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Developmental Toxicity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913787/safety-assessment-of-polyquaternium-22-and-polyquarternium-39-as-used-in-cosmetics
#1
Wilbur Johnson, Bart Heldreth, Wilma F Bergfeld, Donald V Belsito, Ronald A Hill, Curtis D Klaassen, Daniel C Liebler, James G Marks, Ronald C Shank, Thomas J Slaga, Paul W Snyder, F Alan Andersen
Polyquaternium-22 and polyquaternium-39 are polymers that function as antistatic agents, film formers, and hair fixatives in cosmetic products. These ingredients are being used at concentrations up to 2% (polyquaternium-22, in a rinse-off product) and up to 3% (polyquaternium-39, in rinse-off and leave-on products). The unreacted monomer content of these ingredients was considered low and of no toxicological concern. Limited data showed no skin irritation/sensitization. Although these ingredients were nongenotoxic in bacterial assays, mammalian genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity data were not available...
November 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913070/basagran-%C3%A2-induces-developmental-malformations-and-changes-the-bacterial-community-of-zebrafish-embryos
#2
Jacinta M M Oliveira, Victor Galhano, Isabel Henriques, Amadeu M V M Soares, Susana Loureiro
This study aimed to assess the effects of Basagran(®) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. The embryos were exposed to Basagran(®) at concentrations ranging from 120.0 to 480.6 mg/L, and the effects on embryo development (up to 96 h) and bacterial communities of 96 h-larvae were assessed. The embryo development response was time-dependent and concentration-dependent (106.35 < EC50 < 421.58 mg/L). The sensitivity of embryo-related endpoints decreased as follows: blood clotting in the head and/or around the yolk sac > delay or anomaly in yolk sac absorption > change in swimming equilibrium > development of pericardial and/or yolk sac oedema > scoliosis...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908457/developmental-neurotoxicity-of-succeeding-generations-of-insecticides
#3
REVIEW
Yael Abreu-Villaça, Edward D Levin
Insecticides are by design toxic. They must be toxic to effectively kill target species of insects. Unfortunately, they also have off-target toxic effects that can harm other species, including humans. Developmental neurotoxicity is one of the most prominent off-target toxic risks of insecticides. Over the past seven decades several classes of insecticides have been developed, each with their own mechanisms of effect and toxic side effects. This review covers the developmental neurotoxicity of the succeeding generations of insecticides including organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates and neonicotinoids...
November 28, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905044/modulatory-effect-of-the-exudates-released-by-the-brown-kelp-lessonia-spicata-on-the-toxicity-of-copper-in-early-developmental-stages-of-ecologically-related-organisms
#4
Alexandre Fellous, Santiago Andrade, Francisco Vidal-Ramirez, Ricardo Calderón, Jessica Beltran, Juan A Correa
Lessonia spicata is a key dominant species along the Pacific coast of South America, providing a habitat for many organisms. However, this role can be affected by abiotic stress, such as metals. To counteract the toxic effect, L. spicata, among other seaweeds, releases exudates that bind metals. In this study, tolerances to copper of organisms related to the kelp forest (spores of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyceae) and L. spicata (Phaeophyceae) and Zoea I of Taliepus dentatus (Milne-Edwards, Crustacea)) were studied; then, exudates are assessed by their protective effect...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903287/high-content-imaging-quantification-of-multiple-in-vitro-human-neurogenesis-events-after-neurotoxin-exposure
#5
Xian Wu, Anirban Majumder, Robin Webb, Steven L Stice
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to test neural active compounds in a human developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) model that represents neural tube stages of vulnerability. Previously we showed that 14 days in vitro (DIV 14) was sufficient to generate cryopreserved neuronal cells for post thaw neurite recovery assays. However, short exposure and assessment may not detect toxicants that affect an early neurogenesis continuum, from a mitotic human neural progenitor (hNP) cell population through the course of neurite outgrowth in differentiating neurons...
