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Developmental Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648595/molecular-evidence-of-offspring-liver-dysfunction-after-maternal-exposure-to-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#1
Yanan Hao, Jing Liu, Yanni Feng, Shuai Yu, Weidong Zhang, Lan Li, Lingjiang Min, Hongfu Zhang, Wei Shen, Yong Zhao
Recently, reproductive, embryonic and developmental toxicity have been considered as one important sector of nanoparticle (NP) toxicology, with some studies already suggesting varying levels of toxicity and possible transgenerational toxic effects. Even though many studies have investigated the toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), little is known of their impact on overall reproductive outcome and transgenerational effects. Previously we found ZnO NPs caused liver dysfunction in lipid synthesis...
June 22, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646655/syntheses-toxicities-and-anti-inflammation-of-h2s-donors-based-on-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#2
Meng Li, Jili Li, Taofeng Zhang, Quanyi Zhao, Jie Cheng, Bin Liu, Zhen Wang, Libo Zhao, Chenwei Wang
Three series of H2S donors based on NSAIDs were synthesized and characterized by (1)H-NMR, IR and ESI-HRMS. The H2S-release abilities of all compounds were evaluated in the presence of TECP or cysteine. The results show all compounds were fast H2S-releasers, and their half-lives were in range of 0-20 min. Under the same condition, H2S released from compound 9 was more than any other compounds. In cytotoxicity aspect, all compounds but 1 and 2 displayed much lower toxicities to both LO2 and HepG2 cell lines, and the IC50 values of most compounds were over 800 μM...
June 7, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646540/animal-embryotoxicity-studies-of-key-non-artemisinin-antimalarials-and-use-in-women-in-the-first-trimester
#3
REVIEW
Robert L Clark
The World Health Organization currently recommends quinine+clindamycin for use against malaria in the first trimester. This may soon change to recommending artemisinin-based combination therapies (standard duration of dosing = 3 days). The non-artemisinin partner drugs include amodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine, piperaquine, sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine, and pyronaridine. For quinine, clindamycin, and mefloquine and the combinations of sulfadoxine+pyrimethamine and artemether+lumefantrine, there are reports (including studies without internal comparison groups) that combined describe 304 to >1100 exposures of women in the first trimester for each drug with no conclusive evidence of adverse effects on pregnancy at therapeutic doses...
June 24, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645885/the-threshold-of-toxicological-concern-for-prenatal-developmental-toxicity-in-rats-and-rabbits
#4
B van Ravenzwaay, X Jiang, T Luechtefeld, T Hartung
The Threshold Toxicological Concern (TTC) is based on the concept that in absence of experimental data reasonable assurance of safety can be given if exposure is sufficiently low. Using the REACH database the low 5th percentile of the NO(A)EL distribution, for prenatal developmental toxicity (OECD guideline 414) was determined. For rats, (434 NO(A)ELs values) for maternal toxicity, this value was 10 mg/kg-bw/day. For developmental toxicity (469 NO(A)ELs): 13 mg/kg-bw/day. For rabbits, (100 NO(A)ELs), the value for maternal toxicity was 4 mg/kg-bw/day, for developmental toxicity, (112 NO(A)EL values): 10 mg/kg-bw/day...
June 20, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641471/evaluation-of-immunomodulatory-effects-of-zearalenone-in-mice
#5
Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Jong Won Kim, Yoon-Seok Roh, Jong-Hoon Kim, Han Kang Min, Hyung-Joo Kwon, Chae Woong Lim, Bumseok Kim
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species. The toxicity of ZEA has been evaluated for reproductive and developmental effects; however, there is little evidence about its acute toxicity or general immunotoxicity. In the present study, immune regulatory functions were investigated in mice that had been exposed to ZEA (5 or 20 mg/kg BW) daily for 14 days. Results showed that sub-populations of CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD11c(+) cells in the spleen and CD4(+), CD8(+) and F4/80(+) cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of ZEA (20 mg/kg)-exposed hosts were decreased compared to those in the control mice...
