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Bile acid metabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314860/a-newborn-screening-method-for-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-using-bile-alcohol-glucuronides-and-metabolite-ratios
#1
Frédéric M Vaz, Albert H Bootsma, Willem Kulik, Aad Verrips, Ron A Wevers, Peter C Schielen, Andrea E DeBarber, Hidde H Huidekoper
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable neurodegenerative metabolic disorder of bile acid synthesis where symptoms can be prevented if treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation is initiated early in life, making CTX an excellent candidate for newborn screening. We developed a new dried blood spot screening assay for this disorder based on different ratios between the accumulating cholestanetetrol glucuronide (tetrol) and specific bile acids/bile acid intermediates, without the need for derivatization...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304141/evidence-connecting-old-new-and-neglected-glucose-lowering-drugs-to-bile-acid-induced-glp-1-secretion-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Martin L Kårhus, Andreas Brønden, David P Sonne, Tina Vilsbøll, Fillip K Knop
Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have been demonstrated to modulate the secretion of the gut-derived incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), possibly via the transmembrane receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) and the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), in intestinal L cell...
March 17, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302129/cholesterol-lowing-effect-of-taurine-in-hepg2-cell
#3
Junxia Guo, Ya Gao, Xuelian Cao, Jing Zhang, Wen Chen
BACKGROUND: A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. METHODS: The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively...
March 16, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295777/can-ldl-cholesterol-be-too-low-possible-risks-of-extremely-low-levels
#4
Anders G Olsson, Bo Angelin, Gerd Assmann, Christoph J Binder, Ingemar Björkhem, Angel Cedazo-Minguez, Jonathan Cohen, Arnold von Eckardstein, Eduardo Farinaro, Dirk Müller-Wieland, Klaus G Parhofer, Paolo Parini, Robert S Rosenson, Jakob Starup-Linde, Matti J Tikkanen, Laurent Yvan-Charvet
Following the continuous accumulation of evidence supporting the beneficial role of reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and its complications, therapeutic possibilities now exist to lower LDL-C to very low levels, similar to or even lower than those seen in newborns and nonhuman species. In addition to the important task of evaluating potential side-effects of such treatments, the question arises whether extremely low LDL-C levels per se may provoke adverse effects in humans...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292737/in-vivo-metabolism-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-and-distribution-of-their-main-metabolites-in-adult-zebrafish
#5
Guowei Wang, Hanyan Chen, Zhongkun Du, Jianhua Li, Zunyao Wang, Shixiang Gao
Understanding the metabolism of chemicals as well as the distribution and depuration of their main metabolites in tissues are essential for evaluating their fate and potential toxicity in vivo. Herein, we investigated the metabolism of six typical organophosphate (OP) flame retardants (tripropyl phosphate (TPRP), tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (p-TCP)) in adult zebrafish in laboratory at three levels (0, 1/150 LC50 (environmentally relevant level), and 1/30 LC50 per OP analog)...
March 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291252/influence-of-ad-libitum-feeding-of-piglets-with-bacillus-subtilis-fermented-liquid-feed-on-gut-flora-luminal-contents-and-health
#7
Yuyong He, Chunxia Mao, Hong Wen, Zhiyu Chen, Tao Lai, Lingyu Li, Wei Lu, Huadong Wu
Some scholars caution that long-term ad libitum feeding with probiotic fermented food poses potential health risks to baby animals. We conducted a feeding experiment to investigate the influence of ad libitum feeding of pre-and post-weaned piglets with a Bacillus subtilis fermented diet on the gut microbiome, gut metabolomic profiles, bile acid metabolism, proinflammatory cytokines and faecal consistency. Compared with piglets fed a Bacillus subtilis-supplemented pellet diet, piglets fed the Bacillus subtilis fermented liquid diet had lower intestinal bacterial diversity (P > 0...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287408/nutrient-sensing-nuclear-receptors-ppar%C3%AE-and-fxr-control-liver-energy-balance
