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gas chromatography

Attila Kiss, Huaqing Shu, Ouafa Hamza, David Santer, Eva Verena Tretter, Shanglong Yao, Klaus Markstaller, Seth Hallström, Bruno K Podesser, Klaus Ulrich Klein
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that preconditioning with argon gas provided a marked reduction in inflammation and apoptosis and increased myocardial contractility in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). There is substantial evidence that myocardial IR injury following cardioplegic arrest is associated with the enhancement of apoptosis and inflammation, which is considered to play a role in cardiac functional impairment. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify whether preconditioning with argon gas enhances recovery of cardiac function following cardioplegic arrest...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Uzochukwu C Ugochukwu, Alfred Ochonogor, Chika M Jidere, Chizoba Agu, Frida Nkoloagu, John Ewoh, Virginia U Okwu-Delunzu
In this study, the human and livestock (cattle) health risks of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a wetland of Obuaku, Abia State Nigeria contaminated by hydrocarbon spill due to incidents of hydrocarbon theft and pipeline vandalization were assessed. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed in analyzing the TPH and PAHs respectively. The contaminated soil was delineated into sub-locations AOC-1, AOC-2, AOC-3, AOC-4, AOC-5 and AOC-6 to reflect the discrete patches (areas) of the contaminated site and for effective planning of remedial actions...
March 13, 2018: Environment International
Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ioannis Konstantinos Karabagias
The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the aroma evolution of raw lamb packaged in multi-layer coating film and stored at 4 ± 1 °C, with respect to storage time and (b) to investigate whether specific aldehyde ratios could serve as markers of lamb meat freshness and degree of oxidation. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the most dominant volatiles were 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl-heptane, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hexanol, carbon disulfide and p -cymene...
March 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Estefanija Bogdanova, Irina Rozentale, Iveta Pugajeva, Emeka E Emecheta, Vadims Bartkevics
This work reports data on the occurrence of nine mycotoxins and two food processing contaminants - acrylamide and furan - in a total of 100 beers produced in Latvia. Mycotoxins were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, acrylamide by HPLC coupled with quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry, and furan by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most frequently occurring mycotoxins were HT-2 and deoxynivalenol (DON), which were detected in 52% and 51% of the analysed samples...
March 16, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
Samia Hadj Ahmed, Wafa Kharroubi, Nadia Kaoubaa, Amira Zarrouk, Fathi Batbout, Habib Gamra, Mohamed Fadhel Najjar, Gérard Lizard, Isabelle Hininger-Favier, Mohamed Hammami
BACKGROUND: Nutritional choices, which include the source of dietary fatty acids (FA), have an important significant impact on coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to determine on patients with CAD the relationships between Trans fatty acids (Trans FA) and different CAD associated parameters such as inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in addition to Gensini score as a vascular severity index. METHODS: Fatty acid profiles were established by gas chromatography from 111 CAD patients compared to 120 age-matched control group...
March 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Saisi Xue, A Daniel Jones, Leonardo Sousa, Jeff Piotrowski, Mingjie Jin, Cory Sarks, Bruce E Dale, Venkatesh Balan
Biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels requires pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Degradation products produced during thermochemical pretreatment, however, inhibit the microbes with regard to both ethanol yield and cell growth. In this work, we used synthetic hydrolysates (SynH) to study the inhibition of yeast fermentation by water-soluble components (WSC) isolated from lignin streams obtained after extractive ammonia pretreatment (EA)...
2018: PloS One
Anna Koziróg, Bogumił Brycki, Katarzyna Pielech-Przybylska
This study investigates the biological activity of two cationic gemini surfactants, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) C6 and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N , N -dimethyl- N -dodecyla,.mmonium bromide) C5, and their two neutral analogs, hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-( N -methyl- N -dodecylamine) (A5). Experiments were performed with Aspergillus brasiliensis , which is used in the standard tests for biocides. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for conidia and mycelium were determined using the dilution method...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Renata C Gallagher, Laura Pollard, Anna I Scott, Suzette Huguenin, Stephen Goodman, Qin Sun
Disclaimer: These ACMG Standards are intended as an educational resource for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these Standards is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. These Standards should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests, or exclusive of others that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, clinical laboratory geneticists should apply their professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the patient or specimen...
