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"physical training"

Łukasz A Małek, Marzena Barczuk-Falęcka, Michał Brzewski
The purpose of the study was to analyse whether prolonged and regular physical training in children leads to changes in myocardial systolic deformation and rotational mechanics. For that purpose, cardiac MRI feature tracking was performed retrospectively in 35 pre-adolescent male soccer players and 20 matched controls. There were no changes in global strain, but left ventricular twist and apical rotation were greater in soccer players, which adds to the features of paediatric athlete's heart.
March 21, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Katharina Wernicke, Sven Zeissler, Frank C Mooren, Torsten Frech, Stephanie Hellmann, Meike Stiesch, Jasmin Grischke, Silvia Linnenweber, Bernhard Schmidt, Jan Menne, Anette Melk, Pascal Bauer, Andree Hillebrecht, Jörg Eberhard
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study investigates the potential association between active periodontal disease and high HbA1c levels in type-2-diabetes mellitus subjects under physical training. METHODS: Women and men with a diagnosis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and ongoing physical and an ongoing exercise program were included. Periodontal conditions were assessed according to the CDC-AAP case definitions. Venous blood samples were collected for the quantitative analysis of HbA1c...
March 16, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Youngin Choi, Jungsuk Roh
[Purpose] The present study aimed to analyze and compare the activity profile and physiological responses of amateur football referees during competitive matches of high school and college students. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty referees (high school, 15; college, 15) were included in this study. The total distance covered, movement speed, and heart rate were measured using a global positioning system-enabled wireless heart rate monitor. The blood lactate concentration was measured immediately after the first and second half...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Maria Murcia-Lopez, Anthony Steed
As we explore the use of consumer virtual reality technology for training applications, there is a need to evaluate its validity compared to more traditional training formats. In this paper, we present a study that compares the effectiveness of virtual training and physical training for teaching a bimanual assembly task. In a between-subjects experiment, 60 participants were trained to solve three 3D burr puzzles in one of six conditions comprised of virtual and physical training elements. In the four physical conditions, training was delivered via paper- and video-based instructions, with or without the physical puzzles to practice with...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Elie Fiogbé, Rafaela Ferreira, Márcio Antônio Gonçalves Sindorf, Silvia Aparecida Tavares, Keiti Passoni de Souza, Marcelo de Castro Cesar, Charles Ricardo Lopes, Marlene Aparecida Moreno
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is important to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of water-based training programs in order to prescribe it as an alternative in cardiac rehabilitation for patients who have coronary artery disease (CAD). In these patients, autonomic dysfunction is an important physiological change strongly associated with adverse outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Given that the beneficial effects of physical training in CAD patients have been traditionally evidenced with programs involving land-based aerobic exercises, this study aims to evaluate the effects of water aerobic exercise training (WAET) on the autonomic modulation of heart rate (HR) and body composition, in the rehabilitation of CAD patients...
March 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
Mirco Floreani, Enrico Rejc, Paolo Taboga, Alessandro Ganzini, Rado Pišot, Bostjan Šimunič, Gianni Biolo, Carlo Reggiani, Angelina Passaro, Marco Narici, Joern Rittweger, Pietro Enrico di Prampero, Stefano Lazzer
In this study, we investigated: i) the effects of bed rest and a subsequent physical training program on metabolic cost (Cw), mechanical work and efficiency during walking in older and young men; ii) the mechanisms underlying the higher Cw observed in older than young men.Twenty-three healthy male subjects (N = 16 older adults, age 59.6±3.4 years; N = 7 young, age: 23.1±2.9 years) participated in this study. The subjects underwent 14 days of bed rest followed by two weeks of physical training (6 sessions)...
