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Developmental Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148216/reproductive-and-neurobehavioral-effects-of-maternal-exposure-to-ethiprole-in-f1-generation-mice
#1
Toyohito Tanaka, Toshinari Suzuki, Akiko Inomata
BACKGROUND: Few published studies are reported for neurobehavioral toxicity of the phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in mammals. This study was designed to evaluate the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of maternal exposure to ethiprole in mice. METHODS: Ethiprole was given in the diet to provide levels of 0 (control), 0.0002, 0.001, and 0.005% during the gestation and lactation periods. Selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured in the F1 generation...
November 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147715/the-impact-of-ultraviolet-b-uv-b-radiation-in-combination-with-different-temperatures-in-the-early-life-stage-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#2
Feyza Icoglu Aksakal, Abdulkadir Ciltas
Ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation is an environmental stressor with detrimental effects on many aquatic organisms including fish. In addition, UV-B exposure combined with other environmental factors could have even more negative effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-B radiation exposure on zebrafish embryos/larvae in terms of survival, developmental toxicity and the mRNA levels of the genes related to oxidative stress and innate immune response at different temperatures (24 °C, 28 °C and 30 °C)...
November 17, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145093/proteomic-profile-and-toxicity-pathway-analysis-in-zebrafish-embryos-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-and-di-n-butyl-phthalate-at-environmentally-relevant-levels
#3
Xing Dong, Xuchun Qiu, Shunlong Meng, Hai Xu, Xiangyang Wu, Ming Yang
Bisphenol A (BPA) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are well-known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have human health risks. Chronic exposure to BPA and DBP increases the occurrence of human disease. Despite the potential for exposure in embryonic development, the mechanism of action of BPA and DBP on vertebrate development and disease still remains unclear. In the present study, we identified proteins and protein networks that are perturbed by BPA and DBP during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant levels of BPA (10 μg/L) and DBP (50 μg/L) for 96 h...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144200/mechanisms-underlying-melatonin-mediated-prevention-of-fenvalerate-induced-behavioral-and-oxidative-toxicity-in-zebrafish
#4
Jingjing Han, Cheng Ji, Yichen Guo, Rui Yan, Ting Hong, Yuanyan Dou, Yan An, Shasha Tao, Fenju Qin, Jihua Nie, Chen Ji, Han Wang, Jian Tong, Wei Xiao, Jie Zhang
The neurotoxic effects attributed to the pesticide fenvalerate (FEN) are well-established. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin (MLT) was able to protect against FEN-induced behavior, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and neurogenesis using zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Zebrafish exposed to 100 μg/L FEN for 120 h exhibited decreased swimming activity accompanied by downregulated expression of neurogenesis-related genes (Dlx2, Shha, Ngn1, Elavl3, and Gfap), suggesting that neurogenesis were impaired...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142173/effect-of-dibutyltin-on-placental-and-fetal-toxicity-in-rat
#5
Satoshi Furukawa, Naho Tsuji, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Yoshikazu Yamagishi, Seigo Hayashi, Masayoshi Abe, Yusuke Kuroda, Masayuki Kimura, Chisato Hayakawa, Akihiko Sugiyama
In order to elucidate the effect of chorioallantoic and yolk sac placenta on the embryonic/fetal toxicity in dibutyltin dichloride (DBTCl)-exposed rats, we examined the histopathological changes and the tissue distribution of dibutyltin in the placentas and embryos. DBTCl was orally administered to the groups at doses of 0 mg/kg during gestation days (GD)s 7-9 (control group) and 20 mg/kg during GDs 7-9 (GD7-9 treated group), and GDs 10-12 (GD10-12 treated group). The total fetal mortality was increased, and malformations characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism were detected in the GD7-9 treated group...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139537/planaria-an-animal-model-that-integrates-development-regeneration-and-pharmacology
#6
Oné R Pagán
Although planarians are established model organisms in developmental biology and regeneration studies, in the last forty years or so, they have caught the attention of pharmacologists, especially to study the pharmacology of drugs of abuse. This review covers the following topics: some fundamentals of the history of animal models and planarians in biomedical research; an abbreviated story of systematic pharmacology research using planarians as a model organism; an example of how planarians are contributing to the search for compounds against acute cocaine toxicity; an analysis of the number of papers on planarians and pharmacological topics from 1900-2016; some perspectives on pharmacology in developmental and regeneration studies, arguing in favor of the planarian model as a leading subject for this interdisciplinary area of research, and finally some concluding thoughts...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138970/development-of-an-acute-toxicity-test-with-the-tropical-marine-amphipod-parhyale-hawaiensis
#7
Mariana Coletty Artal, Amanda Dos Santos, Theodore Burdick Henry, Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro
There is a lack of suitable tropical marine species for ecotoxicity tests. An attractive model organism for ecotoxicology is the marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis, which is already a model for genetic and developmental studies. This species is widespread, can tolerate changes in salinity, is easy to handle and is representative of circumtropical regions. The aim of this work was to describe standardized procedures for laboratory husbandry, define conditions for acute toxicity tests, and to provide acute toxicity test results for some reference toxicants...
