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management of vomiting in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798906/cerebral-sinovenous-thrombosis
#1
REVIEW
Rebecca Ichord
Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare but serious cerebrovascular disorder affecting children from the newborn period through childhood and adolescence. The incidence is estimated at 0.6/100,000/year, with 30-50% occurring in newborns. Causes are diverse and are highly age dependent. Acute systemic illness is the dominant risk factor among newborns. In childhood CSVT, acute infections of the head and neck such as mastoiditis are most common, followed by chronic underlying diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755197/dietary-considerations-in-tyrosinemia-type-i
#2
Francjan J van Spronsen, Margreet van Rijn, Uta Meyer, Anibh M Das
Since the introduction of 2-(2 nitro-4-3 trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1, 3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), life expectancy of HT1 patients greatly improved. However, due to treatment with NTBC, tyrosine concentrations greatly increase. As a consequence to possible neurocognitive problems, the main objective of dietary therapy in HT1 is to provide adequate nutrition allowing normal growth and development while strictly controlling tyrosine levels in blood (and tissues). Although no well-defined target levels exist, tyrosine concentrations below 400 μmol/L are considered to be safe...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733740/laparoscopic-splenopexy-for-wandering-spleen-a-video-demonstration-of-technique-by-encircling-the-spleen-with-polyglactin-910-woven-mesh
#3
Sheridan Morgan, Ian Glenn, Oliver Soldes
BACKGROUND: Wandering spleen is a rare clinical entity caused by absence of the spleen's peritoneal attachments, allowing the spleen to move freely within the peritoneal cavity [1]. This disease is most commonly seen in children and young women [1, 2]. Affected individuals are predisposed to complications including splenic torsion, splenic infarction, and pancreatic necrosis [3, 4]. Patients may present with constipation, an abdominal mass, swelling, or acute abdominal pain if splenic torsion has occurred [4]...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714632/-diagnosis-and-management-of-testicular-torsion-in-children
#4
Vanina Estremadoyro, Blaise Julien Meyrat, Jacques Birraux, Isabelle Vidal, Oliver Sanchez
Testicular torsion is a true urologic emergency with a bimodal age presentation : the perinatal testicular torsion presenting with a hard, tender or non-tender scrotal mass usually with underlying dark discoloration of the skin and the peripubertal testicular torsion presenting with severe acute testicular pain, vomiting and frequently pain irradiation in the inguinal area, a high riding-horizontally positioned testis and absence of the cremasteric reflex. Obtaining a US Doppler must not add unnecessary delay to the urgent surgical treatment which entails detorsion and bilateral orchidopexy...
February 15, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709556/intussusception-among-children-less-than-2years-of-age-findings-from-pre-vaccine-introduction-surveillance-in-pakistan
#5
Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rozina Thobani, Saqib Hamid Qazi, Nasir Saddal, Catherine Yen, Negar Aliabadi, Syed Asad Ali
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination introduction in routine immunization is under consideration in Pakistan. Data on the baseline epidemiology of intussusception will inform surveillance strategies for intussusception after rotavirus vaccine introduction in Pakistan. We describe the epidemiology of intussusception-associated hospitalizations among children <2years of age in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review for July 01, 2012 through June 30, 2015 at the National Institute of Child Health (NICH) and Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) Karachi...
July 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697162/pediatric-orbeez-ingestions-reported-to-texas-poison-centers
#6
Mathias B Forrester
OBJECTIVES: There is concern that ingestion of superabsorbent polymer toys, which can absorb large amounts of fluid and increase greatly in volume, may pose a risk if swallowed by children.The intent of this study was to characterize pediatric Orbeez ingestions reported to a statewide poison center system. METHODS: Cases were Orbeez ingestions among patients 19 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during January 2011 to June 2016. The distribution by various demographic and clinical factors was determined...
July 11, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687951/approach-to-upset-stomach
#7
Rishi Bolia
An "Upset stomach" is a common problem encountered by physicians involved in the care of children. It includes, diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain. Though often mild and self-limiting, at times there are uncommon life-threatening conditions that require urgent care. It is important for primary physicians to recognize "alarm signs" and make a referral to the specialist at the right time. At the same time it is important to recognize what is normal and re-assure the caregivers. A detailed history and a proper systemic examination are important at presentation, looking for any "red flags"...