2018: PloS One
Marzena Barczuk-Falęcka, Łukasz A Małek, Hubert Krysztofiak, Danuta Roik, Michał Brzewski
Physical training is associated with changes in cardiac morphology called the "athlete's heart", which has not been sufficiently studied in children. The aim of the study was to analyze cardiac adaptation to exercise in pre-adolescent soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (mean age 10.1 ± 1.4 years) and 24 non-athlete male controls (10.4 ± 1.7 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance. Measurements of myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, stroke volume and ejection fraction for left and right ventricle (LV, RV) were performed...
March 8, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
Christopher J Udell, Julie L Ruddy, Philip M Procento
Introduction: US Navy recruits who have injuries preventing them from participating in intense physical conditioning are pulled out of boot camp training and receive treatment that includes daily physical therapy, pain medications, and psychoeducational groups. Graduation from boot camp for these recruits requires not only recovering from their injuries but also passing a required Physical Fitness Assessment consisting of a timed 1.5-mile run, curl-ups, and push-ups. About 50-60% of these recruits will eventually be separated out and sent home...
March 6, 2018: Military Medicine
F J W C Schaafstra, D A van Doorn, J T Schonewille, E Roelfsema, C M Westermann, O Dansen, M Jacobs, J-Y Lee, E A Spronck, M C Blok, W H Hendriks
Exercise and physical training are known to affect gastrointestinal function and digestibility in horses and can lead to inaccurate estimates of nutrient and energy digestibility when markers are used. The effect of exercise on apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal recoveries of ADL and TiO2 was studied in six Welsh pony geldings subjected to either a low- (LI) or high-intensity (HI) exercise regime according to a cross-over design. Ponies performing LI exercise were walked once per day for 45 min in a horse walker (5 km/h) for 47 consecutive days...
March 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gabriele Mascherini, Cristian Petri, Giorgio Galanti
BACKGROUND: Cardiac adaptation to intense physical training is determined by many factors. Differences between the sexes in the left ventricle parameters are well established, however, both sport activity and body composition seem to reduce them. In order to better explain some heart modifications, a first approach was to eliminate the fat mass from the indexing of the left ventricular parameters. Fat free mass also contains the extracellular mass which does not represent a metabolically active compartment...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sabrina Weiss Sties, Leonardo Vidal Andreato, Tales de Carvalho, Ana Inês Gonzáles, Vitor Giatte Angarten, Anderson Zampier Ulbrich, Lourenço Sampaio de Mara, Almir Schmitt Netto, Edson Luiz da Silva, Alexandro Andrade
Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). In contrast, regular physical exercise can promote adaptations to reactive oxygen species that are beneficial for patients with HF. We completed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials that evaluate the influence of exercise on oxidative stress in patients with HF. Articles were searched in the PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS databases. The search was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines...
March 1, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
Svetlana Nikitina, Daniele Didino, Marcos Baez, Fabio Casati
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity has a positive effect on physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction of older adults. However, engaging in regular physical activity can be challenging for the elderly population because of reduced mobility, low motivation, or lack of the proper infrastructures in their communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to study the feasibility of home-based online group training-under different group cohesion settings-and its effects on adherence and well-being among Russian older adults...
February 27, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Danny Epstein, Ariel Borohovitz, Ilan Merdler, Moran Furman, Emmanuel Atalli, Alex Sorkin, Yaniv Stainfeld, Yoni Isenberg, Tanya Mashiach, Shachar Shapira, Roni Weisshof, Eldad J Dann
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of our study were to determine the effect of strenuous physical training on the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency (ID) with normal hemoglobin (Hb), and anemia without ID. METHODS: Our study was a prospective observational study. We followed 115 healthy male recruits in the Israel Defense Forces elite units during 15 months of training. Blood samples were collected at recruitment and at 6-, 9- and 15-month follow-ups...
February 23, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Katarzyna Siewierska, Iwona Malicka, Christopher Kobierzycki, Urszula Paslawska, Marek Cegielski, Jedrzej Grzegrzolka, Aleksandra Piotrowska, Marzenna Podhorska-Okolow, Piotr Dziegiel, Marek Wozniewski
BACKGROUND/AIM: Physical exercise is increasingly considered by many authors to be a factor reducing the risk of cancer development and premature cancer-related death. Data indicate higher cure rates and longer times of survival in cancer patients who regularly exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiment. Animals at 1 month of age were intraperitoneally injected with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Three months following drug administration, rats underwent supervised physical training...
