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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732402/characteristics-of-black-carbon-in-snow-from-laohugou-no-12-glacier-on-the-northern-tibetan-plateau
#1
Yulan Zhang, Shichang Kang, Chaoliu Li, Tanguang Gao, Zhiyuan Cong, Michael Sprenger, Yajun Liu, Xiaofei Li, Junming Guo, Mika Sillanpää, Kun Wang, Jizu Chen, Yang Li, Shiwei Sun
Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732188/adapted-methods-for-scanning-electron-microscopy-in-assessment-of-human-sperm-morphology
#2
Petra Nussdorfer, Ines Cilenšek, Branko Zorn, Daniel Petrovič
Infertility is a widespread problem, and in some cases, the routine basic semen analysis is not sufficient to detect the cause of male infertility. The use of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) could provide a detailed insight into spermatozoa morphology, but it requires specific sample preparation techniques. The purpose of this study was to select, adjust, and optimize a method for the preparation of spermatozoa samples prior to SEM analysis, and to establish the protocol required for its use in clinical practice...
July 21, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732159/remote-single-molecule-switching-identification-and-nano-engineering-of-hot-electron-induced-tautomerization
#3
Jens Kügel, Markus Leisegang, Markus Böhme, Andreas Krönlein, Aimee Sixta, Matthias Bode
Molecular electronics where single molecules perform basic functionalities of digital circuits is a fascinating concept that one day may augment or even replace nowadays semiconductor technologies. The tautomerization of molecules, i.e., the bistable functional position of hydrogen protons within an organic frame, has recently been intensively discussed as a potential avenue towards nano-scale switches. It has been shown that tautomerization can be triggered locally or non-locally, i.e. by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip positioned directly above or in close vicinity to the molecule...
July 21, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732053/dysregulation-of-pulmonary-endothelial-protein-c-receptor-and-thrombomodulin-in-severe-falciparum-malaria-associated-ards-relevant-to-hemozoin
#4
Sitang Maknitikul, Natthanej Luplertlop, Georges E R Grau, Sumate Ampawong
To investigate the role of the protein C system, endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) and thrombomodulin (TM) in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in relation to hemozoin and proinflammatory cytokines-induced type II pneumocyte injury and -aggravated pulmonary resolution. A total of 29 left-over lung specimens that were obtained from patients who died from severe falciparum malaria were examined. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses revealed that ARDS coexisted with pulmonary edema and systemic bleeding; the severity was dependent on the level of hemozoin deposition in the lung and internal alveolar hemorrhaging...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731752/novel-pd_-2-se_-3-two-dimensional-phase-driven-by-interlayer-fusion-in-layered-pdse_-2
#5
Junhao Lin, Sebastian Zuluaga, Peng Yu, Zheng Liu, Sokrates T Pantelides, Kazu Suenaga
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are easily fabricated when their bulk form has a layered structure. The monolayer form in layered transition-metal dichalcogenides is typically the same as a single layer of the bulk material. However, PdSe_{2} presents a puzzle. Its monolayer form has been theoretically shown to be stable, but there have been no reports that monolayer PdSe_{2} has been fabricated. Here, combining atomic-scale imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope and density functional theory, we demonstrate that the preferred monolayer form of this material amounts to a melding of two bulk monolayers accompanied by the emission of Se atoms so that the resulting stoichiometry is Pd_{2}Se_{3}...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731702/drude-polarizable-force-field-for-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-saturated-and-unsaturated-zwitterionic-lipids
#6
Hui Li, Janamejaya Chowdhary, Lei Huang, Xibing He, Alexander D MacKerell, Benoît Roux
Additive force fields are designed to account for induced electronic polarization in a mean-field average way using effective empirical fixed charges. The limitation of this approximation is cause for serious concerns, particularly in the case of lipid membranes, where the molecular environment undergoes dramatic variations over microscopic length scales. A polarizable force field based on the classical Drude oscillator offers a practical and computationally efficient framework for an improved representation of electrostatic interactions in molecular simulations...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731325/bioinspired-and-biomimetic-agnps-gentamicin-embedded-silk-fibroin-coatings-for-robust-antibacterial-and-osteogenetic-applications
#7
Wenhao Zhou, Zhaojun Jia, Pan Xiong, Jianglong Yan, Yangyang Li, Ming Li, Yan Cheng, Yufeng Zheng
With the progressively increasing demand for orthopedic Ti implants, the balance realization between two primary complications restricting implants applications is imperative needed to be solved that the lack of bone tissue integration and biomedical device-associated infections (BAI), where emergence of multi-resistance bacteria make it worse. Notably, a combination of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and a kind of antibiotic can synergistically inhibit bacterial growth, where low concentration of AgNPs has been confirmed to promote the proliferation and osteogenesis of osteoblasts...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731095/polarization-driven-conductance-variations-at-charged-ferroelectric-domain-walls
#8
A-S Pawlik, T Kämpfe, A Haußmann, T Woike, U Treske, M Knupfer, B Büchner, E Soergel, R Streubel, A Koitzsch, L M Eng
Conducting domain walls (CDWs) in ferroelectric materials are promising candidates for applications in a manifold of nanoscale, optoelectronic devices. Characterization of their microscopic properties, however, remains challenging due to their small dimension and highly insulating environment. Here, we inspect individual CDWs in single-crystalline LiNbO3 by the combination of photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. While SHG unveils the overall domain wall inclination angle α, PEEM is sensitive to local conductance variations, both at and away from the domain wall...
