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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637537/occult-hiv-infection-in-a-large-sample-of-health-care-users-in-lombardy-italy-in-2014-2015-implications-for-control-strategies
#1
L Scudeller, F Genco, F Baldanti, G Comolli, G Albonico, M Prestia, V Meroni
We estimated the number of people unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in our province, Pavia (population 540 000) in Lombardy, Italy, by means of anonymous unlinked testing of 10 044 serum/plasma samples residual from clinical analyses at the outpatient clinic of Policlinico San Matteo in 2014 and 2015. Ethical and legal approval was obtained prior to study start. Samples were irreversibly anonymised, only retaining gender and 5-year age class. Five sample pools were tested for HIV using LIAISON® XL MUREX HIV Ab/Ag (DiaSorin, Saluggia, Italy)...
June 22, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615206/plasticity-and-epitope-exposure-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-trimer
#2
Rebecca L R Powell, Maxim Totrov, Vincenza Itri, Xiaomei Liu, Alisa Fox, Susan Zolla-Pazner
We recently showed that mutations in the HIV-1 Envelope (Env) destabilize the V3 loop, rendering neutralization-resistant viruses sensitive to V3-directed monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here we investigated the propagation of this effect on other Env epitopes, with special emphasis on V2 loop exposure. Wildtype JR-FL and 19 mutant JR-FL pseudoviruses were tested for neutralization sensitivity to 21 mAbs specific for epitopes in V2, the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), and the CD4-induced (CD4i) region. Certain glycan mutants, mutations in the gp120 hydrophobic core, and mutations in residues involved in intra-protomer interactions exposed epitopes in the V2i region (overlays the α4β7 integrin binding site) and the V3 crown, suggesting a general destabilization of the distal region of the trimer apex...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614387/global-sensing-of-the-antigenic-structure-of-herpes-simplex-virus-gd-using-high-throughput-array-based-spr-imaging
#3
Tina M Cairns, Noah T Ditto, Huan Lou, Benjamin D Brooks, Doina Atanasiu, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen
While HSV-2 typically causes genital lesions, HSV-1 is increasingly the cause of genital herpes. In addition, neonatal HSV infections are associated with a high rate of mortality and HSV-2 may increase the risk for HIV or Zika infections, reinforcing the need to develop an effective vaccine. In the GSK Herpevac trial, doubly sero-negative women were vaccinated with a truncated form of gD2 [gD2(284t)], then examined for anti-gD serum titers and clinical manifestations of disease. Surprisingly, few vaccinees were protected against genital HSV-2 but 86% were protected from genital HSV-1...
June 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539448/virological-control-by-the-cd4-binding-site-antibody-n6-in-shiv-infected-rhesus-monkeys
#4
Boris Julg, Amarendra Pegu, Peter Abbink, Jinyan Liu, Amanda Brinkman, Katherine Molloy, Shanell Mojta, Abishek Chandrashekar, Katherine Callow, Keyun Wang, Xuejun Chen, Stephen D Schmidt, Jinghe Huang, Richard A Koup, Michael S Seaman, Brandon F Keele, John R Mascola, Mark Connors, Dan H Barouch
Passive immunotherapies against HIV-1 will most likely require broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAb) with maximum breadth and potency to assure therapeutic efficacy. Recently, the novel CD4 binding site antibody N6 demonstrated extraordinary neutralization breadth and potency against large panels of cross clade pseudoviruses. We evaluated the in-vivo antiviral activity of N6-LS, alone or in combination with the established V3-glycan antibody PGT121, in chronically SHIV-SF162P3 infected macaques. A single dose of N6-LS suppressed plasma viral loads in 4 out of 5 animals at day 7 (mean 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539445/structure-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-envelope-spikes-bound-with-cd4-and-monoclonal-antibody-36d5
#5
Guiqing Hu, Jun Liu, Kenneth H Roux, Kenneth A Taylor