December 1, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900051/sensitization-strategies-in-lung-cancer
#6
Xiao-Ying Zhang, Peiying Zhang
The commonly used treatment avenues employed by cancer physicians include surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy in addition to rapid developmental and confirmatory studies on the efficacy of targeted therapies. However, the success rate in these commonly used treatments remains relatively low due to associated side effects, such as normal cell targeting/toxicity and resistance. In addition, investigators are continuing their efforts to enhance the efficacy of RT and chemotherapy to prevent associated side effects and improve the survival rate of the affected patient in order to increase patient survival...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893963/regulated-proteolysis-in-bacteria-caulobacter
#7
Kamal Kishore Joshi, Peter Chien
Protein degradation is essential for all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent proteases to control protein destruction in a highly specific manner. Recognition of substrates is determined by the inherent specificity of the proteases and through adaptor proteins that alter the spectrum of substrates. In the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus, regulated protein degradation is required for stress responses, developmental transitions, and cell cycle progression. In this review, we describe recent progress in our understanding of the regulated and stress-responsive protein degradation pathways in Caulobacter...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892717/dental-implants-modified-with-drug-releasing-titania-nanotubes-therapeutic-potential-and-developmental-challenges
#8
Karan Gulati, Sašo Ivanovski
The trans-mucosal nature of dental implants presents a unique therapeutic challenge, requiring not only rapid establishment and subsequent maintenance of osseointegration, but also the formation of resilient soft tissue integration. Key challenges in achieving long-term success are sub-optimal bone integration in compromised bone conditions and impaired trans-mucosal tissue integration in the presence of a persistent oral microbial biofilm. These challenges can be targeted by employing a drug-releasing implant modification such as TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), engineered on titanium surfaces via electrochemical anodization...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891226/validation-of-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-immunotherapy-in-cancer-volume-ii-clinical-validation-and-regulatory-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Kevin K Dobbin, Alessandra Cesano, John Alvarez, Rachael Hawtin, Sylvia Janetzki, Ilan Kirsch, Giuseppe V Masucci, Paul B Robbins, Senthamil R Selvan, Howard Z Streicher, Jenny Zhang, Lisa H Butterfield, Magdalena Thurin
There is growing recognition that immunotherapy is likely to significantly improve health outcomes for cancer patients in the coming years. Currently, while a subset of patients experience substantial clinical benefit in response to different immunotherapeutic approaches, the majority of patients do not but are still exposed to the significant drug toxicities. Therefore, a growing need for the development and clinical use of predictive biomarkers exists in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Predictive cancer biomarkers can be used to identify the patients who are or who are not likely to derive benefit from specific therapeutic approaches...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890808/use-of-physiologically-based-kinetic-modeling-facilitated-reverse-dosimetry-of-in-vitro-toxicity-data-for-prediction-of-in-vivo-developmental-toxicity-of-tebuconazole-in-rats
#10
Hequn Li, Mengying Zhang, Jacques Vervoort, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Jochem Louisse
Toxicological hazard and risk assessment largely rely on animal testing. For economic and ethical reasons, the development and validation of reliable alternative methods for these animal studies, such as in vitro assays, are urgently needed. In vitro concentration-response curves, however, need to be translated into in vivo dose-response curves for risk assessment purposes. In the present study, we translated in vitro concentration-response data of the antifungal compound tebuconazole, obtained in the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay, into predicted in vivo dose-response data for developmental toxicity using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-facilitated reverse dosimetry...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890689/developmental-toxicity-of-nicotine-a-transdisciplinary-synthesis-and-implications-for-emerging-tobacco-products
#11
REVIEW
Lucinda J England, Kjersti Aagaard, Michele Bloch, Kevin Conway, Kelly Cosgrove, Rachel Grana, Thomas J Gould, Dorothy Hatsukami, Frances Jensen, Denise Kandel, Bruce Lanphear, Frances Leslie, James R Pauly, Jenae Neiderhiser, Mark Rubinstein, Theodore A Slotkin, Eliot Spindel, Laura Stroud, Lauren Wakschlag
While the health risks associated with adult cigarette smoking have been well described, effects of nicotine exposure during periods of developmental vulnerability are often overlooked. Using MEDLINE and PubMed literature searches, books, reports and expert opinion, a transdisciplinary group of scientists reviewed human and animal research on the health effects of exposure to nicotine during pregnancy and adolescence. A synthesis of this research supports that nicotine contributes critically to adverse effects of gestational tobacco exposure, including reduced pulmonary function, auditory processing defects, impaired infant cardiorespiratory function, and may contribute to cognitive and behavioral deficits in later life...
November 24, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890000/reproductive-toxicity-of-t-cells-in-early-life-abnormal-immune-development-and-postnatal-diseases
#12
Han-Xiao Liu, Aifang Jiang, Ting Chen, Wen Qu, Hui-Yi Yan, Jie Ping
Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent research has pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life...
November 24, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887783/a-systematic-review-of-mancozeb-as-a-reproductive-and-developmental-hazard
#13
REVIEW
Jennifer Runkle, Joan Flocks, Jeannie Economos, Anne L Dunlop
BACKGROUND: The potential adverse reproductive and developmental effects of Mancozeb, especially in sensitive subpopulations, have not been fully reviewed for this widely used fungicide. OBJECTIVE: To review the experimental and epidemiologic evidence for the association between exposure to Mancozeb and reproductive and developmental health outcomes using an adaptation of the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) systematic review framework...