March 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Stefanie Kamann, Olivier Aerts, Lutz Heinemann
In the past decade, new diabetes technologies, including continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, support patients with diabetes in their daily struggle with achieving a good glucose control. However, shortly after the first CGM systems appeared on the market, also the first concerns about adverse skin reactions were raised. Most patients claimed to suffer from (sometimes severe) skin irritation, or even allergy, which they related to the (acrylate-based) adhesive part of the device. For a long time the actual substance that caused these skin reactions with, for example, the Flash Glucose Monitoring system (iscCGM; Freestyle® Libre) could not be identified; however, recently Belgian and Swedish dermatologists reported that the majority of their patients that have developed a contact-allergic while using iscCGM react sensitively to a specific acrylate, that is, isobornyl acrylate (IBOA)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Yan Xing, Min Wang, Tingting Li, Yin Xu Fu, Xu Wang
A method for the determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water has been developed. First, we made a solid-phase extraction column. After this, the parameters affecting the efficacy of the experimental method were optimized, including appropriate selection of a solid-phase extraction column and clean-up conditions on columns. The separation was achieved by gas chromatography and detection with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed satisfactory linearity (R2  > 0.999) over the range assayed (0...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: To ascertain the proportion of neonates and infants presenting with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism in the centers identified by ICMR for newborn screening. METHODS: A set of red flag signs suggestive IEM were listed by the Taskforce members. The age group was limited to one year as it was understood that most of the small molecules with a severe phenotype would present before the age of one year. Further investigations were tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography...
March 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Mitsutoshi Nakano, Yoshimasa Sagane, Ryosuke Koizumi, Yozo Nakazawa, Masao Yamazaki, Toshihiro Watanabe, Katsumi Takano, Hiroaki Sato
This article describes the analysis of volatile compounds in fermented materials used for salmon fish sauce production via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ten types of fish sauces were produced from raw salmon materials, including various proportions of flesh, viscera, inedible portion (heads, fins, and backbones), and soft roe, by mixing them with salt and allowing them to ferment for up to three months. The volatile compounds were captured by a solid-phase microextraction method and then applied to GC/MS for separation and identification of the compounds in the fish sauce products...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Adnan B Al-Hawash, Jawadayn T Alkooranee, Hayder A Abbood, Jialong Zhang, Jin Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
Among four crude oil-degrading fungi strains that were isolated from a petroleum-polluted area in the Rumaila oil field, two fungi strains showed high activity in aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation. ITS sequencing and analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics identified these strains as Penicillium sp. RMA1 and RMA2. Gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C showed that RMA1 and RMA2 degraded the crude oil by 57% and 55%, respectively...
March 2018: Biotechnology Reports
Daniel Girma Mulat, Janka Dibdiakova, Svein Jarle Horn
Background: The emerging cellulosic bioethanol industry will generate huge amounts of lignin-rich residues that may be converted into biogas by anaerobic digestion (AD) to increase the output of energy carriers from the biorefinery plants. The carbohydrates fraction of lignocellulosic biomass is degradable, whereas the lignin fraction is generally considered difficult to degrade during AD. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of biogas production by AD from hydrolysis lignin (HL), prepared by steam explosion (SE) and enzymatic saccharification of birch...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Muhammad Shahid, Nicole Gull, Austin Yeon, Eunho Cho, Jooeun Bae, Hyun Seok Yoon, Sungyong You, Hana Yoon, Minjung Kim, Benjamin P Berman, Jayoung Kim
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic urinary tract disease that is characterized by unpleasant sensations, such as persistent pelvic pain, in the absence of infection or other identifiable causes. We previously performed comprehensive metabolomics profiling of urine samples from IC patients using nuclear magnetic resonance and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and found that urinary α-oxoglutarate (α-OG), was significantly elevated. α-OG, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate, reportedly functions to suppress the proliferation of immortalized normal human bladder epithelial cells...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiaxin Li, Yujie Wang, Jian Xue, Pengsi Wang, Shangmei Shi
To investigate the dietary exposure risk of flonicamid application on Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and the effect of flonicamid on constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, field experiments were conducted in Fengqiu, Henan province, and flonicamid residue in samples collected was detected by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). And chlorogenic acid and luteoloside were determined by HPLC. Dietary exposure risk assessment was conducted through comparing the estimated daily intake (EDI) which was calculated by using the consumed residual level along with the acceptable daily intake (ADI)...
March 14, 2018: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Kayo Kurotani, Palitha Karunapema, Kapila Jayaratne, Masao Sato, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroshi Kajio, Shoji Fukuda, Hisao Hara, Osamu Okazaki, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Daisuke Nonaka, Mitsuhiko Noda, Tetsuya Mizoue
The differences in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations might be explained by the differences in their diet, especially fat. To test the hypothesis that the fatty acid (FA) compositions differ between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and that high concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and linoleic acid are associated with a low level of arteriosclerosis, the authors compared the circulating FA compositions between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and examined the association of the circulating FA composition with arterial stiffness in each population...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Zixing Dong, Xiaoling Chen, Ke Cai, Zhixin Chen, Hongbin Wang, Peng Jin, Xiaoguang Liu, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh, Zhengxiang Wang
Due to its high protein secretion capacity, simple nutritional requirements and the GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status, Bacillus licheniformis is widely used as a host for the industrial production of enzymes, antibiotics and peptides. However, as compared with its close relative B. subtilis , little is known about physiology and stress responses of B. licheniformis . To explore its temperature-stress metabolome, strains B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and B186, with respective optimal growth temperatures of 42°C and 50°C, were cultured at 42°C, 50°C and 60°C and their corresponding metabolic profiles determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and multivariate statistical analyses...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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