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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132476/helicobacter-pyloriassociation-with-expression-of-cdx2-in-intestinal-metaplasia
#1
Tayyab Hamid Malik, WangYu, XuHong
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether helicobacter pylori was associated with CDX2 expression in intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis, dysplasia and gastric cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pathology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China, from August 2016 to January 2017. METHODOLOGY: CDX2 expression was evaluated in 62 gastric antral biopsies; including 32 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 10 cases each of atrophic gastritis (AG), dysplasia and gastric cancer...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119016/pulmonary-metastasectomy-for-colorectal-cancer-analysis-of-prognostic-factors-affecting-survival
#2
Luca Ampollini, Letizia Gnetti, Matteo Goldoni, Lorenzo Viani, Elisabetta Faedda, Nicoletta Campanini, Pietro Caruana, Pellegrino Crafa, Francesca Negri, Francesca Pucci, Francesco Leonardi, Luigi Ventura, Valeria Balestra, Cesare Braggio, Giovanni Bocchialini, Paolo Del Rio, Enrico Maria Silini, Paolo Carbognani, Michele Rusca
Background: Pulmonary metastasectomy is considered a standard procedure in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Different prognostic factors including multiple metastatic nodules, the presence of extra-pulmonary metastases and BRAF mutation status have been associated with poor survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors influenced survival in CRC patients undergoing pulmonary metastasectomy by studying primary tumors and pulmonary metastases. Methods: All patients treated for primary CRC who presented pulmonary metastases in a 10-year period were considered (group A)...
October 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113265/cdx2-is-involved-in-microrna-associated-inflammatory-carcinogenesis-in-gastric-cancer
#3
Motonobu Saito, Hirokazu Okayama, Katsuharu Saito, Jin Ando, Kensuke Kumamoto, Izumi Nakamura, Shinji Ohki, Yoshimasa Ishi, Seiichi Takenoshita
The development of gastric cancer is significantly associated with chronic inflammation, such as caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Caudal-type homeobox 2 (CDX2) is a homeobox protein involved in intestinal differentiation in normal and in aberrant locations, and is associated with inflammation. The authors of the present study have previously reported that CDX2 may have a suppressive role in the progression and carcinogenesis of gastric carcinoma. In the present study, the authors initially confirmed that a decreased expression of CDX2, as detected by immunohistochemistry, is associated with poor cancer-specific survival in 210 gastric cancer cases, which is consistent with several previously published studies...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106744/germ-cell-tumor-growth-patterns-originating-from-clear-cell-carcinomas-of-the-ovary-and-endometrium-a-comparative-immunohistochemical-study-favouring-their-origin-from-somatic-stem-cells
#4
F F Nogales, J Prat, M Schuldt, N Cruz-Viruel, B Kau, E D'Angelo, X Matias-Guiu, A Vidal, W G McCluggage, J W Oosterhuis
AIMS: To report a series of 11 ovarian and one endometrial neoplasm in elderly patients with mixed clear cell tumour and germ cell tumour (GCT) components, to compare their immunohistochemical and demonstrate a putative stem cell population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The clear cell tumours included 11 clear cell carcinomas (CCC) and 1 borderline clear cell tumour, while the GCT always included glandular yolk sac tumour (YST). In 4 cases, there were also foci of teratoma with immature neuroepithelial and endodermal tissues, and undifferentiated areas showing true embryoids...
November 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099735/effect-of-pharmacogenetic-markers-of-vitamin-d-pathway-on-deferasirox-pharmacokinetics-in-children
#5
Sarah Allegra, Jessica Cusato, Silvia De Francia, Filomena Longo, Elisa Pirro, Davide Massano, Antonio Piga, Antonio D'Avolio
OBJECTIVES: Patients with β-thalassemia major have extremely low vitamin D levels, owing to reduced intestinal absorption, subicteric tint, and/or iron-induced higher pigmentation. We investigated whether some polymorphisms within the VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27B1, and GC genes could play a role in deferasirox pharmacokinetics in a cohort of pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen children with β-thalassemia were enrolled. Drug plasma concentrations at the end of dosing interval (Ctrough) and after 0, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h of drug administration were measured by a HPLC-UV method...