November 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886057/age-related-modulations-of-aqp4-and-caveolin-1-in-the-hippocampus-predispose-the-toxic-effect-of-phoneutria-nigriventer-spider-venom
#14
Edilene S Soares, Leila M Stávale, Monique C P Mendonça, Andressa Coope, Maria Alice da Cruz-Höfling
We have previously demonstrated that Phoneutria nigriventer venom (PNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, swelling of astrocytes end-feet and fluid permeation into brain interstitium in rats. Caveolae and water channels respond to BBB alterations by co-participation in shear stress response and edema formation/resolution. Herein, we showed post-natal developmental-related changes of two BBB-associated transporter proteins: the endothelial caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the major scaffolding protein from caveolae frame, and the astroglial aquaporin-4 (AQP4), the main water channel protein expressed in astrocytic peri-vascular end-feet processes, in the hippocampus of rats intraperitoneally-administered PNV...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885322/nedley-depression-hit-hypothesis-identifying-depression-and-its-causes
#15
REVIEW
Neil Nedley, Francisco E Ramirez
Depression is often diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. We propose how certain lifestyle choices and non-modifiable factors can predict the development of depression. We identified 10 cause categories (hits or "blows" to the brain) and theorize that four or more active hits could trigger a depression episode. Methods. A sample of 4271 participants from our community-based program (70% female; ages 17-94 years) was assessed at baseline and at the eighth week of the program using a custom test...
November 2016: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880925/developmental-bisphenol-a-exposure-impairs-sperm-function-and-reproduction-in-zebrafish
#16
Jiangfei Chen, Katerine S Saili, Yueqin Liu, Lelin Li, Yuxin Zhao, Yinhang Jia, Chenglian Bai, Robert L Tanguay, Qiaoxiang Dong, Changjiang Huang
The developmental and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) has been demonstrated in a variety of model systems. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were waterborne-exposed to BPA during three different developmental stages: embryonic period:6 h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 months post fertilization (mpf); larval period: 6 days post fertilization (dpf) to 5 mpf; and sexually mature period: 3 mpf to 5 mpf. Evaluations included F0 adult growth, reproduction parameters, and F1 offspring development. BPA exposure did not affect zebrafish growth in any of exposure groups...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876672/is-there-a-human-health-risk-associated-with-indirect-exposure-to-perfluorinated-carboxylates-pfcas
#17
Amy A Rand, Scott A Mabury
The production and widespread use of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) has led to their presence in environment, wildlife, and humans. Particularly, the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) are pervasive throughout the world and have been found at ng/mL concentrations in human blood. PFCAs, especially those having longer carbon chain lengths (≥C6), are associated with developmental and hormonal effects, immunotoxicity, and promote tumor growth in rodents through their role as PPARα agonists...
November 19, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876249/synthesis-anti-proliferative-activity-sar-study-and-preliminary-in-vivo-toxicity-study-of-substituted-n-n-bis-arylmethyl-benzimidazolium-salts-against-a-panel-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cell-lines
#18
Kerri L Shelton, Michael A DeBord, Patrick O Wagers, Marie R Southerland, Travis M Williams, Nikki K Robishaw, Leah P Shriver, Claire A Tessier, Matthew J Panzner, Wiley J Youngs
A series of N,N'-bis(arylmethyl)benzimidazolium salts have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro anti-cancer activity against select non-small cell lung cancer cell lines to create a structure activity relationship profile. The results indicate that hydrophobic substituents on the salts increase the overall anti-proliferative activity. Our data confirms that naphthylmethyl substituents at the nitrogen atoms (N(1)(N(3))) and highly lipophilic substituents at the carbon atoms (C(2) and C(5)(C(6))) can generate benzimidazolium salts with anti-proliferative activity that is comparable to that of cisplatin...
November 5, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876055/methanolic-extract-of-agerantum-conyzoides-exhibited-toxicity-and-growth-disruption-activities-against-anopheles-gambiae-sensu-stricto-and-anopheles-arabiensis-larvae
#19
Jackson Mbithi Muema, Sospeter Ngoci Njeru, Céline Colombier, Rose Muthoni Marubu
BACKGROUND: Vector control remains the mainstay to effective malaria management. The negative implications following persistent application of synthetic insecticides geared towards regulation of mosquito populations have necessitated prospection for ecofriendly effective chemistries. Plant-derived compounds have the potential to control malaria-transmitting mosquito populations. Previously, Agerantum conyzoides extracts have demonstrated toxicity effects on disease-transmitting mosquitoes...
November 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872851/developmental-toxicity-of-carbon-quantum-dots-to-the-embryos-larvae-of-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#20
Yuan-Yuan Xiao, Li Liu, Yao Chen, Yu-Lian Zeng, Ming-Zhi Liu, Li Jin
The toxic effects of CDs on rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated. The results showed that rare minnow embryos had decreased spontaneous movements, body length, increased heart rate, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, tail/spinal curvature, various morphological malformations, and decreased hatching rate. Biochemical analysis showed the CDs exposure significantly inhibited the activity of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase and increased the MDA contents and the activity of SOD, CAT, and GPX...
2016: BioMed Research International
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