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zimbabwe hiv incidence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201656/age-stratified-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-zimbabwe-are-we-paying-attention-to-the-most-vulnerable
#1
R T Ncube, K C Takarinda, C Zishiri, W van den Boogaard, N Mlilo, C Chiteve, N Siziba, F Trinchán, C Sandy
Setting: A high tuberculosis (TB) incidence, resource-limited urban setting in Zimbabwe. Objectives: To compare treatment outcomes among people initiated on first-line anti-tuberculosis treatment in relation to age and other explanatory factors. Design: This was a retrospective record review of routine programme data. Results: Of 2209 patients included in the study, 133 (6%) were children (aged <10 years), 132 (6%) adolescents (10-19 years), 1782 (81%) adults (20-59 years) and 162 (7%) were aged ⩾60 years, defined as elderly...
September 21, 2017: Public Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171193/returning-hiv-1-viral-load-results-to-participant-selected-health-facilities-in-national-population-based-hiv-impact-assessment-phia-household-surveys-in-three-sub-saharan-african-countries-2015-to-2016
#2
Suzue Saito, Yen T Duong, Melissa Metz, Kiwon Lee, Hetal Patel, Katrina Sleeman, Julius Manjengwa, Francis M Ogollah, Webster Kasongo, Rick Mitchell, Owen Mugurungi, Frank Chimbwandira, Crispin Moyo, Vusumuzi Maliwa, Helecks Mtengo, Tepa Nkumbula, Clement B Ndongmo, Nora Skutayi Vere, Geoffrey Chipungu, Bharat S Parekh, Jessica Justman, Andrew C Voetsch
INTRODUCTION: Logistical complexities of returning laboratory test results to participants have precluded most population-based HIV surveys conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from doing so. For HIV positive participants, this presents a missed opportunity for engagement into clinical care and improvement in health outcomes. The Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) surveys, which measure HIV incidence and the prevalence of viral load (VL) suppression in selected African countries, are returning VL results to health facilities specified by each HIV positive participant within eight weeks of collection...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155288/investigation-of-the-practices-legislation-supply-chain-and-regulation-of-opioids-for-clinical-pain-management-in-southern-africa-a-multi-sectoral-cross-national-mixed-methods-study
#3
Eve Namisango, Matthew J Allsop, Richard A Powell, Stefan J Friedrichsdorf, Emmanuel Bk Luyirika, Fatia Kiyange, Edward Mukooza, Chris Ntege, Eunice Garanganga, Mavis Ntombifuthi Ginindza-Mdluli, Faith Mwangi-Powell, Lidia Justino Mondlane, Richard Harding
CONTEXT: Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. OBJECTIVES: To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080780/projecting-the-impact-of-anal-intercourse-on-hiv-transmission-among-heterosexuals-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings
#4
Noble J Malunguza, Senelani D Hove-Musekwa, Zindoga Mukandavire
Whereas penile vaginal intercourse (VI) is thought to be the dominant mode of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, cross-sectional studies in the region indicate the preponderance of heterosexual anal intercourse (AI) among high activity groups. A dynamic, heterosexual core group model with risk of infection through both vaginal and anal pathways is formulated and comprehensively analysed. The model is coupled to a general population model and fitted to HIV prevalence data for Zimbabwe in order to explore the parameter space related to heterosexual AI...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988165/documenting-and-explaining-the-hiv-decline-in-east-zimbabwe-the-manicaland-general-population-cohort
#5
Simon Gregson, Owen Mugurungi, Jeffrey Eaton, Albert Takaruza, Rebecca Rhead, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Junior Mutsvangwa, Justin Mayini, Morten Skovdal, Robin Schaefer, Timothy Hallett, Lorraine Sherr, Shungu Munyati, Peter Mason, Catherine Campbell, Geoffrey P Garnett, Constance Anesu Nyamukapa