December 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641195/biotransformation-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-temporal-gene-transcription-changes-of-cytochrome-p450-enzymes-and-internal-exposure-dynamics-of-the-ahr-binding-xenobiotic-benz-a-anthracene
#6
Agnes Kühnert, Carolina Vogs, Bettina Seiwert, Silke Aulhorn, Rolf Altenburger, Henner Hollert, Eberhard Küster, Wibke Busch
Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA)...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640859/toxic-effects-of-atrazine-on-porcine-oocytes-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action
#7
Bao Yuan, Shuang Liang, Yong-Xun Jin, Ming-Jun Zhang, Jia-Bao Zhang, Nam-Hyung Kim
Because atrazine is a widely used herbicide, its adverse effects on the reproductive system have been extensively researched. In this study, we investigated the effects of atrazine exposure on porcine oocyte maturation and the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that the rates of oocyte maturation significantly decreased after treatment with 200 μM atrazine in vitro. Atrazine treatment resulted in abnormal spindle morphology but did not affect actin distribution. Atrazine exposure not only triggered a DNA damage response but also decreased MPF levels in porcine oocytes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636928/neurovascular-toxicity-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-is-markedly-enhanced-in-the-developing-mouse-central-nervous-system
#8
Sudhakar Vadivelu, Kui Xu, Vanja Tolj, Rahul Rege, Lindsay Darkins, Karthik Vishwanath
Penumbral perfusion is critical to brain viability. Proximal arterial occlusion and deep brain stroke has variable effect on cortical dysfunction. Cortical microvessel collaterals may be recruited and at times sufficient for partial parenchymal perfusion. Postnatal neural and endothelial cells are markedly vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity. Early vascular cell stress may promote partial protective neural preconditioning though postnatally a developmental window of the cerebral microvasculature may be particularly vulnerable to injury...
June 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631837/transcriptional-and-histological-alterations-in-gonad-of-adult-zebrafish-after-exposure-to-the-synthetic-progestin-norgestrel
#9
Wen-Jun Shi, Jian-Liang Zhao, Yu-Xia Jiang, Guo-Yong Huang, You-Sheng Liu, Jin-Na Zhang, Guang-Guo Ying
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Norgestrel (NGT) on the gonadal development in adult zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were exposed to NGT for 14 days at 871 ng L(-1) for microarray analysis, and a follow-up experiment was conducted to further study targeted pathway in adult zebrafish after exposure to NGT at 6.7 ng L(-1) , 83 ng L(-1) and 912 ng L(-1) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and histology analysis. The microarray analysis revealed that 11545 transcripts were identified. Gene ontology analysis showed organ development, system development, multicellular organismal development, single-organism developmental process and developmental process were significantly enriched...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630251/valnoctamide-inhibits-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-developing-brain-and-attenuates-neurobehavioral-dysfunctions-and-brain-abnormalities
#10
Sara Ornaghi, Lawrence S Hsieh, Angélique Bordey, Patrizia Vergani, Michael J Paidas, Anthony N van den Pol
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common infectious cause of brain defects and neurological dysfunction in developing human babies. Due to the teratogenicity and toxicity of available CMV antivirals, treatment options during early development are markedly limited. Valnoctamide (VCD), a neuroactive mood stabilizer with no known teratogenic activity, was recently demonstrated to have anti-CMV potential. However, it is not known whether this can be translated into an efficacious therapeutic effect to improve CMV-induced adverse neurological outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628137/-antagonistic-effect-of-quercetin-on-pm2-5-toxicity-in-the-rat-s-embryonic-development-in-vitro
#11
A Q Fan, J Q Feng, W Liu, M J Zhang, T Liu, Y L Zhou, Y J Xu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the antagonistic effect of quercetin on fine particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced embryonic developmental toxicity in vitro. METHODS: PM2.5 was collected on glass fiber filters by PM2.5 samplers during the heating period of Dec. 2015 to Mar. 2016 in an area of Haidian District, Beijing City. The sampled filters were cut into 1 cm×3 cm pieces followed by sonication. The PM2.5 suspension was filtered into a 10 cm glass dish through 8 layers of sterile carbasus and stored at -80 °C until freeze drying...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#12
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624937/acute-toxicity-of-chemical-pesticides-and-plant-derived-essential-oil-on-the-behavior-and-development-of-earthworms-eudrilus-eugeniae-kinberg-and-eisenia-fetida-savigny
#13
Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Athirstam Ponsankar, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Muthiah Chellappandian, Edward-Sam Edwin, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Wayne B Hunter, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi
Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624628/time-dependent-inhibitory-effects-of-tris-1-3-dichloro-2-propyl-phosphate-on-growth-and-transcription-of-genes-involved-in-the-gh-igf-axis-but-not-the-hpt-axis-in-female-zebrafish
#14
Ya Zhu, Guanyong Su, Dandong Yang, Yongkang Zhang, Liqin Yu, Yufei Li, John P Giesy, Robert J Letcher, Chunsheng Liu