November 15, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132212/oil-exposure-impairs-in-situ-cardiac-function-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-in-cobia-rachycentron-canadum
#8
Georgina Kimberly Cox, Dane A Crossley, John D Stieglitz, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell
Aqueous crude oil spills expose fish to varying concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can have lethal and sub-lethal effects. The heart is particularly vulnerable in early life stages, as PAH toxicity causes developmental cardiac abnormalities and impaired cardiovascular function. However, cardiac responses of juvenile and adult fish to acute oil exposure remain poorly understood. We sought to assess cardiac function in a pelagic fish species, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum), following acute (24 hr) exposure to two ecologically relevant levels of dissolved PAH's...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130832/developmental-toxicity-assay-for-food-additive-tartrazine-using-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryo-cultures
#9
Vani Joshi, Pancharatna Katti
Tartrazine (TTZ) is an azo dye used as a colorant in food products, drugs, and cosmetics. The present study evaluates the impacts of TTZ on embryonic development of zebrafish ( Danio rerio). Laboratory-raised D. rerio embryos (n = 20/concentration) were exposed to graded dilutions of TTZ (0, 0.1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, and 100 mM) from gastrulation stage (5.25 hours postfertilization [hpf]) until hatching and developmental trajectory was traced up to day 7. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC), median lethal concentration (LC50), median effective concentration (EC50), and teratogenic index (TI) were calculated...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128604/influence-of-maternal-age-on-the-effects-of-seleno-l-methionine-in-the-model-organism-daphnia-pulex-under-standard-and-heat-stress-conditions
#10
Jordan R Nelson, Tonia S Schwartz, Julia M Gohlke
Selenium deficiency and toxicity increase the risk of adverse developmental and reproductive outcomes; however, few multi-stressor studies have evaluated the influence of maternal age on organic selenium dose-response and additional stressors over the life course. While multi-stressor research in mammalian models is time-consuming and expensive, use of alternative models can efficiently produce screening data for prioritizing research in mammalian systems. As a well-known eco-toxicological model, Daphnia pulex, may offer advantages in screening for impacts of multi-stressor exposures...
November 8, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128342/readers-of-dna-methylation-the-mbd-family-as-potential-therapeutic-targets
#11
REVIEW
Gordon D Ginder, David C Williams
DNA methylation represents a fundamental epigenetic modification that regulates chromatin architecture and gene transcription. Many diseases, including cancer, show aberrant methylation patterns that contribute to the disease phenotype. DNA methylation inhibitors have been used to block methylation dependent gene silencing to treat hematopoietic neoplasms and to restore expression of developmentally silenced genes. However, these inhibitors disrupt methylation globally and show significant off-target toxicities...
November 8, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127867/effects-of-ashes-from-a-brazilian-savanna-wildfire-on-water-soil-and-biota-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#12
Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho, Darlan Q Brito, Zelia M B Dias, Mayara S Guarieiro, Esther L Carvalho, Maria L Fascineli, Cintia C Niva, Cesar K Grisolia
Wildfire is very common in Brazilian savannas, and its effects on water, soil and aquatic/soil organisms are poorly understood. In this study, we observed the effects of fire, especially of ashes, on surface soil and subsurface water in a typical Brazilian savanna (Cerrado sensu strictu) for one year. Soil analyses (pH, organic matter content, potential acidity, K, Ca, Mg and P) and subsurface water analyses (NO(3-), PO4(3-) Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+)) were assessed. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effects of ashes on three different endpoints and species, in fish Danio rerio (embryonic development), aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (reproduction) and a soil species Enchytraeus sp...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126020/mechanistic-insight-in-potential-dual-role-of-sinigrin-against-helicoverpa-armigera
#13
Aniruddha R Agnihotri, Chaitanya V Hulagabali, Anmol S Adhav, Rakesh S Joshi
The adverse effect of glucosinolates on diverse phytophagous insects is well documented, but its impact on insect physiology has remained enigmatic. Here we report insights into detrimental effects of plant glucosinolate molecule, sinigrin, on Helicoverpa armigera growth and development. In-silico screening of multiple glucosinolates predicted sinigrin as one of the potential inhibitor of H. armigera cathepsin B and L. Insects fed on sinigrin containing diet showed significantly reduced growth (20-30%), delayed pupation (10-15%), decreased fecundity (50-80%) and developmental abnormalities...