March 2018: In Vivo
Caroline de Carvalho Picoli, Paulo Vitor da Silva Romero, Gustavo R Gilio, Débora A Guariglia, Laize P Tófolo, Solange M F de Moraes, Fabiana A Machado, Sidney B Peres
Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max ) or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (Vpeak_K ) in mice. Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO2max (GVO2 ), 2. group trained by Vpeak_K (GVP). After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO2 and VCO2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE) and run distance during the incremental test...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Magdalena Spólnicka, Ewelina Pośpiech, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Ana Freire-Aradas, Beata Pepłońska, Renata Zbieć-Piekarska, Żanetta Makowska, Anna Pięta, Maria Victoria Lareu, Christopher Phillips, Rafał Płoski, Cezary Żekanowski, Wojciech Branicki
Recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of prediction systems that enable accurate age estimation from DNA methylation data. Our objective was to track responses to intense physical exercise of individual age-correlated DNA methylation markers and to infer their potential impact on the aging processes. The study showed accelerated DNA hypermethylation for two CpG sites in TRIM59 and KLF14 . Both markers predicted the investigated elite athletes to be several years older than controls and this effect was more substantial in subjects involved in power sports...
February 15, 2018: Aging
Małgorzata Janik, Michał Stuss, Marta Michalska-Kasiczak, Anna Jegier, Ewa Sewerynek
Osteoporosis is a serious medical and socioeconomic problem of the 21st century. Mechanical load is a key regulator which controls bone formation and remodelling, with participation of osteocytes. Sclerostin is produced and released by mature osteocytes into bone surface, where it inhibits the conveyance of osteoblast proliferation and differentiation activating signals from mesenchymal cells, thus suppressing new bone formation. The goal of the study was an evaluation of the effects of a 12-week physical training programme on the levels of bone turnover markers [Sclerostin, Osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX)] in blood serum of women with osteopenia...
February 21, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
Georges Jabbour, Horia-Daniel Iancu, Hassane Zouhal, Pascale Mauriège, Denis R Joanisse, Luc J Martin
Plasma volume (PV) is affected by several factors including age, physical training and, acutely, by exercise intensity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIT) on PV and blood pressure (BP) changes among sedentary individuals. Thirty subjects aged between 18 and 71 years [body mass index=30.1(1.2) kg/m2 ] completed a 6-weeks HIT program. Anthropometric and fitness variables were obtained at pre- and post- HIT. PV variations during warm-up and after supramaximal cycling test (SCT) were calculated using two methods based on Hematocrit (Ht) and Hemoglobin (Hb) measures...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
Cesare de Gregorio
Regardless of advances in medical and interventional treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a limited number of patients attend a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme on a regular basis. Due to modern therapies more individuals will be surviving an acute cardiovascular event, but the expected burden of chronic heart failure will be increasing worldwide.However, both in high- and low-income countries, secondary prevention after an acute myocardial infarction or stroke has been implemented in less than a half of eligible patients...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Haritz Arrieta, Chloe Rezola-Pardo, Susana María Gil, Jon Irazusta, Ana Rodriguez-Larrad
Numerous studies have reported the benefits of physical exercise in older adults. However, studies performed in long-term nursing home (LTNH) residents are scarce. A literature search was conducted to identify physical exercise intervention studies that were randomized and controlled and that assessed gait ability in older LTNH residents using both walking speed and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests simultaneously. Together, these tests have been defined under the term "gait ability"; they are widely used to screen for impaired physical function, and can predict accelerated functional decline, difficulty with activities of daily living (ADL), falls, and disability in older adults...
March 2018: Maturitas
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