November 2, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078210/-personalized-treatment-for-colorectal-carcinomas
#6
Sebastian Stintzing
Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is a major cause for cancer related death in Western countries. Particularly in the metastatic stage (mCRC) 5-year survival rate remains low at around 15 %. Treatment decisions are influenced by tumor stage, location of the primary, and extend of metastases. The multidisciplinary tumor board with an experienced hepato-biliary surgeon, an interventional radiologist, the medical oncologist, the molecular pathologist and the radiation oncologist will gain further importance in the quest for the optimal treatment for each patient...
November 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072133/association-between-vitamin-d-receptor-cdx2-fok1-bsm1-apa1-bgl1-taq1-and-poly-a-gene-polymorphism-and-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Mehir Un Nisa Iqbal, Taseer Ahmed Khan
The purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between VDR gene polymorphisms and breast cancer. Literature was searched through PubMed database, Google scholar, and the web of knowledge from December 2015 to January 2017 and consists of 34 studies (26,372 cases and 32,883 controls). All statistical measures were done using STATA version 11.2. The heterogeneity among studies was tested using I(2) statistics. Mantel-Haenszel method and DerSimonian-Laird method were used to combine data from studies using both random-effect model and fixed-effect model, respectively...
October 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031421/tlr2-activation-induced-by-h-pylori-lps-promotes-the-differential-expression-of-claudin-4-6-7-and-9-via-either-stat3-and-erk1-2-in-ags-cells
#8
Christian O Chavarría-Velázquez, Ana C Torres-Martínez, Luis F Montaño, Erika P Rendón-Huerta
Gastric carcinogenesis has been associated to H. pylori virulence factors that induce a chronic inflammation process. Lipopolysaccharides play a role in chronic inflammatory responses via TLR2- and TLR4-dependent signaling pathways. Similarly, cellular invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis are usually associated to claudin-4, -6, -7 and -9 expression in gastric carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if H. pylori LPS exerts an influence on carcinogenesis-related claudin expression and if it was directly regulated through the TLR2 pathway...
October 6, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021452/a-case-of-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-with-multiple-helicobacter-negative-early-gastric-cancers-treated-by-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection
#9
Katsuki Yaguchi, Makomo Makazu, Kingo Hirasawa, Makoto Sugimori, Ryosuke Kobayashi, Chiko Sato, Ryosuke Ikeda, Takehide Fukuchi, Yasuaki Ishii, Hiroaki Kaneko, Wataru Shibata, Shoji Yamanaka, Yoshiaki Inayama, Shin Maeda
Stomach cancer rarely develops in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and Helicobacter pylori infection may increase the risk of FAP-related gastric cancer. We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman who developed multiple synchronous early gastric cancers without H. pylori infection. Nine cancer lesions were successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the tumors were positive for MUC2, MUC6, and CDX2, but negative for MUC5AC, suggesting that the tumors were gastrointestinal mixed type...
October 11, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019984/transitional-basal-cells-at-the-squamous-columnar-junction-generate-barrett-s-oesophagus
#10
Ming Jiang, Haiyan Li, Yongchun Zhang, Ying Yang, Rong Lu, Kuancan Liu, Sijie Lin, Xiaopeng Lan, Haikun Wang, Han Wu, Jian Zhu, Zhongren Zhou, Jianming Xu, Dong-Kee Lee, Lanjing Zhang, Yuan-Cho Lee, Jingsong Yuan, Julian A Abrams, Timothy C Wang, Antonia R Sepulveda, Qi Wu, Huaiyong Chen, Xin Sun, Junjun She, Xiaoxin Chen, Jianwen Que
In several organ systems, the transitional zone between different types of epithelium is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy, but the cells of origin for these metaplastic epithelia and subsequent malignancies remain unknown. In the case of Barrett's oesophagus, intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells. On the basis of a number of experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of this metaplasia but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive: no model completely mimics Barrett's oesophagus in terms of the presence of intestinal goblet cells...
