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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226240/position-and-hippo-signaling-dependent-plasticityduring-lineage-segregation-in-the-early-mouse-embryo
#1
Eszter Posfai, Sophie Petropoulos, Flavia Ro de Barros, John Paul Schell, Igor Jurisica, Rickard Sandberg, Fredrik Lanner, Janet Rossant
The segregation of the trophectoderm (TE) from the inner cell mass (ICM) in the mouse blastocyst is determined by position-dependent Hippo signaling. However, the window of responsiveness to Hippo signaling, the exact timing of lineage commitment and the overall relationship between cell commitment and global gene expression changes are still unclear. Single-cell RNA sequencing during lineage segregation revealed that the TE transcriptional profile stabilizes earlier than the ICM and prior to blastocyst formation...
February 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226180/a33-shows-similar-sensitivity-to-but-is-more-specific-than-cdx2-as-an-immunomarker-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#2
Newton A C S Wong, Lukasz A Adamczyk, Shanna Evans, Jayne Cullen, Anca Oniscu, Karin A Oien
AIMS: CDX2 is widely used as a sensitive and specific immunomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) but neither this sensitivity nor specificity is absolute. This study is the first known comparison of CDX1 and A33 against CDX2 as immunomarkers for CRC. METHODS AND RESULTS: As a pilot study, whole sections of 51 cases of liver metastatic carcinoma of different origins - colorectum (n=32), breast (n=3), oesophagogastric tract (n=4), lung (n=3), pancreas (n=8), and prostate (n=1) - were immunostained with CDX1, CDX2 and A33...
February 22, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219949/cdx2-is-essential-for-cell-proliferation-and-polarity-in-porcine-blastocysts
#3
Gerelchimeg Bou, Shichao Liu, Mingju Sun, Jiang Zhu, Binghua Xue, Jia Guo, Yueming Zhao, Bo Qu, Xiaogang Weng, Yanchang Wei, Lei Lei, Zhonghua Liu
The role of CDX2 in trophectoderm (TE) cells has been extensively studied, yet the results are contradictory and species specific. Here, CDX2 expression and function were explored in early porcine embryos. Notably, siRNA-mediated gene knockdown and lentivirus-mediated TE-specific gene regulation demonstrated that CDX2 is essential for the maintenance of blastocyst integrity by regulating the BMP4-mediated blastocyst niche and classical protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated TE polarity in mammalian embryos. Mechanistically, CDX2-depleted porcine embryos stalled at the blastocyst stage and exhibited apoptosis and inactive cell proliferation possibly resulting from BMP4 downregulation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213066/inguinal-lymph-node-presenting-as-the-delayed-site-of-metastasis-in-early-stage-endometrial-carcinoma-case-report
#4
Shomaila Amir M Akbar, Mutahir A Tunio, Wafa AlShakweer, AbdulAziz AlObaid, Mushabbab AlAsiri
INTRODUCTION: Inguinal lymph nodes are the frequent sites of metastasis for malignant lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma of anal canal, vulva and penis, malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma of skin over lower extremities or trunk. Anatomically, endometrial carcinoma is less likely to spread to the superficial or deep inguinal lymph nodes, thus metastatic involvement of these lymph nodes can easily be overlooked. CASE PRESENTATION: Here-in we report a case of a 65-year old Saudi morbid obese female, who presented with left inguinal lymphadenopathy as initial delayed site of metastasis almost 19 months after the initial treatment for FIGO IA endometrial carcinoma...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196803/neural-tube-closure-cellular-molecular-and-biomechanical-mechanisms
#5
REVIEW
Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Gabriel L Galea, Ana Rolo, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube closure has been studied for many decades, across a range of vertebrates, as a paradigm of embryonic morphogenesis. Neurulation is of particular interest in view of the severe congenital malformations - 'neural tube defects' - that result when closure fails. The process of neural tube closure is complex and involves cellular events such as convergent extension, apical constriction and interkinetic nuclear migration, as well as precise molecular control via the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, Shh/BMP signalling, and the transcription factors Grhl2/3, Pax3, Cdx2 and Zic2...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161437/tissue-organization-alters-gene-expression-in-equine-induced-trophectoderm-cells
#6
Brad M Reinholt, Jennifer S Bradley, Robert D Jacobs, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson
Rapid morphological and gene expression changes occur during the early formation of a mammalian blastocyst. Critical to successful retention of the blastocyst and pregnancy is a functional trophectoderm (TE) that supplies the developing embryo with paracrine factors and hormones. The contribution of TE conformational changes to gene expression was examined in equine induced trophoblast (iTr) cells. Equine iTr cells were cultured as monolayers or in suspension to form spheres. The spheres are hollow and structurally reminiscent of native equine blastocysts...
