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Bile acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228183/plasma-oxysterols-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-spastic-paraplegia-type-5
#1
Cecilia Marelli, Foudil Lamari, Dominique Rainteau, Alexandre Lafourcade, Guillaume Banneau, Lydie Humbert, Marie-Lorraine Monin, Elodie Petit, Rabab Debs, Giovanni Castelnovo, Elisabeth Ollagnon, Julie Lavie, Julie Pilliod, Isabelle Coupry, Patrick J Babin, Claire Guissart, Imen Benyounes, Urielle Ullmann, Gaetan Lesca, Christel Thauvin-Robinet, Pierre Labauge, Sylvie Odent, Claire Ewenczyk, Claude Wolf, Giovanni Stevanin, David Hajage, Alexandra Durr, Cyril Goizet, Fanny Mochel
The hereditary spastic paraplegias are an expanding and heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by spasticity in the lower limbs. Plasma biomarkers are needed to guide the genetic testing of spastic paraplegia. Spastic paraplegia type 5 (SPG5) is an autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia due to mutations in CYP7B1, which encodes a cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase implicated in cholesterol and bile acids metabolism. We developed a method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to validate two plasma 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) as diagnostic biomarkers in a cohort of 21 patients with SPG5...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227331/unravelling-new-pathways-of-sterol-metabolism-lessons-learned-from-in-born-errors-and-cancer
#2
Yuqin Wang, William J Griffiths
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update researchers of recently discovered metabolites of cholesterol and of its precursors and to suggest relevant metabolic pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients suffering from inborn errors of sterol biosynthesis, transport and metabolism display unusual metabolic pathways, which may be major routes in the diseased state but minor in the healthy individual. Although quantitatively minor, these pathways may still be important in healthy individuals...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227330/total-bile-acid-levels-are-associated-with-left-atrial-volume-and-cardiac-output-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#3
Andrei M Voiosu, Signe Wiese, Theodor A Voiosu, Jens Hove, Flemming Bendtsen, Søren Møller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bile acids (BAs) are potent signaling molecules involved in the regulation of several metabolic and functional aspects of cardiovascular homeostasis. BA pool alteration in cirrhosis may contribute toward the development of hemodynamic and cardiac disturbances. We aimed to investigate the association between total BA levels and echocardiographic and biochemical markers of cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients were enrolled prospectively in this hypothesis-generating study and evaluated for cardiac and hemodynamic dysfunction through clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical means...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221177/untargeted-serum-metabonomics-study-of-psoriasis-vulgaris-based-on-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-mass-spectrometry
#4
Li Li, Lu Chuan-Jian, Han Ling, Deng Jing-Wen, He Ze-Hui, Yan Yu-Hong, Zhang Zhong-Zhao
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, systemic inflammatory skin disease, the etiology and pathogenesis is unclear. An untargeted high-throughput metabonomics method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was applied to study the serum metabolic changes in psoriasis vulgaris patients, and to discover serum potential biomarkers for identification, diagnosis and exploring pathogenesis of psoriasis. The serum metabolic profiles from 150 subjects (75 psoriasis patients and 75 healthy controls) were acquired, the raw spectrometric data were processed by multivariate statistical analysis, and 44 potential biomarkers were screened out and identified...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219151/familial-hypercholesterolaemia
#5
REVIEW
Joep C Defesche, Samuel S Gidding, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Robert A Hegele, Raul D Santos, Anthony S Wierzbicki
Familial hypercholesterolaemia is a common inherited disorder characterized by abnormally elevated serum levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol from birth, which in time can lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most cases are caused by autosomal dominant mutations in LDLR, which encodes the LDL receptor, although mutations in other genes coding for proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism or LDLR function and processing, such as APOB and PCSK9, can also be causative, although less frequently...
