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CDX2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072391/braf-v600e-cooperates-with-cdx2-inactivation-to-promote-serrated-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#1
Naoya Sakamoto, Ying Feng, Carmine Stolfi, Yuki Kurosu, Maranne Green, Jeffry Lin, Megan Green, Kazuhiro Sentani, Wataru Yasui, Martin McMahon, Karin M Hardiman, Jason R Spence, Nobukatsu Horita, Joel K Greenson, Rork Kuick, Kathy R Cho, Eric R Fearon
While 20-30% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) may arise from precursors with serrated glands, only 8-10% of CRCs manifest serrated morphology at diagnosis. Markers for distinguishing CRCs arising from 'serrated' versus 'conventional adenoma' precursors are lacking. We studied 36 human serrated CRCs and found CDX2 loss or BRAF mutations in ~60% of cases and often together (p= .04). CDX2(Null)/BRAF(V600E) expression in adult mouse intestinal epithelium led to serrated morphology tumors (including carcinomas) and BRAF(V600E) potently interacted with CDX2 silencing to alter gene expression...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065741/essential-roles-for-cdx-in-murine-primitive-hematopoiesis
#2
Travis Brooke-Bisschop, Joanne G A Savory, Tanya Foley, Randy Ringuette, David Lohnes
The Cdx transcription factors play essential roles in primitive hematopoiesis in the zebrafish where they exert their effects, in part, through regulation of hox genes. Defects in hematopoiesis have also been reported in Cdx mutant murine embryonic stem cell models, however, to date no mouse model reflecting the zebrafish Cdx mutant hematopoietic phenotype has been described. This is likely due, in part, to functional redundancy among Cdx members and the early lethality of Cdx2 null mutants. To circumvent these limitations, we used Cre-mediated conditional deletion to assess the impact of concomitant loss of Cdx1 and Cdx2 on murine primitive hematopoiesis...
January 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061456/vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-or-serum-levels-as-key-drivers-of-breast-cancer-development-the-question-of-the-vitamin-d-pathway
#3
Dino Amadori, Patrizia Serra, Nestory Masalu, Akwilina Pangan, Emanuela Scarpi, Aloyce Maria Bugingo, Deogratias Katabalo, Toni Ibrahim, Alberto Bongiovanni, Giacomo Miserocchi, Chiara Spadazzi, Chiara Liverani, Valentina Turri, Rosanna Tedaldi, Laura Mercatali
As total vitamin D levels are often lower in black than in white Americans, the former are frequently classified as vitamin D-deficient. To fully understand African vitamin D (25(OH)D) status, other factors should be considered, e.g. vitamin D blood carrier, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and DBP polymorphisms. A prospective study on an indigenous black Tanzanian and a Caucasian Italian population was performed on 50 healthy donors from both populations and 35 Caucasian and 18 African breast cancer patients...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057861/cellular-context-dependent-consequences-of-apc-mutations-on-gene-regulation-and-cellular-behavior
#4
Kyoichi Hashimoto, Yosuke Yamada, Katsunori Semi, Masaki Yagi, Akito Tanaka, Fumiaki Itakura, Hitomi Aoki, Takahiro Kunisada, Knut Woltjen, Hironori Haga, Yoshiharu Sakai, Takuya Yamamoto, Yasuhiro Yamada
The spectrum of genetic mutations differs among cancers in different organs, implying a cellular context-dependent effect for genetic aberrations. However, the extent to which the cellular context affects the consequences of oncogenic mutations remains to be fully elucidated. We reprogrammed colon tumor cells in an Apc(Min/+) (adenomatous polyposis coli) mouse model, in which the loss of the Apc gene plays a critical role in tumor development and subsequently, established reprogrammed tumor cells (RTCs) that exhibit pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-like signatures of gene expression...