July 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667718/acquired-methemoglobinemia-a-sporadic-holi-disaster
#8
Sanjeevani Satish Masavkar, Anupama Mauskar, Gaurav Patwardhan, Vasudeva Bhat, Mamta V Manglani
OBJECTIVE: To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. RESULTS: The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children...
June 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642639/foregut-duplication-cysts-in-children
#9
Keshawadhana Balakrishnan, Frances Fonacier, Shilpa Sood, Natasha Bamji, Howard Bostwick, Gustavo Stringel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Duplications of the alimentary tract are rare anomalies. We report our experience with foregut duplication cysts including their clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and surgical management. METHODS: We report a 20-year retrospective review of all foregut duplication cysts managed at our institution. RESULTS: Twelve patients with 13 foregut duplication cysts were identified. The ages of the children at the time of surgery ranged from infancy to adolescence, with a mean age of 7...
April 2017: JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625711/why-parents-seek-care-for-acute-illness-in-the-clinic-or-the-ed-the-role-of-health-literacy
#10
Meghan May, David C Brousseau, David A Nelson, Kathryn E Flynn, Michael S Wolf, Bryn Lepley, Andrea K Morrison
OBJECTIVE: To explore the decision to seek care and decision-making regarding location of care among parents with low and adequate health literacy. METHODS: Parents of children ≤ 8 years old presenting for 'sick child' visits at a clinic or a non-urgent ED visit (triage level 5) were interviewed. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS) categorized parental health literacy. Interviewers followed a semi-structured interview guide to understand 1) care-seeking for current illness and 2) choice of clinic or ED...
June 15, 2017: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620597/feeding-problems-and-their-underlying-mechanisms-in-the-esophageal-atresia-tracheoesophageal-fistula-patient
#11
REVIEW
Lisa Mahoney, Rachel Rosen
Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607210/tachypnea-and-other-danger-signs-vs-pulse-oximetry-for-prediction-of-hypoxia-in-severe-pneumonia-very-severe-disease
#12
Varun Alwadhi, Pooja Dewan, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Dheeraj Shah, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of respiratory rate and other clinical signs against pulse oximetry for predicting hypoxia in children with Severe pneumonia/Very severe disease as per integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (IMNCI) classification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pediatric emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital in Delhi, India. SUBJECTS: 112 hospitalized children (2 mo - 5 y) with Severe pneumonia/Very severe disease as per IMNCI classification...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606112/acute-cerebellitis-in-children-an-eleven-year-retrospective-multicentric-study-in-italy
#13
Laura Lancella, Susanna Esposito, Maria Luisa Galli, Elena Bozzola, Valeria Labalestra, Elena Boccuzzi, Andrzej Krzysztofiak, Laura Cursi, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Nadia Mirante, Danilo Buonsenso, Claudia Tagliabue, Luca Castellazzi, Carlotta Montagnani, Chiara Tersigni, Piero Valentini, Michele Capozza, Davide Pata, Maria Di Gangi, Piera Dones, Silvia Garazzino, Luca Baroero, Alberto Verrotti, Maria Luisa Melzi, Michele Sacco, Michele Germano, Filippo Greco, Elena Uga, Giovanni Crichiutti, Alberto Villani
BACKGROUND: Acute cerebellitis (AC) and acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) are the principal causes of acute cerebellar dysfunction in childhood. Nevertheless. there is no accepted consensus regarding the best management of children with AC/ACA: the aim of the study is both to assess clinical, neuroimaging and electrophysiologic features of children with AC/ACA and to evaluate the correlation between clinical parameters, therapy and outcome. METHODS: A multicentric retrospective study was conducted on children ≤ 18 years old admitted to 12 Italian paediatric hospitals for AC/ACA from 01/01/2003 to 31/12/2013...