December 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217478/identification-of-a-gene-encoding-a-flavoprotein-involved-in-bile-acid-metabolism-by-the-human-gut-bacterium-clostridium-scindens-atcc-35704
#6
Spencer C Harris, Saravanan Devendran, João M P Alves, Sean M Mythen, Phillip B Hylemon, Jason M Ridlon
BACKGROUND: The multi-step bile acid 7α-dehydroxylating pathway by which a few species of Clostridium convert host primary bile acids to toxic secondary bile acids is of great importance to gut microbiome structure and host physiology and disease. While genes in the oxidative arm of the 7α-dehydroxylating pathway have been identified, genes in the reductive arm of the pathway are still obscure. METHODS: We identified a candidate flavoprotein-encoding gene predicted to metabolize steroids...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#7
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#8
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209303/ph-stress-induced-cooperation-between-rhodococcus-ruber-yyl-and-bacillus-cereus-mly1-in-biodegradation-of-tetrahydrofuran
#9
Zubi Liu, Zhixing He, Hui Huang, Xuebin Ran, Adebanjo O Oluwafunmilayo, Zhenmei Lu
Microbial consortia consisting of cooperational strains exhibit biodegradation performance superior to that of single microbial strains and improved remediation efficiency by relieving the environmental stress. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a universal solvent widely used in chemical and pharmaceutical synthesis, significantly affects the environment. As a refractory pollutant, THF can be degraded by some microbial strains under suitable conditions. There are often a variety of stresses, especially pH stress, that inhibit the THF-degradation efficiency of microbial consortia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208371/integrated-semi-targeted-metabolomics-analysis-reveals-distinct-metabolic-dysregulation-in-pleural-effusion-caused-by-tuberculosis-and-malignancy
#10
Nanying Che, Yan Ma, Huabin Ruan, Lina Xu, Xueying Wang, Xinting Yang, Xiaohui Liu
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusion (MPE) are the 2 most frequent causes of exudative pleural effusions (PEs). However, the clinical differentiation is challenging. METHODS: Metabolic signatures in pleural effusion from 156 patients were profiled. An integrated semi-targeted metabolomics platform was incorporated for high throughput metabolite identification and quantitation. In this platform, orbitrap based mass spectrometry with data dependent MS/MS acquisition was applied in the analysis...
December 2, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207196/high-resolution-metabolomics-determines-the-mode-of-onset-of-type-2-diabetes-in-a-3-year-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Yeseung Lee, Aryo Dimas Pamungkas, Carl Angelo D Medriano, Jinsung Park, Seri Hong, Sun Ha Jee, Youngja H Park
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a progressive disease and the rate of progression from non-diabetes to DM varies considerably between individuals, ranging from a few months to many years. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetes. In the present study, a high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) analysis was performed to detect potential biomarkers and pathways regulating the mode of onset by comparing subjects who developed and did not develop type 2 DM at the second year in a 3-year prospective cohort study...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198707/impaired-vagus-function-in-rats-suppresses-bile-acid-synthesis-in-the-liver-by-disrupting-tight-junctions-and-activating-fxr-fgf15-signaling-in-the-intestine
#12
Fangyu Wang, Zhiqiang Lu, Xue Wang, Youcai Zhang
Bile acids (BAs) circulate between the liver and intestine, and regulate the homeostasis of glucose, lipid, and energy. Recent studies demonstrated an essential role of BAs in neurological diseases, suggesting an interaction between BAs and the nervous system. In the present study, we showed that impaired vagus function in rats induced by vagotomy resulted in an increase in bile flow without causing liver injury. The concentrations of unconjugated and glycine-conjugated BAs were increased in both serum and bile of rats after vagotomy, which was due to impaired tight junctions and thus increased passive absorption of BAs in the intestine...
November 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197664/emerging-metabolic-risk-factors-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-their-influence-on-the-liver-microenvironment
#13
REVIEW
Pasquale Agosti, Carlo Sabbà, Antonio Mazzocca
Despite the reducing incidence of chronic hepatitis infections, an unexpected increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has being occurred. This may be explained by the increasing number of HCCs developing on steatosis (NAFLD) and steatohepatitis (NASH), related to metabolic risk factors (i.e. diabetes mellitus type II, obesity, metabolic syndrome), which are becoming emerging risk factors for HCC. This led to a growing scientific interest on the oncogenic mechanisms underlying the transition from NAFLD to HCC...