January 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038793/histologic-characteristics-of-thymic-adenocarcinomas-clinicopathologic-study-of-a-nine-case-series-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Ah-Young Kwon, Joungho Han, Jinah Chu, Yong Soo Choi, Byeong-Ho Jeong, Myung-Ju Ahn, Yong Chan Ahn
Primary thymic adenocarcinoma is an extraordinarily rare malignancy; only 49 cases have been reported in the medical literature to date. Because of its rarity, clinical and pathologic characteristics of thymic adenocarcinoma are unclear. We present nine cases of primary thymic adenocarcinoma and discuss clinicopathologic findings in the context of the existing literature. Two-hundred twenty-six thymic carcinoma cases were diagnosed at Samsung Medical Center in Korea, from January, 2001 to July, 2016. Nine of these 226 cases were primary thymic adenocarcinomas...
November 15, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030564/poorly-differentiated-medullary-phenotype-predicts-poor-survival-in-early-lymph-node-negative-gastro-esophageal-adenocarcinomas
#6
Christoph Treese, Pedro Sanchez, Patricia Grabowski, Erika Berg, Hendrik Bläker, Martin Kruschewski, Oliver Haase, Michael Hummel, Severin Daum
BACKGROUND: 5-year survival rate in patients with early adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction or stomach (AGE/S) in Caucasian patients is reported to be 60-80%. We aimed to identify prognostic markers for patients with UICC-I without lymph-node involvement (N0). METHODS: Clinical data and tissue specimen from patients with AGE/S stage UICC-I-N0, treated by surgery only, were collected retrospectively. Tumor size, lymphatic vessel or vein invasion, grading, classification systems (WHO, Lauren, Ming), expression of BAX, BCL-2, CDX2, Cyclin E, E-cadherin, Ki-67, TP53, TP21, SHH, Survivin, HIF1A, TROP2 and mismatch repair deficiency were analyzed using tissue microarrays and correlated with overall and tumor related survival...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029907/cdh17-is-a-more-sensitive-marker-for-gastric-adenocarcinoma-than-ck20-and-cdx2
#7
David Altree-Tacha, Jillian Tyrrell, Thomas Haas
CONTEXT: -CDH17, which is expressed in the intestinal epithelium, is a novel oncogene involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. A panel consisting of cytokeratin (CK) 7, CD20, and CDX2 antibodies is typically used to diagnose gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas. However, studies have shown that CDH17 is a highly specific marker for gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and may be important in clinical diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: -To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CDH17, CK20, and CDX2 antibodies in neoplastic tissues, with emphasis on colon, stomach, and esophageal gastrointestinal lineage...
January 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009287/cdx-and-t-brachyury-co-activate-growth-signaling-in-the-embryonic-axial-progenitor-niche
#8
Shilu Amin, Roel Neijts, Salvatore Simmini, Carina van Rooijen, Sander C Tan, Lennart Kester, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Menno P Creyghton, Jacqueline Deschamps
In vertebrate embryos, anterior tissues are generated early, followed by the other axial structures that emerge sequentially from a posterior growth zone. The genetic network driving posterior axial elongation in mice, and its disturbance in mutants with posterior truncation, is not yet fully understood. Here, we show that the combined expression of Cdx2 and T Brachyury is essential to establish the core signature of posterior axial progenitors. Cdx2 and T Brachyury are required for extension of a similar trunk portion of the axis...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002540/gallbladder-carcinoma-a-rare-cause-of-pyloric-duodenal-stenosis
#9
Zizi Niculescu, Victoria Ulmeanu, Mihaela Maria Ghinea, Liliana Mocanu, Costin Niculescu, Mircea Grigorian
Pyloric duodenal stenosis is usually caused by pyloric, juxtapyloric or duodenal ulcer, or by postbulbar ulcer. Gallbladder cancer (GBC), duodenal diverticula, annular pancreas and superior mesenteric artery syndrome (Wilkie's syndrome) are rare causes of pyloric duodenal stenosis. The case of a 66-year-old female patient is presented. The patient was admitted to hospital presenting anorexia, repeated alimentary vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. Objective clinical examination upon admission: clapotage à jeun is present, triggered by tapping the epigastric region...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000303/primary-cutaneous-histiocytoid-carcinoma-with-distant-metastasis
#10
Rebecca Philips, Leila Langston, Helena Hwang, Travis Vandergriff, Tanya Trynosky, Alma C Berlingeri-Ramos