PURPOSE: The Manicaland cohort was established to provide robust scientific data on HIV prevalence and incidence, patterns of sexual risk behaviour and the demographic impact of HIV in a sub-Saharan African population subject to a generalised HIV epidemic. The aims were later broadened to include provision of data on the coverage and effectiveness of national HIV control programmes including antiretroviral therapy (ART). PARTICIPANTS: General population open cohort located in 12 sites in Manicaland, east Zimbabwe, representing 4 major socioeconomic strata (small towns, agricultural estates, roadside settlements and subsistence farming areas)...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880995/vitamin-a-supplements-for-reducing-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission
#6
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Valantine N Ndze, Eugene J Kongnyuy, Muki S Shey
BACKGROUND: Strategies to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) include lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-positive women, exclusive breastfeeding from birth for six weeks plus nevirapine or replacement feeding plus nevirapine from birth for four to six weeks, elective Caesarean section delivery, and avoiding giving children chewed food. In some settings, these interventions may not be practical, feasible, or affordable. Simple, inexpensive, and effective interventions (that could potentially be implemented even in the absence of prenatal HIV testing programmes) would be valuable...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712347/cultural-competence-a-framework-for-promoting-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-varemba-communities-in-zimbabwe
#7
Kemist Shumba, Musara Lubombo
Almost a decade after the formal introduction of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) as an important technology for HIV prevention, its implementation is still fraught with acceptability challenges. This is especially true among ethnic groups where male circumcision is conducted as a rite of passage into adulthood. In this article we question why VMMC is being met with resistance despite widespread awareness of its promise to reduce HIV incidence in a culturally circumcising community in Zimbabwe. In-depth and key informant interviews were conducted with selected VaRemba initiation graduates and surgeons respectively in Mposi area in Mberengwa to explore why VMMC has not been readily accepted in their community...
July 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570507/trends-in-prevalence-of-advanced-hiv-disease-at-antiretroviral-therapy-enrollment-10-countries-2004-2015
#8
Andrew F Auld, Ray W Shiraishi, Ikwo Oboho, Christine Ross, Moses Bateganya, Valerie Pelletier, Jacob Dee, Kesner Francois, Nirva Duval, Mayer Antoine, Chris Delcher, Gracia Desforges, Mark Griswold, Jean Wysler Domercant, Nadjy Joseph, Varough Deyde, Yrvel Desir, Joelle Deas Van Onacker, Ermane Robin, Helen Chun, Isaac Zulu, Ishani Pathmanathan, E Kainne Dokubo, Spencer Lloyd, Rituparna Pati, Jonathan Kaplan, Elliot Raizes, Thomas Spira, Kiren Mitruka, Aleny Couto, Eduardo Samo Gudo, Francisco Mbofana, Melissa Briggs, Charity Alfredo, Carla Xavier, Alfredo Vergara, Ndapewa Hamunime, Simon Agolory, Gram Mutandi, Naemi N Shoopala, Souleymane Sawadogo, Andrew L Baughman, Adebobola Bashorun, Ibrahim Dalhatu, Mahesh Swaminathan, Dennis Onotu, Solomon Odafe, Oseni Omomo Abiri, Henry H Debem, Hank Tomlinson, Velephi Okello, Peter Preko, Trong Ao, Caroline Ryan, George Bicego, Peter Ehrenkranz, Harrison Kamiru, Harriet Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Gideon Kwesigabo, Angela A Ramadhani, Kahemele Ng'wangu, Patrick Swai, Mohamed Mfaume, Ramadhani Gongo, Deborah Carpenter, Timothy D Mastro, Carol Hamilton, Julie Denison, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Olivier Koole, Kwasi Torpey, Seymour G Williams, Robert Colebunders, Julius N Kalamya, Alice Namale, Michelle R Adler, Bridget Mugisa, Sundeep Gupta, Sharon Tsui, Eric van Praag, Duc B Nguyen, Sheryl Lyss, Yen Le, Abu S Abdul-Quader, Nhan T Do, Modest Mulenga, Sebastian Hachizovu, Owen Mugurungi, Beth A Tippett Barr, Elizabeth Gonese, Tsitsi Mutasa-Apollo, Shirish Balachandra, Stephanie Behel, Trista Bingham, Duncan Mackellar, David Lowrance, Tedd V Ellerbrock
Monitoring prevalence of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (i.e., CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL) among persons starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to understand ART program outcomes, inform HIV prevention strategy, and forecast need for adjunctive therapies.*(,)(†)(,)(§) To assess trends in prevalence of advanced disease at ART initiation in 10 high-burden countries during 2004-2015, records of 694,138 ART enrollees aged ≥15 years from 797 ART facilities were analyzed...
