Read by QxMD icon Read

Developmental Toxicity

Fırat Kurt, Ertugrul Filiz
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plant life. Its deficiency impedes growth and development and excessive iron can cause the toxic effect via the Fenton reaction. Thus, plants have developed various mechanisms to acquire, distribute and utilize Fe for the maintenance of their iron homeostasis at cellular and systemic levels. A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family plays essential roles in many regulatory and development processes in plants. In this study, we aimed to understand the roles of bHLH38, bHLH39, bHLH100 and bHLH101 genes for Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, soybean and maize species by using bioinformatics approaches...
March 15, 2018: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Ellen V S Hessel, Yvonne C M Staal, Aldert H Piersma
Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Charles V Vorhees, Jenna N Sprowles, Samantha L Regan, Michael T Williams
High throughput screens for developmental neurotoxicity (DN) will facilitate evaluation of chemicals and can be used to prioritize those designated for follow-up. DN is evaluated under different guidelines. Those for drugs generally include peri- and postnatal studies and juvenile toxicity studies. For pesticides and commercial chemicals, when triggered, include developmental neurotoxicity studies (DNT) and extended one-generation reproductive toxicity studies. Raffaele et al. (2010) reviewed 69 pesticide DNT studies and found two of the four behavioral tests underperformed...
March 12, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Kylie D Rock, Heather B Patisaul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the incidence of neurodevelopmental disorders on the rise, it is imperative to identify and understand the mechanisms by which environmental contaminants can impact the developing brain and heighten risk. Here, we report on recent findings regarding novel mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and highlight chemicals of concern, beyond traditionally defined neurotoxicants. RECENT FINDINGS: The perinatal window represents a critical and extremely vulnerable period of time during which chemical insult can alter the morphological and functional trajectory of the developing brain...
March 13, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Fangjie Cao, Peizhuo Wu, Lan Huang, Hui Li, Le Qian, Sen Pang, Lihong Qiu
Previous study indicated that azoxystrobin had high acute toxicity to zebrafish, and larval zebrafish were more sensitive to azoxystrobin than adult zebrafish. The objective of the present study was to investigate short-term developmental effects and potential mechanisms of azoxystrobin in larval and adult zebrafish. After zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/L azoxystrobin (equal to 25, 124 and 496 nM azoxystrobin, respectively) for 8 days, the lethal effect, physiological responses, liver histology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and expression alteration of genes related to mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and innate immune response were determined...
March 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Amrutha Swaminathan, Marilou Bouffard, Meijiang Liao, Sarah Ryan, Janis Bennion Callister, Stuart M Pickering-Brown, Gary Alan Barclay Armstrong, Pierre Drapeau
Large expansions of hexanucleotide GGGGCC (G4C2) repeats (hundreds to thousands) in the first intron of the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) locus are the strongest known genetic factor associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS/FTLD). Different hypotheses exist about the underlying disease mechanism including loss-of-function by haploinsufficiency, toxicity arising as a result of RNA or dipeptide repeats (DPRs). Five different DPRs are produced by repeat-associated non-ATG-initiated (RAN) translation of the G4C2 repeats...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
M Boyer, M Sowa, I Di Meo, S Eftekharian, M R Steenari, V Tiranti, J E Abdenur
Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the ETHE1 gene critical for hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) detoxification. Patients present in infancy with hypotonia, developmental delay, diarrhea, orthostatic acrocyanosis and petechiae. Biochemical findings include elevated C4, C5 acylcarnitines and lactic and ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in body fluids. Current treatment modalities include metronidazole and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) to lower the production and promote detoxification of toxic H2 S...
February 14, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Abrar Essarras, Marco Pazzi, Ian R Dadour, Paola A Magni
Entomotoxicology involves the analysis of the presence and the effects of toxicological substances in necrophagous insects. Results obtained by entomotoxicological studies may assist in the investigation of both the causes and the time of death of humans and animals. Ethylene glycol (EG) is easy to purchase, sweet and extremely toxic. It may be consumed accidentally or purposefully, in an attempt to cause death for suicidal or homicidal intent. Several cases report fatalities of humans and animals. The present study is the first to examine the effects of EG on the survival, developmental rate and morphology of two blowfly species, (Diptera: Calliphoridae) typically found on corpses and carcasses: Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and L...
