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Developmental Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926817/safety-of-bacillus-thuringiensis-cry1c-protein-for-daphnia-magna-based-on-different-functional-traits
#1
Yi Chen, Yan Yang, Haojun Zhu, Jörg Romeis, Yunhe Li, Yufa Peng, Xiuping Chen
Cry1C is a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal protein and it can be produced by transgenic rice lines developed in China. Cladocera species are common aquatic arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in Bt-transgenic plants through ingestion of pollen or crop residues in water. As the cladoceran Daphnia magna plays an important role in the aquatic food chain, it is important to assess the possible effects of Bt crops to this species. To evaluate the safety of the Cry1C protein for D...
September 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924728/a-review-on-the-mechanism-risk-evaluation-and-prevention-of-coal-spontaneous-combustion-in-china
#2
Biao Kong, Zenghua Li, Yongliang Yang, Zhen Liu, Daocheng Yan
In recent years, the ecology, security, and sustainable development of modern mines have become the theme of coal mine development worldwide. However, spontaneous combustion of coal under conditions of oxygen supply and automatic exothermic heating during coal mining lead to coalfield fires. Coal spontaneous combustion (CSC) causes huge economic losses and casualties, with the toxic and harmful gases produced during coal combustion not only polluting the working environment, but also causing great damage to the ecological environment...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923356/subcutaneous-injections-of-aluminum-at-vaccine-adjuvant-levels-activate-innate-immune-genes-in-mouse-brain-that-are-homologous-with-biomarkers-of-autism
#3
Dan Li, Lucija Tomljenovic, Yongling Li, Christopher A Shaw
Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by immune dysfunction. It is manifested in early childhood, during a window of early developmental vulnerability where the normal developmental trajectory is most susceptible to xenobiotic insults. Aluminum (Al) vaccine adjuvants are xenobiotics with immunostimulating and neurotoxic properties to which infants worldwide are routinely exposed. To investigate Al's immune and neurotoxic impact in vivo, we tested the expression of 17 genes which are implicated in both autism and innate immune response in brain samples of Al-injected mice in comparison to control mice...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920102/does-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-regulate-pluripotency
#4
Chia-I Ko, Alvaro Puga
Recent evidence from embryonic stem cells suggests that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays a central role in the regulation of pluripotency, a short-lived property of cells in the early blastula inner cell mass (ICM). Four key observations support this conclusion. The first is the temporal association between upregulation of AHR expression and the onset of cell differentiation, which argues for the AHR as a determinant of cell fate decisions. The second is the repression of the pluripotency factors OCT4 and NANOG by the AHR, which depresses their function and contributes to the cell's exit from pluripotency...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917212/comparative-analytical-and-toxicological-assessment-of-methylcyclohexanemethanol-mchm-mixtures-associated-with-the-elk-river-chemical-spill
#5
Katharine A Horzmann, Chloe de Perre, Linda S Lee, Andrew J Whelton, Jennifer L Freeman
On January 9, 2014, a chemical mixture containing crude methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) contaminated the water supply of Charleston, West Virginia. Although the mixture was later identified as a mix of crude MCHM and stripped propylene glycol phenyl ethers, initial risk assessment focused on 4-MCHM, the predominant component of crude MCHM. The mixture's exact composition and the toxicity differences between 4-MCHM, crude MCHM, and the tank mixture were unknown. We analyzed the chemical composition of crude MCHM and the tank mixture via GC/MS and, based on identified spectra, found that crude MCHM and the tank mixture differed in chemical composition...
