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management of vomiting in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198971/characteristics-of-feeding-tube-dependency-with-respect-to-food-aversive-behaviour-and-growth
#1
Markus Wilken, Peter Bartmann, Terence M Dovey, Soyhan Bagci
The use of feeding tubes in pediatric medical procedures and management has dramatically increased over the last three decades. With this increase, the prevalence of Feeding Tube Dependency (FTD) - a reliance on enteral feeding following medical recovery due to lack of oral intake of nutrition, despite being able to eat- has increased too. It has been suggested, that cases with FTD show avoidant feeding behaviours such as food refusal, gagging or swallowing resistance, but evidence for this hypothesis is scarce...
November 30, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148203/the-ins-and-outs-of-intussusception-where-best-practice-reduces-the-need-for-surgery
#2
Spencer W Beasley
Intussusception may be difficult to diagnose because the classical triad of symptoms is evident at the time of presentation in only about 20% of cases. This may lead to delays in making the correct diagnosis. The most common presenting features are colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, pallor, lethargy and listlessness. In recent years, the algorithms of management of intussusception have changed significantly: a routine plain abdominal X-ray has been replaced by ultrasonography, previously perceived contraindications to attempting an enema reduction no longer apply, gas has largely replaced barium for enema reduction, incomplete initial reduction is an indication for a delayed repeat enema if the child is stable clinically and partial reduction has been achieved, the indications for surgery have been tightened and laparoscopy affords an alternative surgical approach...
November 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129298/latest-insights-on-the-relationship-between-symptoms-and-biologic-findings-in-adults-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#3
REVIEW
Ekaterina Safroneeva, Alex Straumann, Alain M Schoepfer
Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) present with symptoms accompanied by behavioral adaptions to living with this condition. These include swallowing- and nonswallowing-associated pain in adulthood. In children, EoE symptoms vary with age and include vomiting, abdominal pain, and dysphagia. Studies using validated patient-reported outcome measures have demonstrated that symptoms in EoE are associated with severe biologic alterations and that patients on the low biologic severity spectrum have few symptoms...
January 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112111/pediatric-minoxidil-exposures-reported-to-texas-poison-centers
#4
Mathias B Forrester
OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that ingestion of even small amounts of minoxidil by young children may result in serious adverse effects. The intent of this study was to describe pediatric minoxidil exposures reported to a statewide poison center system. METHODS: Cases were minoxidil exposures among patients 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during 2000 to 2014. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Of 125 total cases, 58% were male and 78% aged 1 to 2 years...
July 3, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071378/comparison-of-pecarn-and-catch-clinical-decision-rules-in-children-with-minor-blunt-head-trauma
#5
Ö Bozan, G Aksel, H A Kahraman, Ö Giritli, S E Eroğlu
INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE: Computerized brain tomography (CBT) imaging plays a key role in the management of patients with head trauma, and there is an indication for CBT in moderate and severe injuries. However, it is difficult to determine an indication for CBT in patients with minor head trauma. The primary aim of this study is to compare the efficiency of the most commonly used clinical decision rules: the guidelines of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN), and those of the Canadian Assessment of Tomography for Childhood Head Injury (CATCH)...