February 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154274/pancreatic-metastasis-from-rectal-cancer-that-was-diagnosed-by-endoscopic-ultrasonography-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-eus-fna
#7
Itsuki Sano, Akio Katanuma, Kei Yane, Toshifumi Kin, Kazumasa Nagai, Hajime Yamazaki, Hideaki Koga, Koh Kitagawa, Kensuke Yokoyama, Satoshi Ikarashi, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Maguchi, Yuko Omori, Toshiya Shinohara
Pancreatic metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been only a few reports of its preoperative diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with immunohistochemical staining. We herein describe the case of a 77-year-old woman in whom a solitary mass in the pancreatic tail was detected 11 years after rectal cancer resection. The patient also had a history of pulmonary tumor resection. We performed EUS-FNA and a histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma with CD20+, CD7-, and CDX2+ (similar to her rectal cancer)...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138402/construction-and-analysis-of-tissue-microarrays-in-the-era-of-digital-pathology-a-pilot-study-targeting-cdx1-and-cdx2-in-a-colon-cancer-cohort-of-612-patients
#8
Sarah Nolte, Inti Zlobec, Alessandro Lugli, Werner Hohenberger, Roland Croner, Susanne Merkel, Arndt Hartmann, Carol I Geppert, Tilman T Rau
CDX1 and CDX2 are possibly predictive biomarkers in colorectal cancer. We combined digitally-guided (next generation) TMA construction (ngTMA) and the utility of digital image analysis (DIA) to assess accuracy, tumour heterogeneity and the selective impact of different combined intensity-percentage levels on prognosis.CDX1 and CDX2 immunohistochemistry was performed on ngTMAs covering normal tissue, tumour centre and invasive front. The percentages of all epithelial cells per staining intensity per core were analysed digitally...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133217/-right-hemi-colectomy-for-a-metastatic-transverse-colon-tumor-from-breast-cancer-following-bilateral-breast-cancer-resection-a-case-report
#9
Shu Okamura, Tetsu Yanagisawa, Kazuhito Ohishi, Kohei Murata, Yoichiro Nushijima, Rie Hamano, Nariaki Fukuchi, Chikara Ebisui, Hideoki Yokouchi, Masakatsu Kinuta
We herein report the case of a 75-year-old female patient who underwent 4 surgeries for bilateral breast cancer and its recurrence. When she presented at a clinic with an irritable colon, a fist-sized tumor was palpated in the right upper abdomen at her first medical examination. Abdominal CT scan at the clinic revealed a tumor with a maximum diameter of 10 cm on the right side of the transverse colon and multiple swollen mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for surgery...
