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polyunsaturated fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655214/nutritional-value-chemical-composition-and-antioxidant-activity-of-three-tuber-species-from-china
#1
Xiangyuan Yan, Yanwei Wang, Xiaoyu Sang, Li Fan
Nutritional value, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the traditional edible truffles Tuber latisporum, T. subglobosum and T. pseudohimalayense, from China were evaluated. Powder formulations of the three truffles revealed the presence of essential nutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates and unsaturated fatty acids, and T. latisporum presented the highest contents of total sugar (50.10 g/100 g) and monounsaturated fatty acids (265.19 mg/100 g dw); T. pseudohimalayense showed the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (367...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653476/heterotrophic-production-of-chlorella-sp-tistr-8990-biomass-growth-and-composition-under-various-production-conditions
#2
Somruethai Bouyam, Wanna Choorit, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul, Yusuf Chisti
The green microalga Chlorella sp. TISTR 8990 was grown heterotrophically in the dark using various concentrations of a basal glucose medium with a carbon-to-nitrogen mass ratio of 29:1. The final biomass concentration and the rate of growth were highest in the 5-fold concentrated basal glucose medium (25 g L(-1) glucose, 2.5 g L(-1) KNO3 ) in batch operations. Improving oxygen transfer in the culture by increasing the agitation rate and decreasing the culture volume in 500 mL shake flasks improved growth and glucose utilization...
June 27, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651890/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-thraustochytrium-strain-isolated-from-antarctic-peninsula-and-its-biotechnological-potential-in-the-production-of-fatty-acids
#3
Esteban Caamaño, Lyliam Loperena, Ivonne Hinzpeter, Paulina Pradel, Felipe Gordillo, Gino Corsini, Mario Tello, Paris Lavín, Alex R González
Thraustochytrids are unicellular protists belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes class, which are characterized by the presence of a high lipid content that could replace conventional fatty acids. They show a wide geographic distribution, however their diversity in the Antarctic Region is rather scarce. The analysis based on the complete sequence of 18S rRNA gene showed that strain 34-2 belongs to the species Thraustochytrium kinnei, with 99% identity. The total lipid profile shows a wide range of saturated fatty acids with abundance of palmitic acid (16:0), showing a range of 16...
June 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651830/maternal-plasma-n-3-and-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-and-features-of-fetal-health-fetal-growth-velocity-birth-weight-and-duration-of-pregnancy
#4
Nina H Grootendorst-van Mil, Henning Tiemeier, Jolien Steenweg-de Graaff, Berthold Koletzko, Hans Demmelmair, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal fatty acids are essential for fetal growth and development. Here, we examine associations between maternal mid-pregnancy plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fetal health determined by fetal growth velocity, birth weight and duration of pregnancy. METHODS: Participants were 6974 pregnant women and their infants from a population-based birth cohort, the Generation R Study. Maternal plasma n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and n-3 and n-6 PUFA percentage in glycerophospholipids in mid-pregnancy were related to fetal growth velocity calculated from repeatedly measured weight, length and head circumference, birth weight, and duration of pregnancy...
June 10, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651701/oxidative-stress-reduction-related-to-the-efficacy-of-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-secondary-outcome-analysis-of-the-offer-randomized-trial
#5
T Pawełczyk, M Grancow-Grabka, E Trafalska, J Szemraj, A Pawełczyk
Intervention studies of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia have not examined changes in oxidative stress. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of a 26-week intervention composed of 2.2g/day of n-3 PUFA was found to reduce symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The present study is an extension of our previous report, whose secondary aim was to assess the association between the clinical effect of n-3 PUFA and changes in oxidative stress indices...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651694/maternal-plasma-phosphatidylcholine-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-growth-and-adiposity
#6
Jonathan Y Bernard, Mya-Thway Tint, Izzuddin M Aris, Ling-Wei Chen, Phaik Ling Quah, Kok Hian Tan, George Seow-Heong Yeo, Marielle V Fortier, Fabian Yap, Lynette Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey, Philip C Calder, Mary F F Chong, Michael S Kramer, Jérémie Botton, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for offspring development, but it is less clear whether pregnancy PUFA status affects growth and adiposity. METHODS: In 985 mother-offspring pairs from the ongoing Singaporean GUSTO cohort, we analyzed the associations between offspring growth and adiposity outcomes until age 5 years and five PUFAs of interest, measured in maternal plasma at 26-28 weeks' gestation: linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651693/fatty-acid-and-lipid-profiles-in-primary-human-trophoblast-over-90h-in-culture
#7
Véronique Ferchaud-Roucher, Michael C Rudolph, Thomas Jansson, Theresa L Powell
Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the preferential transport of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to the fetus by the syncytiotrophoblast and the role of cytotrophoblasts in placental lipid metabolism and transport. We studied primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells cultured for 90h to determine the fatty acid and lipid composition of cytotrophoblast (18h culture) and syncytiotrophoblast (90h culture) cells. In cultured PHT total lipid fatty acids were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 90h compared to 18h in culture including lower levels of palmitic acid (PA, 16:0, -37%), palmitoleic acid (POA, 16:1n-7, -30%), oleic acid (OA, 18:1n-9, -31%), LCPUFA arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6, -28%) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, -55%)...