October 25, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048518/disease-related-predictors-of-health-related-quality-of-life-in-youth-with-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#6
Mary K Lynch, Margaux J Barnes, Reed A Dimmitt, Lisa Martin, Marc E Rothenberg, Burel R Goodin
Objective: To evaluate relations between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and clinical symptom presentation in youth with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We hypothesized that presence of dysphagia, reflux, nausea/vomiting, and epigastric pain would be related to poorer HRQoL. In predictive models, it was hypothesized that dysphagia, reflux, nausea/vomiting, and epigastric pain would each significantly and uniquely predict poorer HRQoL. Methods: This cross-sectional, two-study design included 91 dyads comprised children with EoE and their respective caregivers across two tertiary children's hospitals, Site 1 in the Midwest (N = 47) and Site 2 in the Deep South (N = 44)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030932/a-prospective-audit-of-pain-profiles-following-general-and-urological-surgery-in-children
#7
Caroline A Wilson, David Sommerfield, Thomas F E Drake-Brockman, Claudia Lagrange, Anoop Ramgolam, Britta S von Ungern-Sternberg
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is frequently undertreated in children both in hospital and at home following discharge. Pain has both short- and long-term consequences for children, their families, and the healthcare system. A greater understanding of procedure-specific postoperative pain trajectories is required to improve pain management. AIM: To determine the duration and severity of acute postoperative pain experienced by children undergoing 8 different general and urological procedures (primary outcomes)...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988213/management-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-over-the-age-of-6-months-a-conservative-approach
#8
Leel Nellihela, Mohamed Mutalib, David Thompson, Kammermeier Jochen, Manasvi Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Although it can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic individuals, it can also be secondary to life-threatening bowel ischaemia and sepsis. In premature infants, it is a pathognomonic sign of necrotising enterocolitis. There is no consensus regarding management and long-term outcome of children with PI. AIM: Review of our experience of PI in children beyond the early infantile period...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963679/clinical-practice-nausea-and-vomiting-in-acute-gastroenteritis-physiopathology-and-management
#9
REVIEW
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947248/-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-children
#10
F Brezin, A Wiedemann, F Feillet
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a misrecognized and probably underdiagnosed disease that can affect up to 1.9% of the pediatric population and can occupy 15% of these children's time. It is characterized by acute attacks of vomiting, occurring with such a strict frequency that some parents can predict the date of their child's next attack. The pathophysiology of CVS is unclear, although the literature recognizes a common origin with migraine headaches, which has the same acute and prophylactic treatment. CVS is now included in the larger group of diseases called "episodic symptoms related to migraine" previously known as "childhood periodic syndromes...
November 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914984/hypercalcemic-disorders-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than two standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive, and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
November 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906349/intestinal-obstruction-due-to-kaposiform-hemangioendothelioma-in-a-1-month-old-infant-a-case-report
#12
Joong Kee Youn, Shin-Hoo Park, Ji-Won Han, Chaeyoun Oh, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung
RATIONALE: Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is an aggressive vascular tumor, mainly occurring in infants and young children and previously reported cases were mainly cutaneous or visceral form. Intestinal kaposiform hemangioma was first reported in 2012. Intestinal type KHE showed better prognosis if the lesion was limited in the gastrointestinal tract and coagulopathy was not accompanied. Since the number of reported cases is small, further study for treatment options and prognosis need to be done...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906253/latest-insights-on-food-protein-induced-enterocolitis-syndrome-an-emerging-medical-condition
#13
REVIEW
L Vila Sexto
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity, characterized by profuse vomiting, frequently associated to pallor or/and lethargy that appears within 1 to 3 hours after ingestion of the offending food. There is a less frequent chronic form of FPIES, presenting with protracted vomiting, diarrhea or both, accompanied by poor growth. Although FPIES is considered a rare allergic disorder, in the last few years there have been an increasing number of reports about it indicating if not a real increase in incidence, at least an increased awareness of this condition by pediatricians...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894924/cyclical-vomiting-syndrome-secondary-to-a-chiari-i-malformation-a-case-report
#14
William L White, Veejay Bagga, David I Campbell, Anthony R Hart, Shungu Ushewokunze
BACKGROUND: Cyclical vomiting syndrome is a disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of profuse vomiting. There are no cases in the literature on the management of children with presenting with cyclical vomiting syndrome and a Chiari malformation type I. DISCUSSION: We report the case of a 12-year-old child diagnosed with cyclical vomiting syndrome and a Chiari malformation type I. The patient received symptomatic relief following a craniocervical decompression...