#8
Geoffrey A Preidis, Kang Ho Kim, David D Moore
The nuclear receptors PPARα (encoded by NR1C1) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR, encoded by NR1H4) are activated in the liver in the fasted and fed state, respectively. PPARα activation induces fatty acid oxidation, while FXR controls bile acid homeostasis, but both nuclear receptors also regulate numerous other metabolic pathways relevant to liver energy balance. Here we review evidence that they function coordinately to control key nutrient pathways, including fatty acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis in the fasted state and lipogenesis and glycolysis in the fed state...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286207/virtual-screening-applications-in-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-research
#9
REVIEW
Katharina R Beck, Teresa Kaserer, Daniela Schuster, Alex Odermatt
Several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzyme family play fundamental roles in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis as well as in the metabolism of steroids, oxysterols, bile acids, and retinoids in peripheral tissues, thereby controlling the local activation of their cognate receptors. Some of these SDRs are considered as promising therapeutic targets, for example to treat estrogen-/androgen-dependent and corticosteroid-related diseases, whereas others are considered as anti-targets as their inhibition may lead to disturbances of endocrine functions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diseases...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283178/activation-of-constitutive-androstane-receptor-prevents-cholesterol-gallstone-formation
#10
Shihai Cheng, Min Zou, Qinhui Liu, Jiangying Kuang, Jing Shen, Shiyun Pu, Lei Chen, Hong Li, Tong Wu, Rui Li, Yanping Li, Wei Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jinhan He
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Lithogenic hepatic bile secretion precedes the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of nuclear family, plays an important role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. To examine whether activation of CAR can prevent cholesterol gallstone formation, we treated C57BL6/J mice maintained on a lithogenic diet with CAR agonist 1,4-bis-[2-(3, 5-dichlorpyridyloxy)] benzene and performed bile duct cannulation to study the dynamics of biliary lipids...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279967/ezetimibe-increases-endogenous-cholesterol-excretion-in-humans
#11
Xiaobo Lin, Susan B Racette, Lina Ma, Michael Wallendorf, Richard E Ostlund
OBJECTIVE: Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo...
March 9, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275692/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-hepatic-bile-acid-metabolism-in-mice
#12
Anne S Henkel, Brian LeCuyer, Shantel Olivares, Richard M Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholestasis promotes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver, however, the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid metabolism is unknown. We aim to determine the effect of ER stress on hepatic bile acid synthesis and transport in mice. METHODS: ER stress was induced pharmacologically in C57BL/6J mice and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The hepatic expression of genes controlling bile acid synthesis and transport was determined. To measure the activity of the primary bile acid synthetic pathway, the concentration of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-1 was measured in plasma...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275691/targeting-the-enterohepatic-bile-acid-signaling-induces-hepatic-autophagy-via-a-cyp7a1-akt-mtor-axis-in-mice
#13
Yifeng Wang, Yifeng Ding, Jibiao Li, Hemantkumar Chavan, David Matye, Hong-Min Ni, John Y L Chiang, Partha Krishnamurthy, Wen-Xing Ding, Tiangang Li
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic cholesterol accumulation and autophagy defects contribute to hepatocyte injury in fatty liver disease. Bile acid synthesis is a major pathway for cholesterol catabolism in the liver. This study aims to understand the molecular link between cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and hepatic autophagy activity. METHODS: The effects of cholesterol and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) expression on autophagy and lysosome function were studied in cell models...