June 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650435/corrigendum-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-attenuate-fibroblast-activation-and-kidney-fibrosis-involving-mtorc2-signaling-suppression
#8
Zhifeng Zeng, Haiyuan Yang, Ying Wang, Jiafa Ren, Yifan Dai, Chunsun Dai
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep46146.
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649243/distinct-blood-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-regulatory-t-cell-and-innate-lymphocyte-profiles-characterize-obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#9
Gloria Donninelli, Manuela Del Cornò, Marina Pierdominici, Beatrice Scazzocchio, Rosaria Varì, Barbara Varano, Ilenia Pacella, Silvia Piconese, Vincenzo Barnaba, Massimo D'Archivio, Roberta Masella, Lucia Conti, Sandra Gessani
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a main site where metabolic and immunologic processes interplay to regulate, at local and systemic level, the inflammatory status and immune response. Obesity-associated inflammation and immune dysfunctions are inextricably linked to tumor but, in spite of intense efforts, the mechanisms underpinning this association remain elusive. In this report, we characterized the profile of VAT-associated and circulating innate lymphocyte and regulatory T (Treg) cell subsets underlying inflammatory conditions, such as obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648567/eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-have-different-effects-on-peripheral-phospholipase-a2-gene-expressions-in-acute-depressed-patients
#10
Kuan-Pin Su, Hui-Ting Yang, Jane Pei-Chen Chang, Yin-Hua Shih, Ta-Wei Guu, Satyanarayanan Senthil Kumaran, Piotr Gałecki, Anna Walczewska, Carmine M Pariante
INTRODUCTION: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been proven critical in the development and management of major depressive disorder (MDD) by a number of epidemiological, clinical and preclinical studies, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic action are yet to be understood. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) seems to be the active component of omega-3 PUFAs' antidepressant effects, the biological research about the difference of specific genetic regulations between EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the two main components of omega-3 PUFAs, is still lacking in human subjects...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648475/effects-of-docosahexanoic-acid-on-metabolic-and-fat-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-cart-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Pere Domingo, Irene Fernández, José Miguel Gallego-Escuredo, Ferran Torres, Ma Del Mar Gutierrez, Ma Gracia Mateo, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt, Francesc Vidal, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Carles Domingo
BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia is common in HIV-infected patients. Polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels in HIV-infected patients. It is not known whether docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation can reduce hypertriglyceridemia and modify fat distribution in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 84 antiretroviral-treated patients who had fasting TG levels from 2...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647413/omega-6-fatty-acids-opposing-associations-with-risk-the-ludwigshafen-risk-and-cardiovascular-health-study
#12
Graciela E Delgado, Winfried März, Stefan Lorkowski, Clemens von Schacky, Marcus E Kleber
BACKGROUND: Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-6 PUFA) are recommended in European cardiovascular prevention guidelines. However, individual fatty acids have distinct biological functions, and there have been conflicting reports about the association of omega-6 PUFA with cardiovascular risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the association of individual omega-6 fatty acids with mortality in a cohort of patients referred for coronary angiography...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646832/diet-for-women-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-preliminary-study
#13
Diana Wasiluk, Lucyna Ostrowska, Ewa Stefańska, Agnieszka Janke, Grażyna Jurkowska
Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the most frequent digestive system diseases, of various medical signs. It is assumed that proper life style, including appropriate, rational diet is a factor helpful for treating such a disorder. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to assess the selected dietary habits, and to evaluate the nutritional value of daily food rations for patients with a mixed type of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Material and Methods: The questionnaire survey involved a group of 32 women suffering from a mixed type of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (The Rome III Diagnostic Criteria were used to diagnose the disease)...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646829/chia-seeds-salvia-hispanica-health-promoting-properties-and-therapeutic-applications-%C3%A2-a-review
#14
Katarzyna Marcinek, Zbigniew Krejpcio
Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646265/omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids-act-as-inhibitors-of-the-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity
#15
Eleonora Nicolai, Federica Sinibaldi, Gianpaolo Sannino, Giuseppina Laganà, Francesco Basoli, Silvia Licoccia, Paola Cozza, Roberto Santucci, Maria Cristina Piro
Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been reported to play a protective role in a wide range of diseases characterized by an increased metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity. The recent finding that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids exert an anti-inflammatory effect in periodontal diseases has stimulated the present study, designed to determine whether such properties derive from a direct inhibitory action of these compounds on the activity of MMPs. To this issue, we investigated the effect exerted by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9, two enzymes that actively participate to the destruction of the organic matrix of dentin following demineralization operated by bacteria acids...