December 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886723/pancreatic-injury-in-children-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Fayza Haider, Mohammed Amin Al Awadhi, Eizat Abrar, Mooza Al Dossari, Hasan Isa, Husain Nasser, Hakima Al Hashimi, Sharif Al Arayedh
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Blunt trauma to the abdomen accounts for the majority of abdominal injuries in children. Pancreatic injury, although uncommon (2 to 9%), is the fourth most common solid organ injury. Unlike other solid organ injuries, pancreatic trauma may be subtle and difficult to diagnose. Computed tomography currently is the imaging modality of choice. As the incidence of pancreatic injury in children sustaining blunt abdominal trauma is low, management remains a challenge...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876576/rapunzel-syndrome-african-variations-on-a-european-fairytale
#16
J Plaskett, G Chinnery, D Thomson, B Dedekind, E Jonas, S Thomson
BACKGROUND: Trichobezoars are intraluminal accretions of ingested hair. Rapunzel syndrome is a rare and extreme presentation with extension down through into the small intestine. Most frequently reported in children and psychiatric patients, we report on an African series of five patients. METHOD: Five patients presenting with trichobezoars were retrospectively reviewed and analysed with regard to patient background, demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, surgical management and complications...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872734/xenon-as-an-adjuvant-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-children-younger-than-4%C3%A2-years-of-age-undergoing-interventional-or-diagnostic-cardiac-catheterization-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Sarah Devroe, Roselien Meeusen, Marc Gewillig, Bjorn Cools, Koen Poesen, Robert Sanders, Steffen Rex
BACKGROUND: Xenon has repeatedly been demonstrated to have only minimal hemodynamic side effects when compared to other anesthetics. Moreover, in experimental models, xenon was found to be neuroprotective and devoid of developmental neurotoxicity. These properties could render xenon attractive for the anesthesia in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease. However, experience with xenon anesthesia in children is scarce. AIMS: We hypothesized that in children undergoing cardiac catheterization, general anesthesia with a combination of sevoflurane with xenon results in superior hemodynamic stability, compared to sevoflurane alone...
December 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866891/integration-of-hypnosis-into-pediatric-palliative-care
#18
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, Daniel P Kohen
At least 8 million children would need specialized pediatric palliative care (PPC) services annually worldwide, and of the more than 42,000 children and teenagers dying annually in the United States, at least 15,000 children would require PPC. Unfortunately, even in resource-rich countries the majority of children dying from serious advanced illnesses are suffering from unrelieved, distressing symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and anxiety. State of the art treatment and prevention of those symptoms requires employing multi-modal therapies, commonly including pharmacology, rehabilitation, procedural intervention, psychology, and integrative modalities...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865084/eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-under-the-age-of-5-years-clinical-characteristics
#19
Ravi W Sun, Juliana Bonilla-Velez, Robert D Pesek, Adam B Johnson, Mario A Cleves, Gresham T Richter
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To delineate clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in the youngest of children. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: A 7-year retrospective chart review of children with clinicopathologic diagnosis of EoE was performed with specific analysis of patients under 5 years old. EoE was defined as the presence of symptoms of esophageal dysfunction with pathologically proven eosinophilic inflammation (≥15 eosinophils per high-power field [EOS/HPF]) unresponsive to reflux therapy...
September 2, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854929/transition-from-f-75-to-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food-in-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-an-observational-study-in-uganda
#20
Betty Lanyero, Hanifa Namusoke, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Benedikte Grenov, Ezekiel Mupere, Kim Fleischer Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard, Vibeke Brix Christensen, Henrik Friis, André Briend
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization now recommends the transition from F-75 to ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) in the management of severe acute malnutrition (SAM). We described the transition from F-75 to RUTF and identified correlates of failed transition. METHODS: We conducted an observational study among children aged 6-59 months treated for SAM at Mulago hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Therapeutic feeding during transition phase was provided by first offering half of the energy requirements from RUTF and the other half from F-75 and then increasing gradually to RUTF as only energy source...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
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