submitted to the Marble Burying Test...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779920/short-term-water-based-aerobic-training-promotes-improvements-in-aerobic-conditioning-parameters-of-mature-women
#10
Rochelle Rocha Costa, Thais Reichert, Leandro Coconcelli, Nicole Monticelli Simmer, Natália Carvalho Bagatini, Adriana Cristine Koch Buttelli, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Ricardo Stein, Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
Aging is accompanied by a decrease in aerobic capacity. Therefore, physical training has been recommended to soften the effects of advancement age. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a short-term water-based aerobic training on resting heart rate (HRrest), heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HRAT), peak heart rate (HRpeak), percentage value of HRAT in relation to HRpeak and test duration (TD) of mature women. Twenty-two women (65.91 ± 4.83 years) were submitted to a five-week water-based interval aerobic training...
August 2017: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762930/-the-complex-program-of-rehabilitation-of-patients-with-ischemic-heart-disease-after-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery-in-ambulatory-cardiorehabilitational-department-clinical-effects-of-third-stage-of-rehabilitation
#11
D M Aronov, M G Bubnova, D G Ioseliani, V B Krasnitsky, T V Shovkun, N K Novikova, E V Yarnykh
PURPOSE: to assess clinical efficacy of early post discharge rehabilitation of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in conditions of a polyclinical department of cardiological rehabilitation (stage III of cardiorehabilitation). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included in this study 36 men with IHD in 3-8 weeks (mean 7.8+/-1.6 weeks) after CABG. Patients were randomized in 2groups: patients of the main group attended special "School for patients recovering after CABG" [School] (60-80 min sessions once a week for 5 weeks) and participated in a program of monitored (up to 60 min 3 times a week for 4 months) and unmonitored (home based) exercise training...
March 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758593/physical-exercise-and-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system
#12
Albená Nunes-Silva, Guilherme Carvalho Rocha, Daniel Massote Magalhaes, Lucas Neves Vaz, Marcelo Henrique Salviano Faria, Ana Cristina Simões E Silva
Many physiological responses of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) are associated with two opposite pathways: (1) a classical one formed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), Angiotensin II (Ang II) and Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor, which is associated to vasoconstriction, cell proliferation, organ hypertrophy, sodium retention and aldosterone release and (2) a counter-regulatory or vasodilator pathway comprising angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and Mas receptor, which is involved in vasodilation, anti-proliferation, anti-hypertrophy, cardioprotective and renoprotective actions...
July 28, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745464/elite-athletes-and-pubertal-delay
#13
Karina Kapczuk
Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes...
October 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740251/shapes-of-distal-tibiofibular-syndesmosis-are-associated-with-risk-of-recurrent-lateral-ankle-sprains
#14
Qingjun Liu, Bin Lin, Zhimin Guo, Zhenqi Ding, Kejian Lian, Dasheng Lin
Distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (DTS) has wide anatomic variability in depth of incisura fibularis and shape of tibial tubercles. We designed a 3-year prospective cohort study of 300 young physical training soldiers in an Army Physical Fitness School. Ankle computed tomography (CT) scans showed that 56% of the incisura fibularis were a "C" shape, 25% were a "1" shape, and 19% were a "Г" shape. Furthermore, we invited a randomly selected subcohort of 6 participants in each shape of DTS to undergo a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738728/job-task-characteristics-of-australian-emergency-services-volunteers-during-search-and-rescue-operations
#15
Aaron Silk, Gavin Lenton, Robbie Savage, Brad Aisbett
Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel...
July 25, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738669/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-a-transfer-interhemispheric-training-programme-in-the-early-stages-of-fencing-training
#16
Mateusz Witkowski, Michał Bronikowski, Agnieszka Nowik, Maciej Tomczak, Jan Strugarek
BACKGROUND: A high level of motor coordination (with an emphasis on the accuracy of hand movements) is an important part of fencers' training. Research on motor coordination shows that both hemispheres of the brain are involved in controlling the action of each of the upper limbs. As the physical training of one hand is believed to significantly increase the performance of the other (untrained) hand [14], the authors attempt to verify the hypothesis that specialized training of the nondominant limb can improve the performance of the dominant hand in fencing...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731451/novel-blood-based-biomarkers-of-cognition-stress-and-physical-or-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia-preliminary-evidence-for-a-role-of-bdnf-irisin-and-the-kynurenine-pathway
#17
Olivia C Küster, Daria Laptinskaya, Patrick Fissler, Cathrin Schnack, Martina Zügel, Verena Nold, Franka Thurm, Sina Pleiner, Alexander Karabatsiakis, Björn von Einem, Patrick Weydt, André Liesener, Andreas Borta, Alexander Woll, Bastian Hengerer, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Christine A F von Arnim
 Psychosocial stress and physical, cognitive, and social activity predict the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The aim of this study was to elucidate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), irisin, and the kynurenine pathway (KP) as potential underlying biological correlates. We evaluated associations of irisin and the KP with BDNF in serum and with cognition, stress, and activities. Furthermore, changes in serum concentrations of BDNF, irisin, and KP metabolites were investigated after physical or cognitive training...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729393/time-course-effects-of-aerobic-physical-training-in-the-prevention-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-copd
#18
Alessandra Choqueta Toledo-Arruda, Rodolfo Paula Vieira, Flavia Alessandra Guarnier, Camila Liyoko Suehiro, Agostinho Caleman-Neto, Clarice Rosa Olivo, Petra Mello Motta Arantes, Francine Maria Almeida, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino Dos Santos Lopes, Ercy Mara Cipulo Ramos, Rubens Cecchini, Chin Jia Lin, Mílton A Martins
A previous study by our group showed that regular exercise training (ET) attenuated pulmonary injury in an experimental model of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) in mice, but the time-course effects of the mechanisms involved in this protection remain poorly understood. We evaluated the temporal effects of regular ET in an experimental model of chronic CS exposure. MaleC57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: Control (sedentary+air), Exercise (aerobic training+air), Smoke (sedentary+smoke) and Smoke+Exercise (aerobic training+smoke)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724351/impact-of-a-lay-led-home-based-intervention-programme-on-quality-of-life-in-community-dwelling-pre-frail-and-frail-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
A Kapan, E Winzer, S Haider, S Titze, K Schindler, C Lackinger, T E Dorner
BACKGROUND: Due to the demographic ageing process and the increasing number of pre-frail and frail individuals, new lifestyle interventions to enhance the quality of life (QoL) in community-dwelling older adults are necessary. Therefore, we performed a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to compare effects of a lay-led home-based physical and nutritional intervention programme with social support alone on different QoL domains in community-dwelling pre-frail and frail older adults. METHODS: In this analysis within a RCT (12 weeks), lay volunteers visited one-on-one pre-frail or frail older adults at home twice a week...
July 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724040/cardiac-remodeling-indicators-in-adolescent-athletes
#20
Joaquim Castanheira, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Daniela Costa, Diogo Martinho, Jorge Fernandes, João Duarte, Nuno Sousa, Vasco Vaz, Luis Rama, António Figueiredo, Manuel Coelho-E-Silva
Objective: The idea that different sports and physical training type results in different cardiac adaptations has been widely accepted. However, this remodelling process among different sport modalities is still not fully understood. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the heart morphology variation associated with a set of different modalities characterized by distinct models of preparation and different methods and demands of training and completion. Method: The sample comprises 42 basketball players, 73 roller hockey players, 28 judo athletes and 21 swimmers...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
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