Growth curves were used to determine sensitive exposure windows for evaluation of developmental toxicity of chemicals to zebrafish. Dose- and time-dependent effects on body mass, body length and expression of genes involved in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were examined after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). Based on growth curves, zebrafish grew most rapidly between 60 and 90 days post fertilization (dpf)...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623802/developmental-toxicity-of-glycine-coated-silica-nanoparticles-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#15
Eduard Dumitrescu, Dinusha P Karunaratne, Morgan K Prochaska, Xiaobo Liu, Kenneth N Wallace, Silvana Andreescu
Nanoparticle (NP) surface coatings are known to influence the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. This work examines the effect of glycine functionalization on silica NPs and investigates changes in viability and developmental defects in the organs of zebrafish embryos upon exposure. Silica NPs and glycine-functionalized silica NPs are synthesized and characterized. Exposure of zebrafish embryos to glycine-silica NPs affects the mortality percentage in a similar manner to soluble glycine. Developmental defects are observed in embryos exposed to soluble glycine, glycine-silica NPs, or silica NPs in comparison with the unexposed embryos...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623797/phenotypic-defects-in-newborn-gammarus-fossarum-amphipoda-following-embryonic-exposure-to-fenoxycarb
#16
Hélène Arambourou, Arnaud Chaumot, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Gaëlle Daniele, Nicolas Delorme, Khédidja Abbaci, Vincent Debat
During morphogenesis numerous morphogenetic factors ensure the production of a target phenotype. By disrupting these processes, a toxic exposure during this period could cause an increase of phenotypic defects. In the present study, embryos of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus fossarum were exposed throughout the embryogenesis to increasing concentrations of fenoxycarb (0, 0.5µgL(-1), 5µgL(-1) and 50µgL(-1)), a growth regulator insecticide analog of the insect juvenile hormone. In addition, to identify morphogenesis' sensitive period, embryos were exposed during either early or late embryonic development to 5µgL(-1) of fenoxycarb...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618666/the-toxicity-of-oil-sands-process-affected-water-ospw-a-critical-review
#17
REVIEW
Chao Li, Li Fu, James Stafford, Miodrag Belosevic, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta. Both laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that the exposure to OSPW leads to many physiological changes in a variety of organisms. Adverse effects include compromised immunological function, developmental delays, impaired reproduction, disrupted endocrine system, and higher prevalence of tissue-specific pathological manifestations. The composition of OSPW varies with several factors such as ore sources, mining process, and tailings management practices...
June 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618356/developmental-neurotoxic-effects-of-graphene-oxide-exposure-in-zebrafish-larvae-danio-rerio
#18
J C Soares, Tcb Pereira, K M Costa, T Maraschin, N R Basso, M R Bogo
Although graphene oxide (GO), a nanomaterial with hexagonal planar layer, has been widely studied due to its applications in neurobiology that include drug delivery and tissue engineering, additional studies to assess its potential toxic effects are still needed. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of GO exposure (at 5, 10, 50 or 100mg/L) during six consecutive days on mortality, hatching, spontaneous movement, heart rate, morphology, locomotion behavior, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, dopamine levels and relative gene expression of developmental neurology-related genes using zebrafish larvae...
June 3, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615018/the-aquaglyceroporin-aqp9-contributes-to-the-sex-specific-effects-of-in-utero-arsenic-exposure-on-placental-gene-expression
#19
Emily F Winterbottom, Devin C Koestler, Dennis Liang Fei, Eric Wika, Anthony J Capobianco, Carmen J Marsit, Margaret R Karagas, David J Robbins
BACKGROUND: Sex-specific factors play a major role in human health and disease, including responses to environmental stresses such as toxicant exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that such sex differences also exist during fetal development. In a previous report using the resources of the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS), we found that low-to-moderate in utero exposure to arsenic, a highly toxic and widespread pollutant, was associated with altered expression of several key developmental genes in the fetal portion of the placenta...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614664/molecular-mechanisms-of-developmental-toxicity-induced-by-graphene-oxide-at-predicted-environmental-concentrations
#20
Xingli Zhang, Qixing Zhou, Wei Zou, Xiangang Hu
Developmental toxicity is a critical issue in nanotoxicity. However, very little is known about the effects of graphene oxide (GO, a widely used carbon material) at predicted environmental concentrations on biological development or the specific molecular mechanisms. The present study established that the development of zebrafish embryos exposed to trace concentrations (1-100 μg/L) of GO was impaired because of DNA modification, protein carbonylation and excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially the superoxide radical...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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