October 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019178/second-harmonic-generation-for-collagen-i-characterization-in-rectal-cancer-patients-with-and-without-preoperative-radiotherapy
#11
Stéphanie Blockhuys, Nisha Rani Agarwal, Camilla Hildesjö, Ingvar Jarlsfelt, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Xiao-Feng Sun
Rectal cancer is treated with preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to downstage the tumor, reduce local recurrence, and improve patient survival. Still, the treatment outcome varies significantly and new biomarkers are desired. Collagen I (Col-I) is a potential biomarker, which can be visualized label-free by second harmonic generation (SHG). Here, we used SHG to identify Col-I changes induced by RT in surgical tissue, with the aim to evaluate the clinical significance of RT-induced Col-I changes. First, we established a procedure for quantitative evaluation of Col-I by SHG in CDX2-stained tissue sections...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982936/transcriptional-control-of-ifnt-expression
#12
REVIEW
Toshihiko Ezashi, Kazuhiko Imakawa
Once interferon-tau (IFNT) had been identified as a type I IFN in sheep and cattle and its functions were characterized, numerous studies were conducted to elucidate the transcriptional regulation of this gene family. Transfection studies performed largely with human choriocarcinoma cell lines identified regulatory regions of the IFNT gene that appeared responsible for trophoblast-specific expression. The key finding was the recognition that the transcription factor ETS2 bound to a proximal region within the 5'UTR of a bovine IFNT and acted as a strong transactivator...
November 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973471/mechanisms-of-transcription-factor-mediated-direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-to-trophoblast-stem-like-cells
#13
Catherine Rhee, Bum-Kyu Lee, Samuel Beck, Lucy LeBlanc, Haley O Tucker, Jonghwan Kim
Direct reprogramming can be achieved by forced expression of master transcription factors. Yet how such factors mediate repression of initial cell-type-specific genes while activating target cell-type-specific genes is unclear. Through embryonic stem (ES) to trophoblast stem (TS)-like cell reprogramming by introducing individual TS cell-specific 'CAG' factors (Cdx2, Arid3a and Gata3), we interrogate their chromosomal target occupancies, modulation of global transcription and chromatin accessibility at the initial stage of reprogramming...
September 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962017/treatment-with-aicar-inhibits-blastocyst-development-trophectoderm-differentiation-and-tight-junction-formation-and-function-in-mice
#14
Michele D Calder, Nicole A Edwards, Dean H Betts, Andrew J Watson
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on blastocyst formation, gene expression, and tight junction formation and function? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMPK activity must be tightly controlled for normal preimplantation development and blastocyst formation to occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: AMPK isoforms are detectable in oocytes, cumulus cells and preimplantation embryos. Cultured embryos are subject to many stresses that can activate AMPK...
November 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960456/primary-large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-skin-an-under-recognized-entity-and-a-mimic-of-metastatic-disease
#15
Ian Marie Lano, Daniel Rayson, Thomas Arnason, Noreen M G Walsh
Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin are exceptionally rare and can be diagnosed only when a metastasis from another organ has been excluded. We report the case of a 62 year old woman with a cutaneous papule on the mid-chest which generated a differential diagnosis of vascular lesion and basal cell carcinoma. Following excision, microscopic evaluation revealed a dermal large cell undifferentiated carcinoma, with a brisk mitotic rate and focal geographic necrosis. Mucin production was absent...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953884/genome-editing-reveals-a-role-for-oct4-in-human-embryogenesis
#16
Norah M E Fogarty, Afshan McCarthy, Kirsten E Snijders, Benjamin E Powell, Nada Kubikova, Paul Blakeley, Rebecca Lea, Kay Elder, Sissy E Wamaitha, Daesik Kim, Valdone Maciulyte, Jens Kleinjung, Jin-Soo Kim, Dagan Wells, Ludovic Vallier, Alessandro Bertero, James M A Turner, Kathy K Niakan
Despite their fundamental biological and clinical importance, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the first cell fate decisions in the human embryo are not well understood. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to investigate the function of the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 during human embryogenesis. We identified an efficient OCT4-targeting guide RNA using an inducible human embryonic stem cell-based system and microinjection of mouse zygotes. Using these refined methods, we efficiently and specifically targeted the gene encoding OCT4 (POU5F1) in diploid human zygotes and found that blastocyst development was compromised...