June 2, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510998/new-onset-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-among-patients-receiving-hiv-care-at-newlands-clinic-harare-zimbabwe-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#9
Cleophas Chimbetete, Catrina Mugglin, Tinei Shamu, Bindu Kalesan, Barbara Bertisch, Matthias Egger, Olivia Keiser
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and associated factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Zimbabwe. METHODS: We analysed data of all HIV-infected patients older than 16 years who attended Newlands Clinic between March 1, 2004 and April 29, 2015. The clinic considers patients whose random blood sugar is higher than 11.1 mmol/l and which is confirmed by a fasting blood sugar higher than 7.0 mmol/l to have T2DM. T2DM is also diagnosed in symptomatic patients who have a RBS >11...
July 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443672/short-communication-heightened-hiv-antibody-responses-in-postpartum-women-as-exemplified-by-recent-infection-assays-implications-for-incidence-estimates
#10
John W Hargrove, Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean H Humphrey, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Sherry Michele Owen, Silvina Masciotra, Bharat S Parekh, Yen T Duong, Trudy Dobbs, Peter H Kilmarx, Elizabeth Gonese
Laboratory assays that identify recent HIV infections are important for assessing impacts of interventions aimed at reducing HIV incidence. Kinetics of HIV humoral responses can vary with inherent assay properties, and between HIV subtypes, populations, and physiological states. They are important in determining mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) for antibody-based assays for detecting recent HIV infections. We determined MDRIs for multi-subtype peptide representing subtypes B, E and D (BED)-capture enzyme immunoassay, limiting antigen (LAg), and Bio-Rad Avidity Incidence (BRAI) assays for 101 seroconverting postpartum women, recruited in Harare from 1997 to 2000 during the Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies trial, comparing them against published MDRIs estimated from seroconverting cases in the general population...
September 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-zimbabwe
#11
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: A total of 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of intersurvey periods...
June 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/short-communication-comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#12
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
June 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299151/is-socio-economic-status-a-determinant-of-hiv-related-stigma-attitudes-in-zimbabwe-findings-from-project-accept
#13
Kudzanai Mateveke, Basant Singh, Alfred Chingono, E Sibanda, Ian Machingura
HIV related stigma and discrimination is a known barrier for HIV prevention and care. We aimed to assess the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV related stigma in Zimbabwe. This paper uses data from Project Accept, which examined the impact of community-based voluntary counseling and testing intervention on HIV incidence and stigma. Total of 2522 eligible participants responded to a psychometric assessment tool, which assessed HIV related stigma and discrimination attitudes on 4 point Likert scale...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296799/empirical-validation-of-the-unaids-spectrum-model-for-subnational-hiv-estimates-case-study-of-children-and-adults-in-manicaland-zimbabwe
#14
Romain Silhol, Simon Gregson, Constance Nyamukapa, Mutsa Mhangara, Janet Dzangare, Elizabeth Gonese, Jeffrey W Eaton, Kelsey K Case, Mary Mahy, John Stover, Owen Mugurungi
BACKGROUND: More cost-effective HIV control may be achieved by targeting geographical areas with high infection rates. The AIDS Impact model of Spectrum - used routinely to produce national HIV estimates - could provide the required subnational estimates but is rarely validated with empirical data, even at a national level. DESIGN: The validity of the Spectrum model estimates were compared with empirical estimates. METHODS: Antenatal surveillance and population survey data from a population HIV cohort study in Manicaland, East Zimbabwe, were input into Spectrum 5...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178109/risk-factors-for-incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-women-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-chemoprevention-trial-voice-mtn-003
#15
Zvavahera Mike Chirenje, Holly M Gundacker, Barbra Richardson, Lorna Rabe, Zakir Gaffoor, Gonasagrie Lulu Nair, Brenda Gati Mirembe, Jeanna M Piper, Sharon Hillier, Jeanne Marrazzo
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, there are limited data on the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among women, largely because routine screening for asymptomatic infection is not performed. We conducted a secondary analysis to measure STI incidence rates and determine risk factors for new STI acquisition among women enrolled in the VOICE trial. METHODS: We analyzed data from 4843 women screened for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomonas infection at baseline, annually, at interim visits when clinically indicated and at their study termination visit...
