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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635614/advanced-treatment-planning-using-direct-4d-optimisation-for-pencil-beam-scanned-particle-therapy
#1
Kinga Bernatowicz, Ye Zhang, Rosalind Lucy Perrin, Damien Charles Weber, Antony John Lomax
We report on development of a new four-dimensional (4D) optimisation approach for scanned proton beams, which incorporates both irregular motion patterns and the delivery dynamics of the treatment machine into the plan optimiser. Furthermore, we assess the effectiveness of this technique to reduce dose to critical structures in proximity to moving targets, while maintaining effective target dose homogeneity and coverage. The proposed approach has been tested using both a simulated phantom and a clinical liver cancer case, and allows for realistic 4D calculations and optimisation using irregular breathing patterns extracted from e...
June 21, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632757/molecular-mechanism-of-drp1-assembly-studied-in-vitro-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#2
Kaustuv Basu, Driss Lajoie, Tristan Aumentado-Armstrong, Jin Chen, Roman I Koning, Blaise Bossy, Mihnea Bostina, Attila Sik, Ella Bossy-Wetzel, Isabelle Rouiller
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually adapt their morphology by fusion and fission events. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been linked to major neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. A member of the Dynamin superfamily, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), a dynamin-related GTPase, is required for mitochondrial membrane fission. Self-assembly of DRP1 into oligomers in a GTP-dependent manner likely drives the division process. We show here that DRP1 self-assembles in two ways: i) in the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP analog GMP-PNP into spiral-like structures of ~36 nm diameter; and ii) in the presence of GTP into rings composed of 13-18 monomers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632417/detection-and-antigenic-profiling-of-undeclared-peanut-in-imported-garlic-using-an-xmap-multiplex-immunoassay-for-food-allergens
#3
Ronnie O Pedersen, Tim Peters, Rakhi Panda, Paul Wehling, Eric A E Garber
A shipment of imported garlic powder was suspected of containing peanut. Samples (subs) collected from the shipment displayed considerable variability in peanut antigenicity when analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This raised questions regarding whether peanut was actually present, the amount present, and the basis for the variability in antigenic content. Analyses that used an xMAP multiplex assay for the detection of peanut and additional food allergens generated responses that were characteristic of peanut...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632153/fabrication-and-characterization-of-plasmonic-nanopores-with-cavities-in-the-solid-support
#4
Bita Malekian, Kunli Xiong, Gustav Emilsson, Jenny Andersson, Cecilia Fager, Eva Olsson, Elin M Larsson-Langhammer, Andreas B Dahlin
Plasmonic nanostructures are widely used for various sensing applications by monitoring changes in refractive index through optical spectroscopy or as substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. However, in most practical situations conventional surface plasmon resonance is preferred for biomolecular interaction analysis because of its high resolution in surface coverage and the simple single-material planar interface. Still, plasmonic nanostructures may find unique sensing applications, for instance when the nanoscale geometry itself is of interest...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628267/opto-electrochemical-in-situ-monitoring-of-cathodic-single-cobalt-nanoparticle-formation
#5
Vitor Brasiliense, Jan Clausmeyer, Alice L Dauphin, Jean-Marc Noël, Pascal Berto, Gilles Tessier, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Frederic Kanoufi
Single particle electrochemistry at a nanoelectrode is explored by dark-field optical microscopy. The analysis of the scattered light allows in situ dynamic monitoring of the electrodeposition of single cobalt nanoparticles down to a radius of 65 nm. Larger sub-micrometer particles are directly sized optically by edges super-localization and the scattered light contains complementary chemical information concerning the particle redox chemistry. This opto-electrochemical approach is used to derive mechanistic insights about electrocatalysis which are not accessible from single particle electrochemistry...