March 2018: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Hegui Huang, Lian Liu, Jing Li, Chunyan Zhu, Xiaoyu Xie, Ying Ao, Hui Wang
Autophagy plays a vital role in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Our previous study demonstrated that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) resulted in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and adrenal developmental toxicities in rat offspring. The present study focused on PEE-induced autophagy as an underlying mechanism and its biological significance in female fetal rats. Female fetuses in the PEE group exhibited lower body weights and suffered adrenal structural abnormalities compared to the controls...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Magdalini Sachana, Alexandra Rolaki, Anna Bal-Price
The Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) are designed to provide mechanistic understanding of complex biological systems and pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs) relevant to regulatory endpoints. AOP concept captures in a structured way the causal relationships resulting from initial chemical interaction with biological target(s) (molecular initiating event) to an AO manifested in individual organisms and/or populations through a sequential series of key events (KEs), which are cellular, anatomical and/or functional changes in biological processes...
March 7, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Luciana Gueiros da Motta, Juliana Alves de Morais, Ana Carolina A M Tavares, Leonora Maciel Sousa Vianna, Marcia Renata Mortari, Rivadávio Fernandes Batista Amorim, Rosângela R Carvalho, Francisco José R Paumgartten, Aline Pic-Taylor, Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Rats were treated orally with ayahuasca (AYA) on gestation days (GD) 6-20 at doses corresponding to one-(1X) to eight-fold (8X) the average dose taken by a human adult in a religious ritual, and the pregnancy outcome evaluated on GD21. Rats treated with 4X and 8X doses died during the treatment period (44 and 52%), and those that survived showed kidney injury. Rats surviving the 8X dose showed neuronal loss in hippocampal regions and in the raphe nuclei, and those from the 2X dose neuronal loss in CA1. Delayed intrauterine growth, induced embryo deaths and increased occurrence of foetal anomalies were observed at the 8X dose...
March 6, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Rui Zhang, Xiaoxiang Wang, Xuesheng Zhang, Chao Song, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
It is hypothesized that polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) induce lethal toxicity in zebrafish which is mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 (Ahr2) activation. In this study an assay was developed based on in vivo exposure of wild-type and Tg(cyp1a:gfp) transgenic zebrafish embryos/larvae to PCDPS congeners (i.e. six dichloro- to heptachloro-diphenyl sulfides) coupled with a zebrafish Ahr2-luciferase reporter gene (LRG) expression. Waterborne PCDPSs were found to be accumulated in zebrafish larvae and exposure to PCDPSs led to a significant increase in mortality and cyp1s mRNA expression...
March 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Louise Ramhøj, Ulla Hass, Julie Boberg, Martin Scholze, Sofie Christiansen, Flemming Nielsen, Marta Axelstad
The developmental toxicity of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) is largely unknown despite widespread environmental contamination and presence in human serum, tissues and milk.To thoroughly investigate PFHxS toxicity in developing rats and to mimic a realistic human exposure situation, we examined a low dose close to human relevant PFHxS exposure, and combined the dose-response studies of PFHxS with a fixed dose of twelve environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDmix).Two reproductive toxicity studies in time-mated Wistar rats exposed throughout gestation and lactation were performed...
March 6, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Tamorah R Lewis, Elaine L Shelton, Sara L Van Driest, Prince J Kannankeril, Jeff Reese
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a frequent, complex, and difficult to treat clinical syndrome among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. In addition to known clinical risk factors, there are emerging data about genetic predisposition to PDA in both animal and human models. Clinical response and toxicity from drugs used to treat PDA are highly variable. Developmental and genetic aspects of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics influence exposure and response to pharmacologic therapies. Given the variable efficacy and toxicity of known drug therapies, novel therapeutic targets for PDA treatment offer the promise of precision medicine...
