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Jeffrey R Wozniak, Anna Y Klintsova, Derek A Hamilton, Sandra M Mooney
The 2017 Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) meeting was titled "Prenatal alcohol exposure in the context of multiple factors affecting brain development." The theme was reflected in the interactions between members of the Teratology Society and the FASDSG this year. The first keynote speaker, Elaine Faustman, Ph.D., was a liaison between the societies and spoke about systems biology and the multiple genetic and environmental influences on development. The second keynote speaker, Rebecca Knickmeyer, Ph...
November 1, 2017: Alcohol
Goudarz Molaei, Eliza A H Little
Morphological anomalies have been reported in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), from the northeastern and upper Midwestern United States, complicating identification of this important vector of human pathogens. Here, we report a case of a local morphological anomaly in I. scapularis, parasitizing a human living in Connecticut. We used a dichotomous morphological key, high-resolution and scanning electron microscopy images, as well as DNA sequencing for identification. The specimen was identified as an adult female I...
March 5, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Anthony Flamier, Supriya Singh, Theodore P Rasmussen
Human birth defects are relatively common and can be caused by exposure to environmental teratogens or to pharmaceuticals with teratogenic activities. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), by virtue of their pluripotent nature, provide an excellent cellular platform for teratogen detection and risk assessment. This unit describes detailed protocols for the preparation and validation of highly pluripotent hESCs, the production of large quantities of aggregated multicellular spheroids composed of hESCs, and these spheroids' differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs)...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Alberto Zanatta, Céline Cherici, Alessandro Bargoni, Serena Buzzi, Valentina Cani, Paolo Mazzarello, Fabio Zampieri
Vincenzo Malacarne, professor of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in Turin, Pavia, and Padua, Italy, represented a perfect example of an eighteenth century "letterato", combining interests in humanities, sciences, and politics, embodying the ideal of an encyclopedic and universal culture. He made important contributions in anatomy and surgery, teratology, obstetrics, neurology, and history of medicine, adopting a interdisciplinary approach based on the correlation between anatomy, surgery, and clinics...
February 27, 2018: Cerebellum
B T Green, S T Lee, J W Keele, K D Welch, D Cook, J A Pfister, W R Kem
Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that the alkaloids would completely inhibit ultrasound-monitored fetal movement in a goat model. Different, single doses of anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine, DMPP, or saline control were administered I.V. to pregnant goats on day 40 of gestation and the number of fetal movements per 5 min sample was measured by ultrasound at times 0, 0...
February 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ambika Vishnu Kadammattil, Shyama Prasad Sajankila, Suma Prabhu, Bhuvanagiri Nageshwar Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao
Acceleration in development of metallic nanoparticles for their utility in medical and technological applications due to their unique physicochemical properties has concurrently raised a matter of concern due to their potential toxicity. Of the enormous metallic nanostructures, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) having optical and electrochemical properties are scrutinized for theranostic applications. Therefore, their safety profile is of a major concern in optimizing a safe dose for its clinical utility...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Alan M Hoberman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Lucas L Boer, Peter L J Boek, Andries J van Dam, Roelof-Jan Oostra
The anatomical collection of the Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center (historically referred to as Museum Anatomicum Academiae Lugduno-Batavae) houses and maintains more than 13,000 unique anatomical, pathological and zoological specimens, and include the oldest teratological specimens of The Netherlands. Throughout four centuries hundreds of teratological specimens were acquired by more than a dozen collectors. Due to the rich history of this vast collection, teratological specimens can be investigated in a unique retrospective sight going back almost four centuries...
March 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Yuko Izumi, Yojiro Ooshima, Kazuhiro Chihara, Michio Fujiwara, Yoshihiro Katsumata, Kohei Shiota
Categorization of fetal external findings in common laboratory animals, intended to make the agreement at Berlin Workshop in 2014 more practical, was proposed by the Terminology Committee of the Japanese Teratology Society (JTS) at the Workshop in the 55th JTS Annual Meeting in 2015. In the Workshop, 73 external findings, which had been categorized as "Gray zone" anomalies but not as "Malformation" or "Variation" in the 2014 Berlin Workshop, were discussed and classified as "Malformation", "Non-structural abnormality", "Variation", and "Not applicable...
January 30, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
Yusuf C Kaplan, Elif Keskin-Arslan, Gözde Küçüksolak, Fatih Akyol, Barış Karadas, Sacit Nuri Görgel, Tijen Kaya-Temiz
OBJECTIVE: The 2014 report by European Medicines Agency (EMA) restricted the use of thiocolchicoside for all reproductive-age women. In this study, we aim to expand the systematically-collected human data and discuss it within the frame provided by this report. METHODS: We identified and evaluated the outcomes of 48 prospectively recorded pregnancies referred to Terafar (Teratology Information Service, Izmir, Turkey). RESULTS: Of 42 pregnancies with first-trimester exposure and known outcomes, 31 resulted in live births, four in miscarriage and seven ended with elective terminations...