June 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628138/-effects-of-exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-on-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-the-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Y Zhang, X M Song, Q Zhao, T Wang, L J Li, J Chen, H B Xu, B B Liu, X Y Sun, B He, W Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: A panel of forty-five diagnosed and stable COPD patients, whose residences were within 5 kilometers from Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC), were recruited and followed up twice between November 2014 and May 2015. The lung function index percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to predicted value (FEV1%pred), was measured to reflect the severity of COPD patients...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626281/measurement-of-uranium-236-in-particles-by-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#7
David S Simons, John D Fassett
The determination of the relative isotopic abundance by secondary ion mass spectrometry of (236)U in uranium-containing material is complicated by the presence of (235)U(1)H(+) ions at the same nominal mass as the uranium isotopic peak. The net intensity of the (236)U signal is usually determined by a peak-stripping procedure, whereby the (235)U(1)H(+) contribution is obtained by applying the (238)U(1)H(+)/(238)U(+) ratio to the (235)U(+) signal. The subtraction of one signal from another has consequences for the uncertainty of the final (236)U abundance determination that may be especially significant when the amount of sample is limited, as is the case with small uranium particles that are of great interest for nuclear safeguards...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624614/gene-transfer-agent-promotes-evolvability-within-the-fittest-subpopulation-of-a-bacterial-pathogen
#8
Maxime Québatte, Matthias Christen, Alexander Harms, Jonas Körner, Beat Christen, Christoph Dehio
The Bartonella gene transfer agent (BaGTA) is an archetypical example for domestication of a phage-derived element to permit high-frequency genetic exchange in bacterial populations. Here we used multiplexed transposon sequencing (TnSeq) and single-cell reporters to globally define the core components and transfer dynamics of BaGTA. Our systems-level analysis has identified inner- and outer-circle components of the BaGTA system, including 55 regulatory components, as well as an additional 74 and 107 components mediating donor transfer and recipient uptake functions...
June 14, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622601/immobilisation-of-barley-aleurone-layers-enables-parallelisation-of-assays-and-analysis-of-transient-gene-expression-in-single-cells
#9
Kinga Zór, Christina Mark, Arto Heiskanen, Claus Krogh Madsen, Martin Dufva, Jenny Emnéus, Henrik Brinch-Pedersen, Christine Finnie
The barley aleurone layer is an established model system for studying phytohormone signalling, enzyme secretion and programmed cell death during seed germination. Most analyses performed on the aleurone layer are end-point assays based on cell extracts, meaning each sample is only analysed at a single time point. By immobilising barley aleurone layer tissue on polydimethylsiloxane pillars in the lid of a multiwell plate, continuous monitoring of living tissue is enabled using multiple non-destructive assays in parallel...
June 8, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620384/measuring-leukocyte-adhesion-to-primary-endothelial-cells-after-photon-and-charged-particle-exposure-with-a-dedicated-laminar-flow-chamber
#10
Nadine Erbeldinger, Felicitas Rapp, Svetlana Ktitareva, Philipp Wendel, Anna S Bothe, Till Dettmering, Marco Durante, Thomas Friedrich, Bianca Bertulat, Stephanie Meyer, M C Cardoso, Stephanie Hehlgans, Franz Rödel, Claudia Fournier
The vascular endothelium interacts with all types of blood cells and is a key modulator of local and systemic inflammatory processes, for example, in the adhesion of blood leukocytes to endothelial cells (EC) and the following extravasation into the injured tissue. The endothelium is constantly exposed to mechanical forces caused by blood flow, and the resulting shear stress is essential for the maintenance of endothelial function. Changes in local hemodynamics are sensed by EC, leading to acute or persistent changes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619527/expression-of-full-length-her2-protein-in-sf9-insect-cells-and-its-presentation-on-the-surface-of-budded-virus-like-particles
#11
Lisa Nika, Jakob Wallner, Dieter Palmberger, Krisztina Koczka, Karola Vorauer-Uhl, Reingard Grabherr
Biomarkers of cancer are often glycosylated membrane receptor proteins present on the cellular surface. In order to develop new antibodies for cancer diagnostics or treatment, it is a main pre-requisite that these target proteins are available in a native conformation. However, membrane receptor proteins are notoriously difficult to produce due to their hydrophobic nature and complex architecture. Here, we used the baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce budded virus-like particles (VLPs) as the scaffold for the presentation of complex membrane proteins...