November 7, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123147/enzymatic-degradation-of-organophosphorus-insecticides-decreases-toxicity-in-planarians-and-enhances-survival
#14
Laetitia Poirier, Lucile Brun, Pauline Jacquet, Catherine Lepolard, Nicholas Armstrong, Cédric Torre, David Daudé, Eric Ghigo, Eric Chabrière
Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are toxic compounds used for agricultural purposes and responsible for severe types of contamination worldwide. OPs may also induce chronic deleterious effects and developmental disruption. Finding remediation strategies is a major concern to diminish their impact on environment and human health. Enzymes have emerged as a promising eco-friendly route for decontaminating OPs. The enzyme SsoPox from the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus has been particularly studied, considering both its tremendous stability and phosphotriesterase activity...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123106/developmental-diet-regulates-drosophila-lifespan-via-lipid-autotoxins
#15
M Irina Stefana, Paul C Driscoll, Fumiaki Obata, Ana Raquel Pengelly, Clare L Newell, James I MacRae, Alex P Gould
Early-life nourishment exerts long-term influences upon adult physiology and disease risk. These lasting effects of diet are well established but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Here we show that restricting dietary yeast during Drosophila development can, depending upon the subsequent adult environment, more than double median lifespan. Developmental diet acts via a long-term influence upon the adult production of toxic molecules, which we term autotoxins, that are shed into the environment and shorten the lifespan of both sexes...
November 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122312/gestational-exposure-to-volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-in-northeastern-british-columbia-canada-a-pilot-study
#16
Élyse Caron-Beaudoin, Naomi Valter, Jonathan Chevrier, Pierre Ayotte, Katherine Frohlich, Marc-André Verner
BACKGROUND: Northeastern British Columbia (Canada) is an area of intense hydraulic fracturing for unconventional natural gas exploitation. There have been multiple reports of air and water contamination by volatile organic compounds in the vicinity of gas wells. Although these chemicals are known developmental toxicants, no biomonitoring effort has been carried out in the region. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate gestational exposure to benzene and toluene in the Peace River Valley, Northeastern British Columbia (Canada)...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118206/social-origins-of-developmental-risk-for-mental-and-physical-illness
#17
Judy L Cameron, Kathie L Eagleson, Nathan A Fox, Takao K Hensch, Pat Levitt
Adversity in early childhood exerts an enduring impact on mental and physical health, academic achievement, lifetime productivity, and the probability of interfacing with the criminal justice system. More science is needed to understand how the brain is affected by early life stress (ELS), which produces excessive activation of stress response systems broadly throughout the child's body (toxic stress). Our research examines the importance of sex, timing and type of stress exposure, and critical periods for intervention in various brain systems across species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117435/overview-of-neurotoxicology
#18
Lucio G Costa
The nervous system has a central and primary function in the body, and its relevance and complexity make it a target for a large number of toxic substances. The most common forms of neurotoxicity are the death of neurons (neuronopathy), the degeneration of axons (axonopathy), damage to glial cells (e.g., myelinopathy), and interference with the axonal membrane or neurotransmission. Important neurotoxicants are found among pesticides, metals, solvents, natural substances, and industrial chemicals. Environmental chemicals may also contribute to the etiopathogenesis of neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders...
November 8, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117375/fumigant-toxicity-and-sublethal-effects-of-artemisia-khorassanica-and-artemisia-sieberi-on-sitotroga-cerealella-lepidoptera-gelechiidae
#19
B Naseri, Z Abedi, A Abdolmaleki, M Jafary-Jahed, E Borzoui, Seyed Mozaffar Mansouri
Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115819/whole-life-stage-characterization-in-the-basic-biology-of-daphnia-magna-and-effects-of-tdcipp-on-growth-reproduction-survival-and-transcription-of-genes
#20
Han Li, Siliang Yuan, Guanyong Su, Meng Li, Qiangwei Wang, Guonian Zhu, Robert J Letcher, Yufei Li, Zhihua Han, Chunsheng Liu
Toxicity tests of chemicals have mainly focused on the partial life-cycle evaluation of model animals. Limited information is available for the evaluation of effects of chemicals from a whole-life-stage exposure perspective. The objective of this study was to perform a whole-life-stage characterization in the basic biology of Daphnia magna (D. magna) and evaluate the effects of a known organophosphate ester (OPE) contaminant, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), on growth, reproduction, survival, and transcription of genes...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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