Distinguishing primary cutaneous adnexal carcinoma from metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary can be a diagnostic challenge due to the frequent overlap of histologic and immunohistochemical features. A 58-year-old man presented with a tender, indurated plaque on axillary skin. Biopsy revealed infiltrating atypical cells throughout the dermis, without connection to the epidermis. Tumor cells had a histiocytoid appearance and displayed mild pleomorphism. The tumor was discohesive and had areas with a single file pattern...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984235/intraductal-tubulopapillary-neoplasm-of-the-pancreas-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-33-cases
#11
Olca Basturk, Volkan Adsay, Gokce Askan, Deepti Dhall, Giuseppe Zamboni, Michio Shimizu, Karina Cymes, Fatima Carneiro, Serdar Balci, Carlie Sigel, Michelle D Reid, Irene Esposito, Helena Baldaia, Peter Allen, Günter Klöppel, David S Klimstra
Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a relatively recently described member of the pancreatic intraductal neoplasm family. Thus, the literature on its histologic and immunohistochemical features, clinical behavior, and its similarities and differences from other pancreatic neoplasms is limited. Thirty-three cases of ITPN, the largest series to date, were identified. Immunohistochemical labeling for cytokeratins, glycoproteins, pancreatic enzymes, markers for intestinal and neuroendocrine differentiation, and antibodies associated with genetic alterations previously described in pancreatic neoplasms was performed...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941302/effects-of-downregulating-tead4-transcripts-by-rna-interference-on-early-development-of-bovine-embryos
#12
Nobuyuki Sakurai, Kazuki Takahashi, Natsuko Emura, Tsutomu Hashizume, Ken Sawai
Transcription factor TEA domain family transcription factor 4 (Tead4) is one of the key factors involved in the differentiation of the trophectoderm (TE) in murine embryos. However, knowledge on the roles of TEAD4 in preimplantation development during bovine embryos is currently limited. This study examined the transcript and protein expression patterns of TEAD4 and attempted to elucidate the functions of TEAD4 during bovine preimplantation development using RNA interference. TEAD4 mRNA was found to be upregulated between the 16-cell and morula stages, and nuclear localization of the TEAD4 protein was detected at the morula stage, as well as in subsequent developmental stages...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935584/ketogenesis-contributes-to-intestinal-cell-differentiation
#13
Qingding Wang, Yuning Zhou, Piotr Rychahou, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N Lane, Heidi L Weiss, B Mark Evers
The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21(Waf1))...
December 9, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929731/autophagic-homeostasis-is-required-for-the-pluripotency-of-cancer-stem-cells
#14
Tanveer Sharif, Emma Martell, Cathleen Dai, Barry E Kennedy, Patrick Murphy, Derek R Clements, Youra Kim, Patrick W K Lee, Shashi A Gujar
Pluripotency is an important feature of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contributes to self-renewal and chemoresistance. The maintenance of pluripotency of CSCs under various pathophysiological conditions requires a complex interaction between various cellular pathways including those involved in homeostasis and energy metabolism. However, the exact mechanisms that maintain the CSC pluripotency remain poorly understood. In this report, using both human and murine models of CSCs, we demonstrate that basal levels of autophagy are required to maintain the pluripotency of CSCs, and that this process is differentially regulated by the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD(+) synthesis pathway NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) and the transcription factor POU5F1/OCT4 (POU class 5 homeobox 1)...
December 8, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913994/sox2-inhibition-promotes-promoter-demethylation-of-cdx2-to-facilitate-gastric-intestinal-metaplasia
#15
Haijing Niu, Yuchen Jia, Tao Li, Bingzhong Su
BACKGROUND: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is regarded as a premalignant lesion, conferring risks for gastric cancer development. An intestinal transcription factor, CDX2, plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining IM. SOX2, an HMG-box transcription factor, is expressed in normal gastric mucosa and downregulated in IM. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mutual interaction of SOX2 and CDX2 in gastric IM. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 in mRNA expression and promoter methylation and to illuminate the effect of SOX2 on the promoter methylation of CDX2...