July 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730963/increased-expression-of-ire1%C3%AE-associates-with-the-resistant-mechanism-of-osimertinib-azd9291-resistant-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-hcc827-osir-cells
#9
Zheng-Hai Tang, Min-Xia Su, Xia Guo, Xiao-Ming Jiang, Lin Jia, Xiuping Chen, Jin-Jian Lu
BACKGROUND: Osimertinib (OSI), also known as AZD9291, is a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that has been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. OBJECTIVE: Establishment of the OSI-resistant HCC827/OSIR cell line and study of its resistant mechanism. METHOD: The anti-proliferative effect was studied through MTT and colony formation assays. The protein expression was detected by Western blot assay...
July 19, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730229/molecular-analysis-of-brca1-and-brca2-genes-by-next-generation-sequencing-and-ultrastructural-aspects-of-breast-tumor-tissue
#10
Corina Elena Mihalcea, Ana Maria Moroşanu, Daniela Murăraşu, Liliana Puiu, Sabin Aurel Cinca, Silviu Cristian Voinea, Nicolae Mirancea
In this paper, we focus our interest on the dynamics alterations of the tumor-stroma interface at the ultrastructural level and to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using next generation sequencing (NGS) of breast tumor tissue. Electron microscopic investigation revealed some peculiar infrastructural alterations of the tumor cells per se as well as of the tumor-stroma interface: invadopodia, shedding microvesicles, altered morphology and reduced number of telocytes, different abnormalities of the microvasculature...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730072/effects-of-lens-extirpation-with-anterior-vitrectomy-on-vitreous-three-dimensional-mesh-structure
#11
Yan Zhao, Long-Fang Zhou, Hong Yang
AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I) included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729216/self-assembled-aunps-for-ingrain-pigmentation-of-silk-fabrics-with-antibacterial-potency
#12
Hanan B Ahmed, Nancy S El-Hawary, Hossam E Emam
Nanogold was self-assembled for ingrain pigmentation of silk fabric with antibacterial properties. The functional groups of silk macromolecular polymeric chains were exploited for generation and stabilization of nanogold. Hydrogen peroxide was used for activation of silk molecular chains through increasing their reactivity and accessibility to be functionalized as manufacturer of nanogold without using any external agents. Effect of procedure sequencing was studied through addition of peroxide firstly (group A) and with Au salt (group B)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728360/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-gossypol-degrading-bacteria-bacillus-subtilis-strain-rbs
#13
Yunhua Zhang, Lijuan Chen, Zhengyou Zhang, Li Dai, Ying Liu, Maoji Cheng
Objective: An experiment was conducted to isolate gossypol-degrading bacteria and assessed its potential for gossypol degradation. Methods: Rumen liquid was collected from the rumen of cows through fistula from the experimental pasture. Approximately 1 ml of the rumen liquid was spread onto basal medium plates containing 2 g/l gossypol as the only source of carbon and was then cultured at 39°C to isolate gossypol-degrading bacteria. The isolated colonies were cultured for 6 h and then observed their size and shape by the microscope and scanning electron microscope...
June 27, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728043/autofocus-on-moving-object-in-scanning-electron-microscope
#14
Andrey V Kudryavtsev, Sounkalo Dembélé, Nadine Piat
The sharpness of the images coming from a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is a very important property for many computer vision applications at micro- and nanoscale. It represents how much object details are distinctive in the images: the object may be perceived sharp or blurred. Image sharpness highly depends on the value of focal distance, or working distance in the case of the SEM. Autofocus is the technique allowing to automatically adjust the working distance to maximize the sharpness. Most of the existing algorithms allows working only with a static object which is enough for the tasks of visualization, manual microanalysis or microcharacterization...
