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Bile acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054875/a-novel-steroid-coenzyme-a-ligase-from-novosphingobium-sp-strain-chol11-is-essential-for-an-alternative-degradation-pathway-for-bile-salts
#1
Onur Yücel, Johannes Holert, Kevin Christopher Ludwig, Sven Thierbach, Bodo Philipp
Bile salts such as cholate are steroid compounds with a C5 carboxylic side chain and occur ubiquitously in vertebrates. Upon their excretion into soils and waters bile salts can serve as growth substrates for diverse bacteria. Novosphingobium sp. strain Chol11 degrades 7-hydroxy bile salts via 3-keto-7-deoxy-Δ(4,6) metabolites by dehydration of the 7-hydroxyl group catalyzed by the 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydratase Hsh2. This reaction has not been observed in the well-studied 9-10-seco degradation pathway used by other steroid-degrading bacteria indicating that strain Chol11 uses an alternative pathway...
October 20, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050286/a-prospective-study-of-serum-metabolites-and-glioma-risk
#2
Jiaqi Huang, Stephanie J Weinstein, Cari M Kitahara, Edward D Karoly, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Malignant glioma is one of the most lethal adult cancers, yet its etiology remains largely unknown. We conducted a prospective serum metabolomic analysis of glioma based on 64 cases and 64 matched controls selected from Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. Median time from collection of baseline fasting serum to diagnosis was nine years (inter-decile range 3-20 years). LC/MS-MS identified 730 known metabolites, and conditional logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for one-standard deviation differences in log-metabolite signals...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045336/bile-acid-receptors-and-the-kidney
#3
Michal Herman-Edelstein, Talia Weinstein, Moshe Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bile acids act as activating signals of endogenous renal receptors: the nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane-bound G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1, also known as TGR5). In recent years, bile acids have emerged as important for renal pathophysiology by activating FXR and TGR5 and transcription factors relevant for lipid, cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as genes involved in inflammation and renal fibrosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Activation of bile acid receptors has a promising therapeutic potential in prevention of diabetic nephropathy and obesity-induced renal damage, as well as in nephrosclerosis...
October 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040577/metabolomics-of-postprandial-plasma-alterations-a-comprehensive-japanese-study
#4
Takeo Moriya, Yoshinori Satomi, Hiroyuki Kobayashi
While endogenous metabolites in plasma can be used as clinical biomarkers, intra-day variations should be carefully considered. The postprandial effect is a large contributing factor and is dependent on regional features (e.g., meals, ethnicity). Thus, for clinical application, regional-specific postprandial baseline data are required. In this study, 10 healthy Japanese volunteers of different ages and genders ate the same meal, and blood samples were taken 30 min before and one hour after the meal challenge...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036927/chinese-olive-canarium-album-l-fruit-extract-attenuates-metabolic-dysfunction-in-diabetic-rats
#5
Yu-Te Yeh, An-Na Chiang, Shu-Chen Hsieh
Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. CO-EtOAc, rich in gallic acid and ellagic acid, could markedly decreased the body weight and epididymal adipose mass. In addition, CO-EtOAc increased serum HDL-C levels, hepatic GSH levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities; lowered blood glucose, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), bile acid, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); and reduced TC and TG in liver...
October 15, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031784/isobarictags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomics-for-the-investigation-of-the-effect-of-huganqingzhi-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#6
Fan Xia, Xiaorui Yao, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula has been adopted for preventing and treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AIM: In order to explore the anti-NAFLD mechanisms of HQT, iTRAQ-based proteomics was employed to investigate the expression profiles of proteins in NAFLD rats induced by high-fat diet after HQT treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NAFLD rat model was administration of high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks and administering HQT in a daily basis to the HFD groups...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028769/activation-of-the-nuclear-receptor-fxr-improves-intestinal-cell-tolerance-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#7
Xuan Wang, Shuo Li, Man Chen, Jing Liu, Ruirui Dong, Humin Wang, Shigong Zhu
The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays an important role in bile acid metabolism, intestinal homeostasis, and intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We aimed to clarify the potential effects of FXR on intestinal epithelial cell tolerance to intestinal I/R injury and reveal the underlying mechanisms. An intestinal I/R injury model was established by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for ischemia for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 4 h in C57BL/6 (wild-type; WT)and FXR mice. The small intestine injury was assessed by histological analysis...