June 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588003/pituitary-adenoma-apoplexy-in-an-adolescent-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Hero Zijlker, Sebastian Schagen, Jan Maarten Wit, Biermasz Nienke, Wouter van Furth, Wilma Oostdijk
We present a 13-year-old boy who became progressively sleepy and experienced a sudden headache with vomiting and fever. Laboratory testing showed hypoglycemia, multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies and elevated C-Reactive Protein (CRP). A cranial MRI showed an opaque sphenoid sinus and an intrasellar mass suspect for hemorrhage, so that we suspected a pituitary apoplexy (PA) originating from a non-functioning adenoma, although a pituitary abscess could not completely be excluded. The boy was treated with antibiotics, hydrocortisone and levothyroxine and a close follow-up to monitor the clinical course...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562577/bowel-management-program-for-pediatric-postoperative-fecal-incontinence-in-china-a-surgeon-s-experience
#15
Yong Wang, Huiying Liang, Qiang Wu, Haiqing Zheng, Guangjian Liu, Zhe Wen, Menglong Lan, Jiakang Yu, Deli Zhu, Jiankun Liang, Jingqi Zhang, Xiaogang Xu, Huimin Xia
The purpose of this article is to report the status of the efficacy of and long-term adherence to the Bowel Management Program (BMP) for fecal incontinence (FI) postoperation in China.Children over 3 years of age with FI postoperation referred to our medical center were included in the study. Evaluations were performed before and 2 years after their clinic visit. The cost of bowel care, improvement in incontinence, health-related quality of life, and family functioning with the BMP were analyzed.A total of 48 children with FI were included in our study, of whom 38 were boys...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474590/epidemiology-of-cryptosporidium-in-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses
#16
REVIEW
Aashima Dabas, Dheeraj Shah, Shinjini Bhatnagar, Rakesh Lodha
CONTEXT: Cryptosporidium spp. is a zoonotic infection, now being recognized as a significant cause of diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. However, there still exist significant knowledge gaps in its estimated global burden, epidemiology, diagnosis and management. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A semi-systematic search was performed across PubMed to select studies on epidemiological burden of cryptosporidium diarrhea using the following keywords- ['crytosporidiosis' OR 'cryptosporidium'] AND ['diarrhea' OR 'diarrhoea']...
April 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462653/management-of-ampullary-tumours-in-children-still-a-challenge
#17
P Fernandez-Eire, J L Vazquez Castelo, M Herreros Villaraviz, B Fernandez Caamaño, J Gonzalez-Carreró, F Ausania
This study describes the case of the youngest patient ever reported with ampullary adenoma. The incidence of ampullary adenomas in childhood is unknown. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound are used in adults to assess and treat these lesions, although there are no instruments designed specifically for use in young children. A six-year-old girl was admitted for abdominal pain, vomiting, pruritus and weight loss. Abdominal ultrasound showed biliary tree (8mm) and pancreatic duct dilatation (4mm)...
May 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447301/management-of-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pediatric-patients
#18
REVIEW
Rudolph M Navari
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life and is perceived by patients as a major adverse effect of the treatment. This review summarizes the safety and efficacy of current antiemetic agents for the prevention of CINV in children. Information on antiemetic prophylaxis for CINV in children was obtained from a literature review of current peer-reviewed articles and recent international guidelines. The literature review and the international antiemetic guidelines provide recommendations for use of specific antiemetics in children based on the emetogenicity of the chemotherapy...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436603/parent-perception-of-the-impact-of-using-thickened-fluids-in-children-with-dysphagia
#19
Patricia Krummrich, Barbara Kline, Kate Krival, Michael Rubin
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal dysphagia occurs in children without known neurological disorders, increasing their risk for respiratory problems and inadequate intake. Clinicians may recommend thickening nutritive fluids; however, there is little research regarding the impact of thickening nutritive fluids on clinical outcomes in children. METHODS: We used a parental reporting tool to determine whether parents identified changes in signs of dysphagia or volume of intake when thickened fluids were incorporated into an individualized feeding program for dysphagic children without known neurological problems...
April 24, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429903/causes-of-interruptions-in-postoperative-enteral-nutrition-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#20
Jirong Qi, Zhuo Li, Yueshuang Cun, Xiaonan Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perioperative nutritional support has become a hot topic in the clinical management of congenital heart disease (CHD). Postoperative enteral nutrition (EN) offers many benefits, such as protection of the intestinal mucosa, reduced risk of infection, and low clinical costs. Interruptions in EN frequently influence nutritional support and clinical outcomes. We, therefore, aimed to determine the causes of interruptions in postoperative EN in CHD patients and discuss clinical counter measures...
May 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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