The HIV-1/SIV envelope spike (Env) mediates the viral entry into host cells. The V3 loop of the gp120 component of the Env trimer contributes to the co-receptor binding site and is a target for neutralizing antibodies. We have used cryoelectron tomography to visualize the binding of CD4 and the V3 loop monoclonal antibody 36D5 to gp120 of the SIV Env. Our results show that 36D5 binds gp120 at the base of the V3 loop and suggest the antibody exerts its neutralization effect by blocking the co-receptor binding site...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514687/particulate-array-of-well-ordered-hiv-clade-c-env-trimers-elicits-neutralizing-antibodies-that-display-a-unique-v2-cap-approach
#6
Paola Martinez-Murillo, Karen Tran, Javier Guenaga, Gustaf Lindgren, Monika Àdori, Yu Feng, Ganesh E Phad, Néstor Vázquez Bernat, Shridhar Bale, Jidnyasa Ingale, Viktoriya Dubrovskaya, Sijy O'Dell, Lotta Pramanik, Mats Spångberg, Martin Corcoran, Karin Loré, John R Mascola, Richard T Wyatt, Gunilla B Karlsson Hedestam
The development of soluble envelope glycoprotein (Env) mimetics displaying ordered trimeric symmetry has ushered in a new era in HIV-1 vaccination. The recently reported native, flexibly linked (NFL) design allows the generation of native-like trimers from clinical isolates at high yields and homogeneity. As the majority of infections world-wide are of the clade C subtype, we examined responses in non-human primates to well-ordered subtype C 16055 trimers administered in soluble or high-density liposomal formats...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463876/systemic-and-topical-use-of-monoclonal-antibodies-to-prevent-the-sexual-transmission-of-hiv
#7
Deborah J Anderson, Joseph A Politch, Larry Zeitlin, Andy Hiatt, Kadryn Kadasia, Kenneth H Mayer, Ruth M Ruprecht, Francois Villinger, Kevin J Whaley
Passive immunization, the transfer of antibodies to a nonimmune individual to provide immunological protection, has been used for over 100 years to prevent and treat human infectious diseases. The introduction of techniques to produce human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has revolutionized the field, and a large number of human mAbs have been licensed for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. With the recent discovery and production of highly potent broadly neutralizing and other multifunctional antibodies to HIV, mAbs are now being considered for HIV therapy and prophylaxis...
May 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422789/antigp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-antibodies-and-the-art-of-using-the-membrane-for-neutralization
#8
Nichole Cerutti, Juan Luis Loredo-Varela, Christophe Caillat, Winfried Weissenhorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest research on the progress to understand the neutralizing epitopes present within the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41 contains a highly conserved sequence that is essential for membrane fusion and targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies such as 2F5, 4E10, Z13e1, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize a linear gp41 epitope with high affinity, but require additional hydrophobic sequences present in their heavy chain CDR3 for neutralization...
May 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395728/-preparation-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibody-against-gp120-v1-v2-domain-of-hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae
#9
Ying Chu, Xiangdan Gong, Jianwei Gao, Airong Su, Deyan Chen, Hongyong Song, Xilin Wu, Zhiwei Wu
Objective To express the V1/V2 domain of HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE gp120 in eukaryotic cells, and then prepare its monoclonal antibody (mAb) and identify its antigen reactivity. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector of pTriEx-3-V1/V2CNE55 was constructed and transiently transfected into HEK293F cell line. The V1/V2-His chimera protein was purified and injected into BALB/c mice. After the fusion between spleen cells of immunized BALB/c mice and myeloma cells SP 2/0, ELISA was used for screening the positive hybridoma cell clones against the V1/V2 recombinant protein...