June 23, 2017: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646239/intake-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-contributes-to-bone-mineral-density-at-the-hip-in-a-younger-japanese-female-population
#16
T Kuroda, H Ohta, Y Onoe, N Tsugawa, M Shiraki
This study investigated the relationships between intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and omega-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in Japanese women aged 19 to 25 years. Intakes of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) were positively associated with peak bone mass at the hip. INTRODUCTION: Lifestyle factors such as physical activity and nutrition intake are known to optimize the peak bone mass (PBM). Recently, intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported to contribute to bone metabolism...
June 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645222/dietary-fat-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-recent-controversies-and-advances
#17
Dong D Wang, Frank B Hu
Health effects of dietary fats have been extensively studied for decades. However, controversies exist on the effects of various types of fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acid (SFA), on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current evidence supports that different types of dietary fatty acids have divergent effects on CVD risk, and the effects also depend strongly on the comparison or replacement macronutrient. A significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved if SFAs are replaced by unsaturated fats, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids...
June 23, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644971/simultaneous-silencing-of-ghfad2-1-and-ghfatb-enhances-the-quality-of-cottonseed-oil-with-high-oleic-acid
#18
Feng Liu, Yan-Peng Zhao, Hua-Guo Zhu, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cottonseed oil has become an important source of edible oil due to its significant cost advantage. However, there is a growing concern over its fatty acid composition and nutritional value. In Gossypium hirsutum, GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB encoding the microsomal oleate desaturase and palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, respectively, play critical roles in regulating the proportions of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cottonseed lipids. In this study, RNAi technology was used to simultaneously inhibit the expression levels of GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB to improve the quality of cottonseed oil by increasing oleic acid content...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642117/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-pain-inflammatory-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Karen M Wagner, Cindy B McReynolds, William K Schmidt, Bruce D Hammock
Eicosanoids are biologically active lipid signaling molecules derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Many of the actions of eicosanoid metabolites formed by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes have been characterized, however, the epoxy-fatty acids (EpFAs) formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes are newly described by comparison. The EpFA metabolites modulate a diverse set of physiologic functions that include inflammation and nociception among others. Regulation of EpFAs occurs primarily via release, biosynthesis and enzymatic transformation by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH)...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640602/dietary-n-carbamylglutamate-supplementation-in-reduced-protein-diet-affects-carcass-traits-and-profile-of-muscle-amino-acids-and-fatty-acids-in-finishing-pigs
#20
Changchuan Ye, Xiangzhou Zeng, JInlong Zhu, Ying Liu, Qianhong Ye, Shiyan Qiao, Xiangfang Zeng
This aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary N-Carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation affected carcass traits and meat quality in finishing pigs. One hundred and twenty gilts were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 40 d, including standard protein diet (SP), reduced protein diet supplemented 1.7% L-alanine (RP + Ala), reduced protein diet supplemented with 1.0 % L-arginine (RP + Arg) and reduced protein diet supplemented with 0.1% NCG and 1.7% L-alanine (RP + NCG). NCG supplementation increased the endogenous synthesis of L-arginine...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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