March 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275113/potential-mechanisms-of-effects-of-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulin-protein-isolate-therapy-in-patients-with-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Paula Carlson, Sean C Harrington, Deborah Eckert, Jessica O'Neill, Duane Burton, Jun Chen, Audrey L Shaw, Andres Acosta
Serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI), an oral nutritional therapy, is efficacious in diverse diarrheal diseases. In an open-label study in 15 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D), we evaluated effects of SBI (5.0 g, twice a day) for 8 weeks on safety, on bowel function and abdominal pain, tryptophan metabolism (K:T ratio), intestinal permeability ((13)C-mannitol and lactulose excretion), bile acid synthesis (fasting serum FGF-19 and C4), duodenal and stool microbiome, and the expression of 90 genes related to inflammation, immune function, and tight junctions in duodenal mucosa...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274894/effects-of-antrosterol-from-antrodia-camphorata-submerged-whole-broth-on-lipid-homeostasis-antioxidation-alcohol-clearance-and-anti-inflammation-in-livers-of-chronic-alcohol-fed-mice
#15
Yuan-Yen Chang, Yi-Chen Liu, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Yi-Ling Lin, Yi-Hsieng Samuel Wu, Jr-Wei Chen, Yi-Chen Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Antrodia camphorata is a functional fungus in Taiwan and owns several pharmacological functions. Antrosterol, a bioactive constitute of sterols in edible Antrodia camphorata submerged whole broth, can protect liver from CCl4 damage via enhancing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aims of this study were to investigate the hepatoprotection of antrosterol against alcohol consumption. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Lieber-DeCarli regular EtOH diet (EtOH liquid diet, 5% (v/v) alcohol) was applied to induce alcoholic liver damage...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273180/synthesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-3%C3%AE-18f-fluorocholic-acid-for-the-detection-of-drug-induced-cholestasis-in-mice
#16
Stef De Lombaerde, Sara Neyt, Ken Kersemans, Jeroen Verhoeven, Lindsey Devisscher, Hans Van Vlierberghe, Christian Vanhove, Filip De Vos
INTRODUCTION: Drug-induced cholestasis is a liver disorder that might be caused by interference of drugs with the hepatobiliary bile acid transporters. It is important to identify this interference early on in drug development. In this work, Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-imaging with a 18F labeled bile acid analogue was introduced to detect disturbed hepatobiliary transport of bile acids. METHODS: 3β-[18F]fluorocholic acid ([18F]FCA) was prepared by nucleophilic substitution of a mesylated precursor with [18F]fluoride, followed by deprotection with sodium hydroxide...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266265/effects-of-dietary-iron-modulation-on-gut-microbial-composition-and-function-in-monogastrics-a-review
#17
Guixin Qin, Rui Han, Bao Zhao, Hailong Jiang, Mohammed Hamdy Farouk, Chun Zhang, Dongsheng Che
Dietary iron is a crucial nutrient element for biological processes of both hosts and gut microbiota. Deficiency in dietary iron is a highly common disorder in the developing locations of the world and can be healed by oral iron administration or complementary iron diet. While the redundant iron that enters the gut lumen leads to negative effects, and modulates the gut microbial composition and function. Such modulation led to a significant effect on vital biological pathways of the host, including metabolic disease (obesity and type 2 diabetes), metabolites (SCFA, blood glucose and cholesterol), bile acid metabolism, endocrine, neural, and other well-being patterns...
March 5, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263463/drug-and-drug-abuse-associated-hyperbilirubinemia-experience-with-atazanavir
#18
Jayanta Roy-Chowdhury, Namita Roy-Chowdhury, Irving Listowsky, Allan W Wolkoff
Hyperbilirubinemia is a common finding in individuals with a history of substance abuse. Although this may indicate a serious disorder of liver function, this is not always the case. An understanding of bilirubin formation, metabolism, and transport can provide a helpful approach to dealing with these patients. This is typified by studies of patients treated with the antiretroviral drug atazanavir. Atazanavir has been associated with hyperbilirubinemia in as many as one-third of individuals for whom it has been prescribed, evoking concerns of hepatotoxicity...
March 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257455/the-impact-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-on-normal-metabolism-in-a-porcine-model
#19
Andreas Lindqvist, Mikael Ekelund, Eliana Garcia-Vaz, Marcus Ståhlman, Stefan Pierzynowski, Maria F Gomez, Jens F Rehfeld, Leif Groop, Jan Hedenbro, Nils Wierup, Peter Spégel
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature on Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) has generated inconclusive results on the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects on weight loss and glycaemia, partially due to the problems of designing clinical studies with the appropriate controls. Moreover, RYGB is only performed in obese individuals, in whom metabolism is perturbed and not completely understood. METHODS: In an attempt to isolate the effects of RYGB and its effects on normal metabolism, we investigated the effect of RYGB in lean pigs, using sham-operated pair-fed pigs as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251657/hypolipidemic-effect-and-mechanism-of-paprika-seed-oil-on-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Xuhui Chen, Yongbo Ding, Jiaxin Song, Jianquan Kan
BACKGROUND: The functional properties of paprika seed oil are relatively lack, the hyperlipidemic effects and mechanisms of paprika seed oil on Sprague-Dawley rats are explored, which may improve the usage of paprika seed source and provide a theoretical basis of paprika seed oil for the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. RESULTS: In capsaicin and paprika seed oil (PSO) groups, total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) in serum and liver lipids of rats were significantly decreased (P < 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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