April 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358050/antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-inducing-antibodies-significantly-affect-the-post-exposure-treatment-of-ebola-virus-infection
#10
Qiang Liu, Changfa Fan, Qianqian Li, Shuya Zhou, Weijin Huang, Lan Wang, Chunyun Sun, Meng Wang, Xi Wu, Jian Ma, Baowen Li, Liangzhi Xie, Youchun Wang
Passive immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an efficacious treatment for Ebola virus (EBOV) infections in animal models and humans. Understanding what constitutes a protective response is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. We generated an EBOV-glycoprotein-pseudotyped Human immunodeficiency virus to develop sensitive neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays as well as a bioluminescent-imaging-based mouse infection model that does not require biosafety level 4 containment...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351688/performance-of-serological-and-molecular-tests-within-acute-hiv-infection
#11
Katrien Fransen, Irith de Baetselier, Elizabeth Rammutla, Khatija Ahmed, Frederick Owino, Walter Agingu, Gustav Venter, Jen Deese, Lut Van Damme, Tania Crucitti
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute HIV infection can be challenging and is critical in regards to early therapeutic decision making. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of different HIV tests in detecting early infections. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 83 leftover specimens of 61 study participants who seroconverted were used in this sub-study. 35 HIV RNA positive but still seronegative specimens (acute infections) were used for analysis of the sensitivity of the different assays in detecting early infections and 42 HIV RNA and antibody negative specimens were used for specificity analysis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332627/cross-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-human-single-chain-variable-fragments-scfvs-against-cd4-binding-site-and-n332-glycan-identified-from-a-recombinant-phage-library
#12
Lubina Khan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramachandran Thiruvengadam, Hilal Ahmad Parray, Muzamil Ashraf Makhdoomi, Sanjeev Kumar, Heena Aggarwal, Madhav Mohata, Abdul Wahid Hussain, Raksha Das, Raghavan Varadarajan, Jayanta Bhattacharya, Madhu Vajpayee, K G Murugavel, Suniti Solomon, Subrata Sinha, Kalpana Luthra
More than 50% of HIV-1 infection globally is caused by subtype_C viruses. Majority of the broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeting HIV-1 have been isolated from non-subtype_C infected donors. Mapping the epitope specificities of bnAbs provides useful information for vaccine design. Recombinant antibody technology enables generation of a large repertoire of monoclonals with diverse specificities. We constructed a phage recombinant single chain variable fragment (scFv) library with a diversity of 7.8 × 10(8) clones, using a novel strategy of pooling peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of six select HIV-1 chronically infected Indian donors whose plasma antibodies exhibited potent cross neutralization efficiency...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207485/antigp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-antibodies-and-the-art-of-using-the-membrane-for-neutralization
#13
Nichole Cerutti, Juan Luis Loredo-Varela, Christophe Caillat, Winfried Weissenhorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarize the latest research on the progress to understand the neutralizing epitopes present within the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41. RECENT FINDINGS: The HIV-1 fusion protein subunit gp41 contains a highly conserved sequence that is essential for membrane fusion and targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies such as 2F5, 4E10, Z13e1, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize a linear gp41 epitope with high affinity, but require additional hydrophobic sequences present in their heavy chain CDR3 for neutralization...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185743/differential-induction-of-anti-v3-crown-antibodies-with-cradle-and-ladle-binding-modes-in-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-vaccination
#14
Preetha Balasubramanian, Rajnish Kumar, Constance Williams, Vincenza Itri, Shixia Wang, Shan Lu, Ann J Hessell, Nancy L Haigwood, Faruk Sinangil, Keith W Higgins, Lily Liu, Liuzhe Li, Phillipe Nyambi, Miroslaw K Gorny, Maxim Totrov, Arthur Nadas, Xiang-Peng Kong, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Catarina E Hioe
The V3 loop in the HIV envelope gp120 is one of the immunogenic sites targeted by Abs. The V3 crown in particular has conserved structural elements recognized by cross-reactive neutralizing Abs, indicating its potential contribution in protection against HIV. Crystallographic analyses of anti-V3 crown mAbs in complex with the V3 peptides have revealed that these mAbs recognize the conserved sites on the V3 crown via two distinct strategies: a cradle-binding mode (V3C) and a ladle-binding (V3L) mode. However, almost all of the anti-V3 crown mAbs studied in the past were isolated from chronically HIV-infected individuals...