October 12, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#8
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024782/dysregulation-of-%C3%AE-4-3-oxosteroid-5%C3%AE-reductase-in-diabetic-patients-implications-and-mechanisms
#9
Leila Valanejad, Mwlod Ghareeb, Stephanie Shiffka, Christina Nadolny, Yuan Chen, Liangran Guo, Ruchi Verma, Sangmin You, Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Ruitang Deng
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member D1 (AKR1D1) is a Δ(4)-3-oxosteroid 5β-reductase required for bile acid synthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. Both bile acids and steroid hormones, especially glucocorticoids, play important roles in regulating body metabolism and energy expenditure. Currently, our understanding on AKR1D1 regulation and its roles in metabolic diseases is limited. We found that AKR1D1 expression was markedly repressed in diabetic patients. Consistent with repressed AKR1D1 expression, hepatic bile acids were significantly reduced in diabetic patients...
October 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024022/novel-%C3%AE-catenin-fxr-interaction-regulates-hepatic-bile-acid-metabolism-during-cholestasis
#10
EDITORIAL
Laurent Ehrlich, Shannon S Glaser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022907/p38%C3%AE-mapk-antagonizing-jnk-to-control-the-hepatic-fat-accumulation-in-pediatric-patients-onset-intestinal-failure
#11
Yongtao Xiao, Jun Wang, Weihui Yan, Kejun Zhou, Yi Cao, Wei Cai
The p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been related to gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism. However, the roles and related mechanisms of p38α MAPK in intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver steatosis remained poor understood. Here, our experimental evidence suggested that p38α MAPK significantly suppressed the fat accumulation in livers of IF patients mainly through two mechanisms. On the one hand, p38α MAPK increased hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis by upregulating the expression of the rate-limiting enzyme cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), which in turn activated the transcription of the CYP7A1...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018272/bile-acid-microbiota-crosstalk-in-gastrointestinal-inflammation-and-carcinogenesis
#12
REVIEW
Wei Jia, Guoxiang Xie, Weiping Jia
Emerging evidence points to a strong association between the gut microbiota and the risk, development and progression of gastrointestinal cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Bile acids, produced in the liver, are metabolized by enzymes derived from intestinal bacteria and are critically important for maintaining a healthy gut microbiota, balanced lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, insulin sensitivity and innate immunity. Given the complexity of bile acid signalling and the direct biochemical interactions between the gut microbiota and the host, a systems biology perspective is required to understand the liver-bile acid-microbiota axis and its role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis to reverse the microbiota-mediated alterations in bile acid metabolism that occur in disease states...
October 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993998/lithocholic-bile-acid-inhibits-lipogenesis-and-induces-apoptosis-in-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Trang H Luu, Jean-Marie Bard, Delphine Carbonnelle, Chloé Chaillou, Jean-Michel Huvelin, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon, Hassan Nazih
BACKGROUND: It has amply been documented that mammary tumor cells may exhibit an increased lipogenesis. Biliary acids are currently recognized as signaling molecules in the intestine, in addition to their classical roles in the digestion and absorption of lipids. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of lithocholic acid (LCA) on the lipogenesis of breast cancer cells. The putative cytotoxic effects of LCA on these cells were also examined. METHODS: The effects of LCA on breast cancer-derived MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were studied using MTT viability assays, Annexin-FITC and Akt phosphorylation assays to evaluate anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties, qRT-PCR and Western blotting assays to assess the expression of the bile acid receptor TGR5 and the estrogen receptor ERα, and genes and proteins involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, p53) and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FASN, ACACA)...