December 2, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912770/endometriosis-associated-clear-cell-carcinoma-arising-in-caesarean-section-scar-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#16
Gabriella Ferrandina, Eleonora Palluzzi, Francesco Fanfani, Stefano Gentileschi, Anna Lia Valentini, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Ilaria Pennacchia, Giovanni Scambia, Gianfranco Zannoni
BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation has been reported in approximately 1% of the endometriosis cases; herein, we report a case of clear cell endometrial carcinoma arising from endometriosis foci located within a caesarean section scar. CASE PRESENTATION: In November 2014, a Caucasian, 44-year-old woman was transferred to our institution because of severe respiratory failure due to massive lung embolism and rapid enlargement of a subcutaneous suprapubic mass. Abdomino-pelvic magnetic resonance showed a 10...
December 3, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907214/derivation-of-induced-trophoblast-cell-lines-in-cattle-by-doxycycline-inducible-piggybac-vectors
#17
Takamasa Kawaguchi, Dooseon Cho, Masafumi Hayashi, Tomoyuki Tsukiyama, Koji Kimura, Shuichi Matsuyama, Naojiro Minami, Masayasu Yamada, Hiroshi Imai
Trophectoderm lineage specification is one of the earliest differentiation events in mammalian development. The trophoblast lineage, which is derived from the trophectoderm, mediates implantation and placental formation. However, the processes involved in trophoblastic differentiation and placental formation in cattle remain unclear due to interspecies differences when compared with other model systems and the small repertoire of available trophoblast cell lines. Here, we describe the generation of trophoblast cell lines (biTBCs) from bovine amnion-derived cells (bADCs) using an induced pluripotent stem cell technique...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899987/methylation-of-promoter-region-of-cdx2-gene-in-colorectal-cancer
#18
Yunshuai Wang, Zhaohui Li, Wenxian Li, Shuaifeng Liu, Baowei Han
The incidence of colorectal cancer is on the increase owing to changes in daily diet. In the present study, the methylation status of caudal type homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) gene in lesion tissue of colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Additionally, the correlation between the promoter methylation of CDX2 gene, CRC and gene expression in patients with CRC and normal population was examined. Between April 2014 and May 2015 78 cases with CRC were enrolled in the study. Using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the promoter methylation of CDX2 in normal tissues and colorectal tissues was examinned...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875772/hnf4%C3%AE-is-a-key-gene-that-can-generate-columnar-metaplasia-in-oesophageal-epithelium
#19
Benjamin J Colleypriest, Zoë D Burke, Leonard P Griffiths, Yu Chen, Wei-Yuan Yu, Ramiro Jover, Michael Bock, Leigh Biddlestone, Jonathan M Quinlan, Stephen G Ward, J Mark Farrant, Jonathan M W Slack, David Tosh
Barrett's metaplasia is the only known morphological precursor to oesophageal adenocarcinoma and is characterized by replacement of stratified squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium. The cell of origin is uncertain and the molecular mechanisms responsible for the change in cellular phenotype are poorly understood. We therefore explored the role of two transcription factors, Cdx2 and HNF4α in the conversion using primary organ cultures. Biopsy samples from cases of human Barrett's metaplasia were analysed for the presence of CDX2 and HNF4α...
November 19, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870702/synchronous-ovarian-and-appendiceal-mucinous-neoplasms-in-the-absence-of-pseudomyxoma-peritonei
#20
Xianyong Gui, Jorge Escobar, Cheng-Han Lee, Máire A Duggan, Martin Köbel
BACKGROUND: Synchronous ovarian/appendiceal mucinous neoplasms sometimes occur in the absence of clinical pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP), which raises a question about whether the 2 tumors could be independent. METHODS: We identified 11 cases of synchronous ovarian/appendiceal mucinous neoplasms without PMP and subclassified them into groups 1 and 2 based on the presence or absence of microscopic peritoneal/ovarian surface mucin deposits. A 7-marker panel (CK7, CK20, CDX2, PAX8, MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5AC) immunohistochemistry was performed on both tumors...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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