February 24, 2018: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Luca Pasquini, Antonio Napolitano, Emiliano Visconti, Daniela Longo, Andrea Romano, Paolo Tomà, Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet
In recent years, gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with different types of toxicity. In particular, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, a progressive sclerotic-myxedematous systemic disease of unknown etiology, is related to gadolinium-based contrast agent administration in patients with kidney dysfunction. More recently, evidence of magnetic resonance signal intensity changes on pre-contrast T1-weighted images after multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations resulted in the hypothesis of gadolinium brain accumulation in patients with normal renal function, subsequently confirmed in pathological samples...
March 5, 2018: CNS Drugs
Uros Midic, Benjamin Goheen, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are crucial for embryo implantation and placentation. Environmental toxicants that compromise TSC function could impact fetal viability, pregnancy, and progeny health. Understanding the effects of low, chronic EDC exposures on TSCs and pregnancy is a priority in developmental toxicology. Differences in early implantation between primates and other mammals make a nonhuman primate model ideal. We examined effects of chronic low-level exposure to atrazine, tributyltin, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorooctanoic acid on rhesus monkey TSCs in vitro by RNA sequencing...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Young-Ah You, Elsayed A Mohamed, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Won-Hee Song, Buom-Yong Ryu, Myung-Geol Pang
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a reproductive and developmental toxicant that can alter the sex ratio of offspring (proportion of male offspring). We hypothesized that the alteration of sex ratio is associated with sex chromosome ratio of live spermatozoa affected by exposure to TCDD. After exposure to TCDD we analyzed simultaneously sperm sex chromosome constitution and viability, and evaluated sperm sex chromosome ratio association with embryo sex ratio in mice. Short-term exposure to TCDD affects the decreased sperm motility and viability, and the increased acrosome reaction...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Yeon-Hee Yoon, Ji Yoon Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Sung-Wook Nam, Hee-Jung Cho, Suho Lee, Ho Young Chung, Hyun-Shik Lee, Mae-Ja Park
Celecoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that selectively inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 and is prescribed for severe pain and inflammation. The excellent therapeutic effects of celecoxib mean that it is frequently used clinically, including for women of child-bearing age. However, the prenatal effects of this compound have not been studied extensively in vertebrates. The present study examined the developmental toxicity of celecoxib using a frog embryo teratogenic assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In addition, we examined its effects on cell migration using co-cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and 10T1/2 cells...
March 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Danping Huang, Hanmin Li, Qidi He, Weiqu Yuan, Zuanguang Chen, Hongzhi Yang
Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is present in food, water, and daily supplies and is regarded as a toxicant of carcinogenicity. The developmental toxicity of DEN has been rarely reported as yet. In this study, zebrafish were exposed to different concentrations of DEN at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to access embryonic toxicity of the compound. The results show that DEN resulted in negative effects of hatching rate, heartbeat, body length, and spontaneous movement. Deformities, including notochord malformation, pericardium edema, embryonic membrane turbidity, tail hypoplasia, yolk sac deformity, and growth retardation, happened during exposure period...
2018: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
Maria Gravina, Giovanni Pagano, Rahime Oral, Marco Guida, Maria Toscanesi, Antonietta Siciliano, Aldo Di Nunzio, Petra Burić, Daniel M Lyons, Philippe J Thomas, Marco Trifuoggi
Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were tested for adverse effects to early life stages of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis. Embryos were exposed to analytically measured HREE concentrations ranging from 10-7 to 10-5  M. No significant developmental defect (DD) increases were observed in embryos exposed to 10-7  M HREEs, whereas 10-5  M HREEs resulted in significant DD increase up to 96% for HoCl3 versus 14% in controls. Embryos exposed to 10-6  M HREEs showed the highest DD frequency in embryos exposed to 10-6  M DyCl3 and HoCl3 ...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"