January 26, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Thomas W Sadler
A long standing axiom in the field of teratology states that the teratogenic period, when most birth defects are produced, occurs during the third to eighth weeks of development post-fertilization. Any insults prior to this time are thought to result in a slowing of embryonic growth from which the conceptus recovers or death of the embryo followed by spontaneous abortion. However, new insights into embryonic development during the first two weeks, including formation of the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes, suggests that signaling pathways regulating these processes are prime targets for genetic and toxic insults...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Chelsey J F Smith, Kenneth L Jones, Diana L Johnson, Gretchen Bandoli, Loan K Robinson, Arthur Kavanaugh, Christina D Chambers
The purpose of this study was to analyze the risk of maternal autoimmune disease or associated treatments on infantile hemangiomas (IHs), a common benign vascular tumor in infants, and to better understand how maternal chronic inflammation may play a factor in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Eligible women from the United States and Canada who enrolled before 19 weeks' gestation and delivered at least one live born infant were recruited as part of the Organization of Teratology Information Specialists (OTIS) Autoimmune Disease in Pregnancy Project from 2004-2013...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Herbert Juch, Liudmila Nikitina, Sabine Reimann, Martin Gauster, Gottfried Dohr, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Denise Hoch, Karin Kornmueller, Rainer Haag
A thorough understanding of nanoparticle bio-distribution at the feto-maternal interface will be a prerequisite for their diagnostic or therapeutic application in women of childbearing age and for teratologic risk assessment. Therefore, the tissue interaction of biocompatible dendritic polyglycerol nanoparticles (dPG-NPs) with first- trimester human placental explants were analyzed and compared to less sophisticated trophoblast-cell based models. First-trimester human placental explants, BeWo cells and primary trophoblast cells from human term placenta were exposed to fluorescence labeled, ∼5 nm dPG-NPs, with differently charged surfaces, at concentrations of 1 µM and 10 nM, for 6 and 24 h...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Tyler J Wallen, George J Arnaoutakis, Randa Blenden, Rodrigo Soto
BACKGROUND: This report documents the outcomes of cardiac surgical mission trips organized by the International Children's Heart Foundation (ICHF), a nongovernmental organization that provides congenital heart surgery services to the developing world, and discusses factors associated with a reduction of mortality and morbidity in this setting. METHODS: A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted to identify any patient who underwent surgical intervention during the course of an ICHF mission trip...
January 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Soon Hyuck Lee, Woo Young Jang, Gi Won Choi, Young Keun Lee, Hae Woon Jung
PURPOSE: To investigate the arthroscopic pathoanatomy of the transverse acetabular ligament (TAL) and determine whether a TAL incision is necessary for the concentric reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in infants and young children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic-assisted reduction for DDH between July 2008 and April 2016. The indications for this intervention included patients in whom closed reduction failed and those who did not require bone operations...
December 26, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Kajal Kumari, Hennariikka Koivisto, Capstick Myles, Naarala Jonne, Viluksela Matti, Tanila Heikki, Juutilainen Jukka
Electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in the environment. Human exposure to intermediate frequency (IF) fields is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems, wireless power transfer, and induction heating cooking hobs. However, there are limited data on possible health effects of exposure to IF magnetic fields (MF). In the present study, we set out to assess cognitive and behavioural effects of IF MF in mice exposed during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Pregnant female mice were exposed continuously to 7...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Research
Ilaria Giovannini, Tiziana Altiero, Roberto Guidetti, Lorena Rebecchi
Because conditions in continental Antarctica are highly selective and extremely hostile to life, its biota is depauperate, but well adapted to live in this region. Global climate change has the potential to impact continental Antarctic organisms because of increasing temperatures and ultraviolet radiation. This research evaluates how ongoing climate changes will affect Antarctic species, and whether Antarctic organisms will be able to adapt to the new environmental conditions. Tardigrades represent one of the main terrestrial components of Antarctic meiofauna; therefore, the pan-Antarctic tardigrade Acutuncus antarcticus was used as model to predict the fate of Antarctic meiofauna threatened by climate change...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Maria Battistoni, Silvia Mercurio, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, Francesca Cristiana Metruccio, Elena Menegola, Roberta Pennati
The aim of this work was to evaluate the Ascidian Embryo Teratogenicity assay (AET) as new alternative invertebrate model to test the developmental effects of the co-exposure to ethanol and fluconazole. Ciona intestinalis embryos were exposed to the azolic fungicide fluconazole, (FLUCO, 7.8-250μM), to ethanol (Eth, 0.01-0.5%) and to their mixture (0.01% Eth+FLUCO 7.8-250μM) from neurula to larval stage. At the end of the exposure period, larvae were morphologically evaluated and benchmark analysis performed by using the PROAST modelling software...
January 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Laia Ribas, Konstantinos Vanezis, Marco Antonio Imués, Francesc Piferrer
BACKGROUND: The role of epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation during vertebrate sexual development is far from being clear. Using the zebrafish model, we tested the effects of one of the most common DNA methyltransferase (dnmt) inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), which is approved for the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia and is under active investigation for the treatment of solid tumours. Several dose-response experiments were carried out during two periods, including not only the very first days of development (0-6 days post-fertilization, dpf), as done in previous studies, but also, and as a novelty, the period of gonadal development (10-30 dpf)...
December 8, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Alice Panchaud, Valentin Rousson, Thierry Vial, Nathalie Bernard, David Baud, Emmanuelle Amar, Marco De Santis, Alessandra Pistelli, Anne Dautriche, Frederique Beau-Salinas, Matteo Cassina, Hannah Dunstan, Anneke Passier, Yusuf Cem Kaplan, Mine Kadioglu Duman, Eva Maňáková, Georgios Eleftheriou, Gil Klinger, Ursula Winterfeld, Laura E Rothuizen, Thierry Buclin, Chantal Csajka, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
AIMS: Metformin is used to treat type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome associated infertility, and gestational diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the safety of metformin in early pregnancy. METHOD: We evaluated the risk of major birth defects and pregnancy losses in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to metformin during the first trimester for different indications relative to a matched unexposed reference group. RESULTS: The risk of major birth defects was 5...
March 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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