October 5, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943029/generation-of-mouse-and-human-organoid-forming-intestinal-progenitor-cells-by-direct-lineage-reprogramming
#17
Shizuka Miura, Atsushi Suzuki
Intestinal organoids hold great promise as a valuable tool for studying and treating intestinal diseases. The currently available sources of human intestinal organoids, tissue fragments or pluripotent stem cells, involve invasive procedures or complex differentiation protocols, respectively. Here, we show that a set of four transcription factors, Hnf4α, Foxa3, Gata6, and Cdx2, can directly reprogram mouse fibroblasts to acquire the identity of fetal intestine-derived progenitor cells (FIPCs). These induced FIPCs (iFIPCs) form spherical organoids that develop into adult-type budding organoids containing cells with intestinal stem cell properties...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938396/transgenic-expression-of-the-vitamin-d-receptor-restricted-to-the-ileum-cecum-and-colon-of-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-rescues-vitamin-d-receptor-dependent-rickets
#18
Puneet Dhawan, Vaishali Veldurthy, Ghassan Yehia, Connie Hsaio, Angela Porta, Ki-In Kim, Nishant Patel, Liesbet Lieben, Lieve Verlinden, Geert Carmeliet, Sylvia Christakos
Although the intestine plays the major role in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] action on calcium homeostasis, the mechanisms involved remain incompletely understood. The established model of 1,25(OH)2D3-regulated intestinal calcium absorption postulates a critical role for the duodenum. However, the distal intestine is where 70% to 80% of ingested calcium is absorbed. To test directly the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the distal intestine, three independent knockout (KO)/transgenic (TG) lines expressing VDR exclusively in the ileum, cecum, and colon were generated by breeding VDR KO mice with TG mice expressing human VDR (hVDR) under the control of the 9...
November 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914964/clinicopathological-and-molecular-implications-of-aberrant-ttf-1-expression-in-colorectal-carcinomas-an-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-1-319-cases-using-three-different-antibody-clones
#19
Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Jeong Hwan Park, Hye Eun Park, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
AIMS: The precise profile of aberrant expression of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) according to antibody clones in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) has been controversial. Moreover, the detailed clinicopathological and molecular features of CRCs with TTF-1 expression have rarely been investigated. Here, we evaluated the TTF-1 expression status in a large series of CRC cases using three different antibody clones. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry for TTF-1 using clones 8G7G3/1, SPT24, and SP141 was performed on tumour tissues of 1,319 primary CRCs and 98 corresponding metastatic lesions...
September 15, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914716/diagnostic-utility-of-satb2-in-metastatic-krukenberg-tumors-of-the-ovary-an-immunohistochemical-study-of-70-cases-with-comparison-to-cdx2-ck7-ck20-chromogranin-and-synaptophysin
#20
Chen Yang, Li Sun, Lingxin Zhang, Lixin Zhou, Ming Zhao, Yan Peng, Dongfeng Niu, Zhongwu Li, Xiaozheng Huang, Qiang Kang, Lin Jia, Jinping Lai, Dengfeng Cao
SATB2 is a sensitive marker for colorectal adenocarcinomas. No study has investigated its diagnostic utility in metastatic Krukenberg tumors (MKTs) of the ovary. Here we performed immunohistochemical staining SATB2 in 70 MKTs of various origins (stomach 27, colorectum 13, appendix 20 including 19 metastatic adenocarcinomas ex goblet cell carcinoids [AdexGCC] and 1 conventional poorly differentiated carcinoma with signet ring cells, breast 5, bladder 3, lung 2) to assess its diagnostic utility. We also compared SATB2 with CDX2, CK7, CK20, chromogranin, and synaptophysin in MKTs of gastric origin (MKTs-stomach), those of colorectal origin (MKTs-colorectum) and those due to appendiceal AdexGCCs (MKT-AdexGCCs) for their sensitivity and specificity to distinguish these tumors...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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