September 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916171/neurobehavioral-assessment-of-mice-following-repeated-oral-exposures-to-domoic-acid-during-prenatal-development
#6
Motohiro Shiotani, Toby B Cole, Sungwoo Hong, Julie Ju Young Park, William C Griffith, Thomas M Burbacher, Tomomi Workman, Lucio G Costa, Elaine M Faustman
Domoic acid (DA) is an algal toxin which has been associated with significant neurotoxicity in humans, non-human primates, rodents, and marine mammals. Developmental exposure to DA is believed to result in neurotoxicity that may persist into adulthood. DA is produced by harmful algal blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia, raising concerns about the consumption of contaminated seafood. We evaluated oral exposures to DA during pregnancy in mice. Doses of 0 (vehicle), 1 or 3mg/kg/d of DA were administered by gavage to C57BL/6J mice on gestational days 10 to 17...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915542/comparative-susceptibility-of-two-neotropical-predators-eriopis-connexa-and-chrysoperla-externa-to-acetamiprid-and-pyriproxyfen-short-and-long-term-effects-after-egg-exposure
#7
Federico Rimoldi, Marilina N Fogel, Alicia E Ronco, Marcela I Schneider
Compatibility assessments between selective insecticides and the natural enemies of pests are essential for integrated-pest-management programs. Chrysoperla externa and Eriopis connexa are two principal Neotropical predators of agricultural pests whose conservation in agroecosystems requires a toxicity evaluation of pesticides to minimize the impact on those beneficial insects on the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the toxicity of the insecticides pyriproxyfen and acetamiprid on C. externa and E...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912674/a-mechanistic-understanding-of-axon-degeneration-in-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
REVIEW
Yusuke Fukuda, Yihang Li, Rosalind A Segal
Chemotherapeutic agents cause many short and long term toxic side effects to peripheral nervous system (PNS) that drastically alter quality of life. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and enduring disorder caused by several anti-neoplastic agents. CIPN typically presents with neuropathic pain, numbness of distal extremities, and/or oversensitivity to thermal or mechanical stimuli. This adverse side effect often requires a reduction in chemotherapy dosage or even discontinuation of treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911972/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-immune-neuroendocrine-network
#9
REVIEW
Jane Kasten-Jolly, David A Lawrence
The environmental toxicant lead (Pb) has long been known to induce neurological deficits. The 1st century Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides noted that "lead makes the mind give way". Current studies are suggesting the effects of Pb on behaviors may involve the immune system and conversely some immunomodulatory changes may be due to Pb effects in the central nervous system. Although Pb-induced disorders do not appear to discriminate among females and males, this report discusses the differences observed in human and animal studies regarding differential gender effects on gene expression after Pb exposure...
September 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904588/a-case-of-epilepsia-partialis-continua-due-to-linear-nevus-syndrome-with-hemimegalencephaly
#10
Leema Pauline Cornelius, Vivekasaravanan Raju, Ravi A Lalapet
Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a form of focal status epilepticus often refractory to anticonvulsant therapy. A wide range of abnormalities such as inflammatory, vascular, metabolic-toxic, developmental malformations, and neoplasia cause EPC. Linear nevus syndrome with hemimegalencephaly is one of the developmental malformations that can present with EPC.
April 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904296/developmental-changes-in-drug-metabolizing-enzyme-expression-during-metamorphosis-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#11
Junpei Mori, Seigo Sanoh, Keiko Kashiwagi, Hideki Hanada, Mitsuki Shigeta, Ken-Ichi T Suzuki, Takashi Yamamoto, Yaichiro Kotake, Kazumi Sugihara, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Shigeru Ohta
A large number of chemicals are routinely detected in aquatic environments, and these chemicals may adversely affect aquatic organisms. Accurate risk assessment requires understanding drug-metabolizing systems in aquatic organisms because metabolism of these chemicals is a critical determinant of chemical bioaccumulation and related toxicity. In this study, we evaluated mRNA expression levels of nuclear receptors and drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities in pro-metamorphic tadpoles, froglets, and adult frogs to determine how drug-metabolizing systems are altered at different life stages...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903500/intrinsic-xenobiotic-metabolizing-enzyme-activities-in-early-life-stages-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#12
Jens C Otte, Bernadette Schultz, Daniela Fruth, Eric Fabian, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Björn Hidding, Edward R Salinas
Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903496/editor-s-highlight-development-of-novel-neural-embryonic-stem-celltests-for-high-throughput-screening-of-embryotoxic-chemicals
#13
Kumiko Kobayashi, Noriyuki Suzuki, Kiyoshi Higashi, Akane Muroi, Florian Le Coz, Hirohisa Nagahori, Koichi Saito
There is a great demand for appropriate alternative methods to rapidly evaluate the developmental and reproductive toxicity of a wide variety of chemicals. We used the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into cardiomyocytes as a basis for establishing a rapid and highly reproducible invitro embryotoxicity test known as the Hand1-Luc Embryonic Stem Cell Test (Hand1-Luc EST). In this study, we developed novel neural-Luc ESTs using two marker genes for neural development, tubulin beta-3 (Tubb3) and Reelin (Reln), and evaluated the capacity of these tests to predict developmental toxicity...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903092/lethal-and-sublethal-effects-of-the-pirimicarb-based-formulation-aficida-%C3%A2-on-boana-pulchella-dum%C3%A3-ril-and-bibron-1841-tadpoles-anura-hylidae
#14
G S Natale, J Vera-Candioti, C Ruiz de Arcaute, S Soloneski, M L Larramendy, A E Ronco
Acute lethal and sublethal toxicity of the pirimicarb-based commercial formulation Aficida(®) were evaluated on Boana pulchella tadpoles. Whereas mortality was used as end point for lethality, frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities as well as alterations in the frequency of erythroblasts in circulating blood as biomarkers for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. Swimming, growth, developmental and morphological abnormalities were also employed as sublethal end points. Results show that the species is within the 13th percentile of the distribution of acute sensitivity of species to pirimicarb for aquatic vertebrates...