June 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618351/structure-of-ip3r-channel-high-resolution-insights-from-cryo-em
#12
REVIEW
Mariah R Baker, Guizhen Fan, Irina I Serysheva
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and the major mediators of cellular Ca(2+) signals generated by the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Despite established physiological significance and proven involvements of IP3R channels in many human diseases, detailed structural basis for signal detection by these ion channels and their gating remain obscure. Recently, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has yielded a long-awaited near-atomic resolution structure of the entire full-length type 1 IP3R...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615719/thermal-and-structural-studies-of-carbon-coated-mo2c-synthesized-via-in-situ-single-step-reduction-carburization
#13
Rameez Ahmad Mir, Piyush Sharma, Om Prakash Pandey
Carbon coated nano molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) has been synthesized at 800 °C through single step reduction route using molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as a precursor, polypropylene (P.P) as a carbon source and magnesium (Mg) as a catalyst in an autoclave. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis techniques (TG/DTA/DTG), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Williamson- Hall (W-H) analysis has been done to estimate various parameters like strain, stress and strain energy density...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611385/indium-selenide-an-insight-into-electronic-band-structure-and-surface-excitations
#14
A Politano, D Campi, M Cattelan, I Ben Amara, S Jaziri, A Mazzotti, A Barinov, B Gürbulak, S Duman, S Agnoli, L S Caputi, G Granozzi, A Cupolillo
We have investigated the electronic response of single crystals of indium selenide by means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional theory. The loss spectrum of indium selenide shows the direct free exciton at ~1.3 eV and several other peaks, which do not exhibit dispersion with the momentum. The joint analysis of the experimental band structure and the density of states indicates that spectral features in the loss function are strictly related to single-particle transitions...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610798/ideal-versus-real-automated-twin-column-recycling-chromatography-process
#15
Fabrice Gritti, Mike Leal, Thomas McDonald, Martin Gilar
The full baseline separation of two compounds (selectivity factors α<1.03) is either impractical (too long analysis times) or even impossible when using a single column of any length given the pressure limitations of current LC instruments. The maximum efficiency is that of an infinitely long column operated at infinitely small flow rates. It is determined by the maximum allowable system pressure, the column permeability (particle size), the viscosity of the eluent, and the intensity of the effective diffusivity of the analytes along the column...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604725/subunit-and-chlorophyll-organization-of-the-plant-photosystem-ii-supercomplex
#16
Laura S van Bezouwen, Stefano Caffarri, Ravindra S Kale, Roman Kouřil, Andy-Mark W H Thunnissen, Gert T Oostergetel, Egbert J Boekema
Photosystem II (PSII) is a light-driven protein, involved in the primary reactions of photosynthesis. In plant photosynthetic membranes PSII forms large multisubunit supercomplexes, containing a dimeric core and up to four light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), which act as antenna proteins. Here we solved a three-dimensional (3D) structure of the C2S2M2 supercomplex from Arabidopsis thaliana using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis at an overall resolution of 5.3 Å...
June 12, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602351/a-unique-microglia-type-associated-with-restricting-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Hadas Keren-Shaul, Amit Spinrad, Assaf Weiner, Orit Matcovitch-Natan, Raz Dvir-Szternfeld, Tyler K Ulland, Eyal David, Kuti Baruch, David Lara-Astaiso, Beata Toth, Shalev Itzkovitz, Marco Colonna, Michal Schwartz, Ido Amit
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a detrimental neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatments. Due to cellular heterogeneity, defining the roles of immune cell subsets in AD onset and progression has been challenging. Using transcriptional single-cell sorting, we comprehensively map all immune populations in wild-type and AD-transgenic (Tg-AD) mouse brains. We describe a novel microglia type associated with neurodegenerative diseases (DAM) and identify markers, spatial localization, and pathways associated with these cells...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602287/optimization-of-plasma-sampling-depth-and-aerosol-gas-flow-rates-for-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#18
Ildikó Kálomista, Albert Kéri, Gábor Galbács
We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602085/implementation-of-online-pre-concentration-and-microsecond-time-resolution-to-capillary-electrophoresis-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-ce-sp-icp-ms-and-its-application-in-silver-nanoparticle-analysis
#19
Darya Mozhayeva, Ingo Strenge, Carsten Engelhard
Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to single particle inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) was used for the first time with a prototype data acquisition (µsDAQ) system that features 5 µs time resolution (100% duty cycle) to separate and quantify mixtures of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Additionally, an online pre-concentration technique - reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) - was applied for Ag NPs analysis with CE-SP-ICP-MS for the first time. After optimization, best results were achieved using a injection time of 110 s and a constant pressure of 50 mbar in hydrodynamic injection mode...
June 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595395/quantifying-fermionic-decoherence-in-many-body-systems
#20
Arnab Kar, Ignacio Franco
Practical measures of electronic decoherence, called distilled purities, that are applicable to many-body systems are introduced. While usual measures of electronic decoherence such as the purity employ the full N-particle density matrix which is generally unavailable, the distilled purities are based on the r-body reduced density matrices (r-RDMs) which are more accessible quantities. The r-body distilled purities are derivative quantities of the previously introduced r-body reduced purities [I. Franco and H...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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