July 12, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728004/effects-of-aspect-ratio-of-multi-walled-carbon-nanotubes-on-coal-washery-waste-water-treatment
#15
Ahmed Aliyu, Ishaq Kariim, Saka Ambali Abdulkareem
The dependency of adsorption behaviour on the aspect ratio of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been explored. In this study, effect of growth temperature on yield and aspect ratio of MWCNTs by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) method is reported. The result revealed that yield and aspect ratio of synthesised MWCNTs strongly depend on the growth temperature during CCVD operation. The resulting MWCNTs were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to determine it diameter, hydrodynamic diameter and crystallinity respectively...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727460/2d-organic-superlattice-promoted-via-combined-action-of-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-stacking-and-dipole-dipole-interaction-in-discotic-liquid-crystals
#16
Wanying Zhang, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Zhenhu Zhang, Huanzhi Yang, Ao Zhang, Xingtian Hao, Jianchuang Wang, Chunxiu Zhang, Jialing Pu
A series of discotic liquid crystals based on hexapentyloxytriphenylene (HAT5) have been investigated where one out of the six ether side chains of a triphenylene core was replaced by an ester side chain and named for 5a-5h. During the process of studying these compounds, the characteristic straight line defect of ordered columnar structure was identified by polarizing optical microscopy (POM) and liquid crystal state over a wide temperature range was obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic phase structure and molecular arrangement were assigned by one-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (1D WAXD), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), two-dimensional wide-angle X-ray diffraction (2D WAXD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM)...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726776/autophagosome-maturation-mediated-by-rab7-contributes-to-neuroprotection-of-hypoxic-preconditioning-against-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#17
Lixuan Zhan, Siyuan Chen, Kongping Li, Donghai Liang, Xinyong Zhu, Liu Liu, Zhiwei Lu, Weiwen Sun, En Xu
Autophagy disruption leads to neuronal damage in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Rab7, a member of the Rab GTPase superfamily, has a unique role in the regulation of autophagy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) provides neuroprotection against transient global cerebral ischemia (tGCI). However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Thus, the current study explored the potential molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of HPC by investigating how Rab7 mediates autophagosome (AP) maturation after tGCI in adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726376/dentritic-cuptpd-catalyst-for-enhanced-electrochemical-oxidation-of-methanol
#18
Xiaoqin Shi, Ying Wen, Xiaoyu Guo, Yuxia Pan, Yuanyuan Ji, Ye Ying, Hai-Feng Yang
The CuPtPd catalyst is designed and synthesized successfully via directly reducing metal ions. The composition, morphology and structure of the as-prepared CuPtPd nanohybrids are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). By comparison of the electrocatalytic properties of the ternary CuPtPd catalyst with bimetallic catalysts, we find that ternary nanocomposites perform better electrocatalytic and anti-poisoning activity towards oxidation of methanol...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726319/ultrastructure-of-lingual-papillae-in-common-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-foetus-newborn-and-adult-specimens
#19
J F Pastor, M Barbosa, F J De Paz, I San José, M Levanti, J M Potau, J A Vega, R Cabo
Among primates, the two recognized species of chimpanzees (common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes; pygmy chimpanzee, Pan paniscus) are considered to be the most similar to humans. Importantly, in mammals, the food intake behaviour largely determines the tongue morphology, including the type, proportion and distribution of gustatory and non-gustatory tongue papillae. The lingual papillae form during its development and mature in post-natal life depending on the different feeding. In this study, we have used scanning electron microscopy to analyse the age-related changes in the lingual papillae of foetal, newborn and adult P...
July 20, 2017: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726226/factors-influencing-silver-recovery-and-power-generation-in-bio-electrochemical-reactors
#20
Ngo Anh Dao Ho, Sandhya Babel, Korakot Sombatmankhong
The recovery of silver from Ag(+) solution coupled with power generation was investigated in bio-electrochemical system (BES). In this system, chemical energy existing in the organic matter in the anode chamber can be converted biologically to electrical energy which can be used for the reduction of Ag(+) ions in the cathode chamber. Results showed that type of substrate influenced the metabolic pathway and affected the cell voltage progression, and columbic efficiency. Silver recovery was not affected by increasing initial pH (2...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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