March 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177967/neutralizing-and-targeting-properties-of-a-new-set-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-specific-antibodies-are-influenced-by-their-isotype
#15
Alexandre Girard, Katija Jelicic, Don Van Ryk, Nicolas Rochereau, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Blandine Noailly, Christian Genin, Bernard Verrier, Stephanie Laurant, Diane Razanajaoana-Doll, Jean-Jacques Pin, Stéphane Paul
The homing of lymphocytes to the mucosa is mainly controlled by α4β7 integrin, and it is amplified during gut chronic inflammation, as occurs with HIV and/or inflammatory bowel diseases. We designed and applied an improved immunization strategy based on an innovative selection process to isolate new α4β7 lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies that are able to prevent their migration into inflamed gut tissues and/or to counteract HIV infection in vitro. First, 5 monoclonal antibodies (1 IgA, 1 IgM, and 4 IgGs) were selected based on their capacity to recognize α4 or β7 homodimers and α4β7 heterodimers in transfected human cells...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133803/use-of-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-for-hiv-1-prevention
#16
REVIEW
Amarendra Pegu, Ann J Hessell, John R Mascola, Nancy L Haigwood
Antibodies have a long history in antiviral therapy, but until recently, they have not been actively pursued for HIV-1 due to modest potency and breadth of early human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and perceived insurmountable technical, financial, and logistical hurdles. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of MAbs with the ability to potently neutralize diverse HIV-1 isolates have reinvigorated discussion and testing of these products in humans, since new broadly neutralizing MAbs (bnMAbs) are more likely to be effective against worldwide strains of HIV-1...
January 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122974/monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-the-v2-v3-cd4-binding-site-and-gp41-of-hiv-1-mediate-phagocytosis-in-a-dose-dependent-manner
#17
Thomas Musich, Liuzhe Li, Lily Liu, Susan Zolla-Pazner, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Miroslaw K Gorny
In light of the weak or absent neutralizing activity mediated by anti-V2 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we tested whether they can mediate Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), which is an important element of anti-HIV-1 immunity. We tested six anti-V2 MAbs and compared them with 21 MAbs specific for V3, the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), and gp41 derived from chronically HIV-1-infected individuals and produced by hybridoma cells. ADCP activity was measured by flow cytometry using uptake by THP-1 monocytic cells of fluorescent beads coated with gp120, gp41, BG505 SOSIP...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996375/trimeric-gp120-specific-bovine-monoclonal-antibodies-require-cysteine-and-aromatic-residues-in-cdrh3-for-high-affinity-binding-to-hiv-env
#18
Behnaz Heydarchi, Rob J Center, Jonathan Bebbington, Jack Cuthbertson, Christopher Gonelli, Georges Khoury, Charlene Mackenzie, Marit Lichtfuss, Grant Rawlin, Brian Muller, Damian Purcell
We isolated HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific memory B cells from a cow that had developed high titer polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) with broad neutralizing activity after a long duration vaccination with HIV-1AD8 Env gp140 trimers. We cloned the bovine IgG matched heavy (H) and light (L) chain variable (V) genes from these memory B cells and constructed IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with either a human constant (C)-region/bovine V-region chimeric or fully bovine C and V regions. Among 42 selected Ig+ memory B cells, two mAbs (6A and 8C) showed high affinity binding to gp140 Env...
April 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939012/immunofocusing-using-conformationally-constrained-v3-peptide-immunogens-improves-hiv-1-neutralization
#19
Adi Moseri, Eshu Sinha, Henni Zommer, Boris Arshava, Fred Naider, Jacob Anglister
V3-directed antibodies are present in practically all HIV-1 infected patients and in individuals vaccinated with gp120. The levels of maternal V3-directed antibodies were recently shown to correlate with reduced mother to child transmission, and V3 IgGs were found to be a negative correlate of risk in the RV-144 human trial. mAb directed to the tip of the V3 are capable of broad neutralization of Tier-1 and some Tier-2 viruses. Here we report an immunofocusing approach using conformationally constrained V3 peptides of different lengths...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913647/diversity-of-antiviral-igg-effector-activities-observed-in-hiv-infected-and-vaccinated-subjects
#20
Yunda Huang, Guido Ferrari, Galit Alter, Donald N Forthal, John C Kappes, George K Lewis, J Christopher Love, Bhavesh Borate, Linda Harris, Kelli Greene, Hongmei Gao, Tran B Phan, Gary Landucci, Brittany A Goods, Karen G Dowell, Hao D Cheng, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, David C Montefiori, Margaret E Ackerman
Diverse Ab effector functions mediated by the Fc domain have been commonly associated with reduced risk of infection in a growing number of nonhuman primate and human clinical studies. This study evaluated the anti-HIV Ab effector activities in polyclonal serum samples from HIV-infected donors, VAX004 vaccine recipients, and healthy HIV-negative subjects using a variety of primary and cell line-based assays, including Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition, and Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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