November 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122009/pre-and-peri-post-compaction-follistatin-treatment-increases-in-vitro-production-of-cattle-embryos
#10
Guo Zhenhua, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, Liu Di, Jason G Knott, George W Smith
Our previous studies demonstrated that maternal (oocyte derived) follistatin (FST) expression is positively associated with bovine oocyte competence and exogenous follistatin treatment during the pre-compaction period of development (d 1-3 post insemination) is stimulatory to bovine early embryogenesis in vitro [blastocyst rates and cell numbers/allocation to trophectoderm (TE)]. In the present study, bovine embryos were treated with exogenous follistatin during d 1-3, d 4-7 and d 1-7 post insemination to test the hypothesis that embryotropic effects of exogenous follistatin are specific to the pre-compaction period (d 1-3) of early embryogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114389/tsa-and-bix-01294-induced-normal-dna-and-histone-methylation-and-increased-protein-expression-in-porcine-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos
#11
Zubing Cao, Renyun Hong, Biao Ding, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Hui Li, Jianping Ding, Yunsheng Li, Weiping Huang, Yunhai Zhang
The poor efficiency of animal cloning is mainly attributed to the defects in epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells' chromatins during early embryonic development. Previous studies indicated that inhibition of histone deacetylases or methyltransferase, such as G9A, using Trichostatin A (TSA) or BIX-01294 significantly enhanced the developmental efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. However, potential mechanisms underlying the improved early developmental competence of SCNT embryos exposed to TSA and BIX-01294 are largely unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114387/gene-expression-noise-enhances-robust-organization-of-the-early-mammalian-blastocyst
#12
William R Holmes, Nabora Soledad Reyes de Mochel, Qixuan Wang, Huijing Du, Tao Peng, Michael Chiang, Olivier Cinquin, Ken Cho, Qing Nie
A critical event in mammalian embryo development is construction of an inner cell mass surrounded by a trophoectoderm (a shell of cells that later form extraembryonic structures). We utilize multi-scale, stochastic modeling to investigate the design principles responsible for robust establishment of these structures. This investigation makes three predictions, each supported by our quantitative imaging. First, stochasticity in the expression of critical genes promotes cell plasticity and has a critical role in accurately organizing the developing mouse blastocyst...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106824/identification-of-the-muc2-promoter-as-a-strong-promoter-for-intestinal-gene-expression-through-generation-of-transgenic-quail-expressing-gfp-in-gut-epithelial-cells
#13
Rachel M Woodfint, Paula R Chen, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Sang Suk Lee, Kichoon Lee
Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097642/adrenal-cyst-with-both-m%C3%A3-llerian-and-mesothelial-differentiation-a-clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-with-implications-for-histogenesis
#14
Łukasz Koperski, Benedykt Szczepankiewicz, Paweł Pihowicz, Łukasz Fus, Ewa Wolińska, Barbara Górnicka
True epithelial-lined cysts are rare forms of adrenal cystic lesions, the pathogenesis of which is still not fully understood. In this report we present a case of an adrenal cyst diagnosed incidentally on imaging in a 31-year-old, previously healthy, obese woman. Due to non-specific hormonal disorders and enlargement of the lesion, a right-sided laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. The cyst was lined predominantly by ciliated cuboidal-to-columnar, Müllerian-type epithelium, and focally by flat-to-cuboidal, mesothelium-like lining...
January 18, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091581/icaritin-enhances-mesc-self-renewal-through-upregulating-core-pluripotency-transcription-factors-mediated-by-er%C3%AE
#15
Wing Pui Tsang, Fengjie Zhang, Qiling He, Waijiao Cai, Jianhua Huang, Wai Yee Chan, Ziyin Shen, Chao Wan
Utilization of small molecules in modulation of stem cell self-renewal is a promising approach to expand stem cells for regenerative therapy. Here, we identify Icaritin, a phytoestrogen molecule enhances self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Icaritin increases mESCs proliferation while maintains their self-renewal capacity in vitro and pluripotency in vivo. This coincides with upregulation of key pluripotency transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2. The enhancement of mESCs self-renewal is characterized by increased population in S-phase of cell cycle, elevation of Cylin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and downregulation of p21, p27 and p57...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089540/aberrant-cdx2-expression-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas-an-important-diagnostic-pitfall
#16
Sejal S Shah, Tsung-Teh Wu, Michael S Torbenson, Vishal S Chandan
CDX2 is a sensitive and specific marker of intestinal differentiation. It is routinely used in surgical pathology, as its expression within a tumor favors an origin within the gastrointestinal tract. We had anecdotally encountered occasional hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) that were CDX2 positive. CDX2 expression in HCC has not yet been reported but it has also not been examined in detail. Therefore, we evaluated CDX2 expression in a large number of resected HCCs. Full tumor sections from 172 resected HCCs and 6 resected fibrolamellar carcinomas (FLC) were stained for CDX2...