October 9, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993159/prevention-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease-by-schaftoside-in-lithogenic-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mouse-model
#14
Meijing Liu, Changhui Liu, Hao Chen, Xiaotao Huang, Xiaohui Zeng, Juncheng Zhou, Suiqing Mi
Schaftoside (SS) is a bioactive compound present in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii (DS), a herb that has been used to treat cholelithiasis and urolithiasis in Chinese medicine. Whether SS inhibits cholesterol (Ch) gallstone formation has not been investigated. This study examined the effects of oral intake of SS on Ch gallstone formation in C57BL/6 mice fed a lithogenic diet. The rate of gallstone formation was recorded. Levels of Ch, triglycerides (TG) and bile salts (BS) were measured in the bile and serum...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987596/computational-discovery-and-experimental-verification-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-agonist-auraptene-to-protect-against-cholestatic-liver-injury
#15
Xiaoguang Gao, Ting Fu, Changyuan Wang, Chenqing Ning, Yulong Kong, Zhihao Liu, Huijun Sun, Xiaodong Ma, Kexin Liu, Qiang Meng
Recently obeticholic acid (OCA) which is a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist was approved by FDA to treat cholestatic liver diseases, which provided us a novel therapeutic strategy against cholestasis. Herein, we used a novel computational strategy with two-dimensional virtual screening for FXR agonists. For the first time, we found that auraptene (AUR), a natural product, can activate FXR to exert hepatoprotective effect against cholestatic liver injury in vivo and in vitro. Importantly, AUR was found to significantly decrease the mortality of cholestatic mice...
October 4, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987370/red-algae-gelidium-amansii-hot-water-extract-ameliorates-lipid-metabolism-in-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#16
Tsung-Han Yang, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Meng-Tsan Chiang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA) hot-water extracts (GHE) on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO). All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal) weight...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987258/an-update-on-the-treatment-and-follow-up-of-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#17
REVIEW
Blaire E Burman, Manan A Jhaveri, Kris V Kowdley
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by chronic granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis of the small bile ducts. PBC was a leading indication for liver transplant in the United States; with early diagnosis and treatment, the majority of patients with PBC have a normal life expectancy. Pathogenesis involves inflammatory damage of bile duct epithelium secondary to innate and adaptive immune responses, and toxicity from accumulated bile acids. Cholestasis and disease progression can lead to cirrhosis...
November 2017: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986309/farnesoid-x-receptor-a-homeostat-for-hepatic-nutrient-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Vittoria Massafra, Saskia W C van Mil
The Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor activated by bile acids (BAs). BAs are amphipathic molecules that serve as fat solubilizers in the intestine under postprandial conditions. In the post-absorptive state, BAs bind FXR in the hepatocytes, which in turn provides feedback signals on BA synthesis and transport and regulates lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. Therefore, FXR acts as a homeostat of all three classes of nutrients, fats, sugars and proteins. Here we re-analyze the function of FXR in the perspective of nutritional metabolism, and discuss the role of FXR in liver energy homeostasis in postprandial, post-absorptive and fasting/starvation states...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986308/n-3-fatty-acids-combined-with-flavan-3-ols-prevent-steatosis-and-liver-injury-in-a-murine-model-of-nafld
#19
David Vauzour, Ildefonso Rodriguez-Ramiro, Simon Rushbrook, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Damon Bevan, Susan Davies, Noemi Tejera, Pedro Mena, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Daniele Del Rio, Jelena Gavrilovic, Anne Marie Minihane
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of adults and at present no licensed medication has been approved. Despite its complex patho-physiology, dietary strategies aiming at delaying or preventing NAFLD have taken a reductionist approach, examining the impact of single components. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs are efficacious in regulating lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, plant derived flavonoids are also emerging as a dietary strategy for NAFLD prevention, with efficacy attributed to their insulin sensitising and indirect antioxidant effects...
October 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986171/early-indications-of-anit-induced-cholestatic-liver-injury-alteration-of-hepatocyte-polarization-and-bile-acid-homeostasis
#20
Tingting Yang, Huifang Mei, Dengqiu Xu, Wang Zhou, Xiaoyu Zhu, Lixin Sun, Xin Huang, Xue Wang, Ting Shu, Jia Liu, Jiaxin Ding, H M Hassan, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Hepatocyte polarization is essential for biliary secretion, and loss of polarity causes bile secretory failure and hepatotoxicity. Here, we showed that alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury was accompanied by the dynamic interruption of bile acid homeostasis in rat plasma, liver and bile, which was characterized by the redistribution of bile acids in plasma and bile and a small range of fluctuations in the liver. Molecular mechanism studies indicated that these factors are dynamically mediated by the disruption of bile acid transporters and hepatic tight junctions...
October 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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