September 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899716/from-birth-to-death-a-role-for-reactive-oxygen-species-in-neuronal-development
#15
REVIEW
Carlos Wilson, Ernesto Muñoz-Palma, Christian González-Billault
Historically, ROS have been considered toxic molecules, especially when their intracellular concentration reaches high values. However, physiological levels of ROS support crucial cellular processes, acting as second messengers able to regulate intrinsic signaling pathways. Specifically, both the central and peripheral nervous systems are especially susceptible to changes in the redox state, developing either a defense or adaptive response depending on the concentration, source and duration of the pro-oxidative stimuli...
September 9, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898774/toxicity-of-naproxen-sodium-and-its-mixture-with-tramadol-hydrochloride-on-fish-early-life-stages
#16
Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Veronika Doubkova, Miroslav Prokes, Frantisek Tichy, Emma Fiorino, Caterina Faggio, Zdenka Svobodova
Pharmaceuticals occur in water bodies as a consequence of their incomplete removal during waste water treatment processes. The occurence of pharmaceuticals in surface waters as well as their possible impact on aquatic vertebrates have received considerable attention in recent years. However, there is still a lack of informations on the chronic effects of widely used drugs as well as their possible mixture toxicity on non-target aquatic vertebrates as well as their possible mixture toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of naproxen sodium on early life stages of fish and evaluate its mixture toxicity with tramadol hydrochloride, which was assessed in our earlier study as a single substance...
August 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894124/effects-of-purified-or-plant-produced-cry-proteins-on-drosophila-melanogaster-diptera-drosophilidae-larvae
#17
Simone Haller, Jörg Romeis, Michael Meissle
Although genetically engineered crops producing insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide, few studies cover effects of Bt crops or Cry proteins on dipteran species in an agricultural context. We tested the toxicity of six purified Cry proteins and of Bt cotton and Bt maize tissue on Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as a surrogate for decomposing Diptera. ELISA confirmed the presence of Cry proteins in plant material, artificial diet, and fly larvae, and concentrations were estimated...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892742/toxicity-teratogenicity-and-antibacterial-activity-of-posterior-salivary-gland-psg-toxin-from-the-cuttlefish-sepia-pharaonis-ehrenberg-1831
#18
Ramachandran Karthik, Venkatesan Manigandan, Ramachandran Saravanan
Toxins from the posterior salivary gland (PSG) of cuttlefishes are known toxins with pronounced toxicity. In the present study, ionic peptide rich PSG toxin from the cuttlefish S. pharaonis was isolated by ion exchange chromatography and purified by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC), with active fraction at a retention time of 26min. The net protein content of the PSG toxin was estimated to be 46.6mg at a proximate molecular weight of∼50kDa. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) of PSG toxin revealed the presence of alcoholic OH, primary NH, alkyl CH and conjugated CONH functional groups...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892372/transcriptomic-analysis-of-thalidomide-challenged-chick-embryo-suggests-possible-link-between-impaired-vasculogenesis-and-defective-organogenesis
#19
Vimal Veeriah, Pavitra Kumar, Lakshmikirupa Sundaresan, Zeenath Mafitha, Ravi Gupta, Uttara Saran, Jeganathan Manivannan, Suvro Chatterjee
Since the conception of thalidomide as a teratogen approximately 30 hypotheses have been put forward to explain the developmental toxicity of the molecule. However, no systems biology approach has been taken to understand the phenomena yet. The proposed work was aimed to explore the mechanism of thalidomide toxicity in developing chick embryo in the context of transcriptomics by using genome wide RNA sequencing data. In this study, we challenged the developing embryo at the stage of blood island formations (HH8) which is the most vulnerable stage for thalidomide-induced deformities...
September 11, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890130/effects-of-perinatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-on-the-volume-of-sexually-dimorphic-nuclei-of-juvenile-rats-a-clarity-bpa-consortium-study
#20
Sheryl E Arambula, Joelle Fuchs, Jinyan Cao, Heather B Patisaul
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high volume endocrine disrupting chemical found in a wide variety of products including plastics and epoxy resins. Human exposure is nearly ubiquitous, and higher in children than adults. Because BPA has been reported to interfere with sex steroid hormone signaling, there is concern that developmental exposure, even at levels below the current FDA No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of 5mg/kg body weight (bw)/day, can disrupt brain sexual differentiation. The current studies were conducted as part of the CLARITY-BPA (Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity) program and tested the hypothesis that perinatal BPA exposure would induce morphological changes in hormone sensitive, sexually dimorphic brain regions...
September 7, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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