March 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828979/rising-levels-of-hiv-infection-in-older-adults-in-eastern-zimbabwe
#16
Joel Negin, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Nadine Schur, Albert Takaruza, Peter Mason, Constance Nyamukapa
BACKGROUND: With the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment across Africa, many people are living longer with HIV. Understanding the ageing of the HIV cohort and sexual behaviour among older adults are important for appropriately responding to the changing demographics of people living with HIV. METHODS: We used data from a large population-based open cohort in eastern Zimbabwe to examine HIV prevalence trends and incidence among those aged 45 years and older. Five survey rounds have been completed between 1998 and 2011...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828875/antiretroviral-drug-use-in-a-cross-sectional-population-survey-in-africa-nimh-project-accept-hptn-043
#17
Jessica M Fogel, William Clarke, Michal Kulich, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Autumn Breaud, Matthew T Olson, Mark A Marzinke, Oliver Laeyendecker, Agnès Fiamma, Deborah Donnell, Jessie K K Mbwambo, Linda Richter, Glenda Gray, Michael Sweat, Thomas J Coates, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment benefits the treated individual and can prevent HIV transmission. We assessed ARV drug use in a community-randomized trial that evaluated the impact of behavioral interventions on HIV incidence. METHODS: Samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey after a 3-year intervention period. ARV drug testing was performed using samples from HIV-infected adults at 4 study sites (Zimbabwe; Tanzania; KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto, South Africa; survey period 2009-2011) using an assay that detects 20 ARV drugs (6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 3 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 9 protease inhibitors; maraviroc; raltegravir)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685780/culture-myths-and-panic-three-decades-and-beyond-with-an-hiv-aids-epidemic-in-zimbabwe
#18
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672002/segmented-polynomials-for-incidence-rate-estimation-from-prevalence-data
#19
Severin Guy Mahiané, Oliver Laeyendecker
The study considers the problem of estimating incidence of a non remissible infection (or disease) with possibly differential mortality using data from a(several) cross-sectional prevalence survey(s). Fitting segmented polynomial models is proposed to estimate the incidence as a function of age, using the maximum likelihood method. The approach allows automatic search for optimal position of knots, and model selection is performed using the Akaike information criterion. The method is applied to simulated data and to estimate HIV incidence among men in Zimbabwe using data from both the NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) and Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (2005-2006)...
January 30, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622516/the-incidence-patterns-model-to-estimate-the-distribution-of-new-hiv-infections-in-sub-saharan-africa-development-and-validation-of-a-mathematical-model
#20
Annick Bórquez, Anne Cori, Erica L Pufall, Jingo Kasule, Emma Slaymaker, Alison Price, Jocelyn Elmes, Basia Zaba, Amelia C Crampin, Joseph Kagaayi, Tom Lutalo, Mark Urassa, Simon Gregson, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: Programmatic planning in HIV requires estimates of the distribution of new HIV infections according to identifiable characteristics of individuals. In sub-Saharan Africa, robust routine data sources and historical epidemiological observations are available to inform and validate such estimates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a predictive model, the Incidence Patterns Model (IPM), representing populations according to factors that have been demonstrated to be strongly associated with HIV acquisition risk: gender, marital/sexual activity status, geographic location, "key populations" based on risk behaviours (sex work, injecting drug use, and male-to-male sex), HIV and ART status within married or cohabiting unions, and circumcision status...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
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