January 12, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088838/re-evaluation-of-phenotypic-expression-in-differentiated-type-early-adenocarcinoma-of-the-stomach
#17
Masato Hayakawa, Ken Nishikura, Yoichi Ajioka, Yutaka Aoyagi, Shuji Terai
A total of 313 cases of differentiated-type early gastric adenocarcinomas, including 113 cases of small-sized carcinoma (5< × ≤10 mm) and 121 cases of microcarcinoma (0< × ≤5 mm), were examined immunohistochemically to clarify the phenotypic expressions. They were classified into four categories (gastric phenotype (G-type), intestinal phenotype, gastrointestinal phenotype, and null phenotype) by a two-step process: the phenotype based on an immunoprofile of mucin core proteins (MUCs) with CDX2 (w/...
January 15, 2017: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072391/braf-v600e-cooperates-with-cdx2-inactivation-to-promote-serrated-colorectal-tumorigenesis
#18
Naoya Sakamoto, Ying Feng, Carmine Stolfi, Yuki Kurosu, Maranne Green, Jeffry Lin, Megan E Green, Kazuhiro Sentani, Wataru Yasui, Martin McMahon, Karin M Hardiman, Jason R Spence, Nobukatsu Horita, Joel K Greenson, Rork Kuick, Kathleen R Cho, Eric R Fearon
While 20-30% of colorectal cancers (CRCs) may arise from precursors with serrated glands, only 8-10% of CRCs manifest serrated morphology at diagnosis. Markers for distinguishing CRCs arising from 'serrated' versus 'conventional adenoma' precursors are lacking. We studied 36 human serrated CRCs and found CDX2 loss or BRAF mutations in ~60% of cases and often together (p=0.04). CDX2(Null)/BRAF(V600E) expression in adult mouse intestinal epithelium led to serrated morphology tumors (including carcinomas) and BRAF(V600E) potently interacted with CDX2 silencing to alter gene expression...
January 10, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065741/essential-roles-for-cdx-in-murine-primitive-hematopoiesis
#19
Travis Brooke-Bisschop, Joanne G A Savory, Tanya Foley, Randy Ringuette, David Lohnes
The Cdx transcription factors play essential roles in primitive hematopoiesis in the zebrafish where they exert their effects, in part, through regulation of hox genes. Defects in hematopoiesis have also been reported in Cdx mutant murine embryonic stem cell models, however, to date no mouse model reflecting the zebrafish Cdx mutant hematopoietic phenotype has been described. This is likely due, in part, to functional redundancy among Cdx members and the early lethality of Cdx2 null mutants. To circumvent these limitations, we used Cre-mediated conditional deletion to assess the impact of concomitant loss of Cdx1 and Cdx2 on murine primitive hematopoiesis...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061456/vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-or-serum-levels-as-key-drivers-of-breast-cancer-development-the-question-of-the-vitamin-d-pathway
#20
Dino Amadori, Patrizia Serra, Nestory Masalu, Akwilina Pangan, Emanuela Scarpi, Aloyce Maria Bugingo, Deogratias Katabalo, Toni Ibrahim, Alberto Bongiovanni, Giacomo Miserocchi, Chiara Spadazzi, Chiara Liverani, Valentina Turri, Rosanna Tedaldi, Laura Mercatali
As total vitamin D levels are often lower in black than in white Americans, the former are frequently classified as vitamin D-deficient. To fully understand African vitamin D (25(OH)D) status, other factors should be considered, e.g. vitamin D blood carrier, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and DBP polymorphisms. A prospective study on an indigenous black Tanzanian and a Caucasian Italian population was performed on 50 healthy donors from both populations and 35 Caucasian and 18 African breast cancer patients...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
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