November 29, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197246/combined-toxicity-of-endosulfan-and-phenanthrene-mixtures-and-induced-molecular-changes-in-adult-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
Kyeongnam Kim, Hwang-Ju Jeon, Sung-Deuk Choi, Daniel C W Tsang, Patryk Oleszczuk, Yong Sik Ok, Hoi-Seon Lee, Sung-Eun Lee
Individual and combined toxicities of endosulfan (ENDO) with phenanthrene (PHE) were evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults. The 96-h LC50 values for ENDO and PHE were 4.6 μg L-1 and 920 μg L-1, respectively. To evaluate the mixture toxicity, LC10 and LC50 concentrations were grouped into four combinations as ENDO-LC10 + PHE-LC10, ENDO-LC10 + PHE-LC50, ENDO-LC50 + PHE-LC10, and ENDO-LC50 + PHE-LC50, and their acute toxicities were determined. The combination of LC50-ENDO and LC10-PHE exhibited a synergistic effect...
November 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195686/role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolic-control
#15
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Annika Wahlström, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
Bile acids are endocrine molecules that in addition to facilitating the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients regulate numerous metabolic processes, including glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. The signaling actions of bile acids are mediated through specific bile-acid-activated nuclear and membrane-bound receptors. These receptors are not only expressed by tissues within the enterohepatic circulation such as the liver and the intestine, but also in other organs where bile acids mediate their systemic actions...
November 28, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191940/loss-of-cellular-flice-inhibitory-protein-promotes-acute-cholestatic-liver-injury-and-inflammation-from-bile-duct-ligation
#16
Nadine Gehrke, Michael Nagel, Beate Katharina Straub, Marcus A Wörns, Marcus Schuchmann, Peter R Galle, Jörn M Schattenberg
BACKGROUND: Cholestatic liver injury results from impaired bile flow or metabolism and promotes hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis. Toxic bile acids that accumulate in cholestasis induce apoptosis and contribute to early cholestatic liver injury, which is amplified by accompanying inflammation. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of the anti-apoptotic caspase 8-homologue cellular FLICE-inhibitory (cFLIP) protein during acute cholestatic liver injury. METHODS: Transgenic mice exhibiting hepatocyte-specific deletion of cFLIP (cFLIP-/-) were utilized for in vivo and in vitro analysis of cholestatic liver injury using bile duct ligation (BDL) and the addition of bile acids ex vivo...
November 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190422/structure-specific-effects-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-on-plasma-cholesterol-concentration-in-male-syrian-hamsters
#17
Yimin Zhao, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Hanyue Zhu, Ning Liang, Zouyan He, Ka Ying Ma, Zhen-Yu Chen
Previous studies have shown that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are capable of decreasing plasma cholesterol. However, the relative plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of individual SCFAs and the underlying mechanisms by which SCFAs decrease plasma cholesterol remain largely unknown. The present study was to compare plasma cholesterol-lowering potency of four common SCFAs with 2-5 carbons, and to investigate their interactions with gene expressions of key regulatory factors involved in cholesterol metabolism...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188025/recent-advances-in-understanding-bile-acid-homeostasis
#18
REVIEW
John Yl Chiang
Bile acids are derived from cholesterol to facilitate intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of cholesterol. Recent studies have identified bile acids as signaling molecules that activate nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (Gpbar-1, also known as TGR5) to maintain metabolic homeostasis and protect liver and other tissues and cells from bile acid toxicity. Bile acid homeostasis is regulated by a complex mechanism of feedback and feedforward regulation that is not completely understood...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184266/effects-of-saponin-from-trigonella-foenum-graecum-seeds-on-dyslipidemia
#19
Zhi Chen, Yan-Li Lei, Wen-Ping Wang, Ya-Ya Lei, Yan-Hua Liu, Jing Hei, Jin Hu, Hong Sui
Background: Saponins identified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds are reported effective on dyslipidemia. However, the definite mechanism is still not elucidated systematically. In this study, we evaluate the effects of saponin extract on cholesterol absorption, metabolism, synthesis, and reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. Methods: Saponin extract was prepared according to a craft established in our previous study. After the establishment of dyslipidemia model, 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, namely the control group (normal diet plus normal saline), HFD group (high fat diet plus normal saline), Lipitor group (high fat diet plus Lipitor (2 mg/kg)), and L, M, and H-saponin groups (high fat diet plus saponin in dosages of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, respectively)...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182389/effect-of-a-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-on-gallbladder-bile-acid-composition-and-gallbladder-motility-in-dogs
#20
Toshiaki Kakimoto, Hideyuki Kanemoto, Kenjiro Fukushima, Koichi Ohno, Hajime Tsujimoto
OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs...
December 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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