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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717236/high-performance-micro-flow-cytometer-based-on-optical-fibres
#1
S Etcheverry, A Faridi, H Ramachandraiah, T Kumar, W Margulis, F Laurell, A Russom
Flow cytometry is currently the gold standard for analysis of cells in the medical laboratory and biomedical research. Fuelled by the need of point-of-care diagnosis, a significant effort has been made to miniaturize and reduce cost of flow cytometers. However, despite recent advances, current microsystems remain less versatile and much slower than their large-scale counterparts. In this work, an all-silica fibre microflow cytometer is presented that measures fluorescence and scattering from particles and cells...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708210/particle-image-velocimetry-tests-on-pediatric-45-cc-and-30-cc-ventricle-assist-devices-effects-of-heart-rate-on-vad-operation
#2
Dariusz Witkowski, Damian Obidowski, Piotr Reorowicz, Daniel Jodko, Krzysztof Jozwik
BACKGROUND: This study investigated flow analysis inside pediatric ventricle assist devices (VADs) designed and manufactured at the Foundation for Cardiac Surgery Development (FRK), Zabrze, Poland. The main goal of the experiment was to define the minimal heart rate admissible in clinical practice. METHODS: The flow was directed by mechanical, single-disc valves developed at the Lodz University of Technology, Institute of Turbomachinery in Lodz, Poland. VAD operation conditions under different heart rates were analyzed...
July 8, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697897/measuring-protein-binding-to-lipid-vesicles-by-fluorescence-cross-correlation-spectroscopy
#3
Daniela Krüger, Jan Ebenhan, Stefan Werner, Kirsten Bacia
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has been previously used to investigate peptide and protein binding to lipid membranes, as it allows for very low amounts of sample, short measurement times and equilibrium binding conditions. Labeling only one of the binding partners, however, comes with certain drawbacks, as it relies on identifying binding events by a change in diffusion coefficient. Since peptide and protein aggregation can obscure specific binding, and since non-stoichiometric binding necessitates the explicit choice of a statistical distribution for the number of bound ligands, we additionally label the liposomes and perform dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (dcFCCS)...
July 8, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696731/dark-matter-search-results-from-the-pico-60%C3%A2-c_-3-f_-8-bubble-chamber
#4
C Amole, M Ardid, I J Arnquist, D M Asner, D Baxter, E Behnke, P Bhattacharjee, H Borsodi, M Bou-Cabo, P Campion, G Cao, C J Chen, U Chowdhury, K Clark, J I Collar, P S Cooper, M Crisler, G Crowder, C E Dahl, M Das, S Fallows, J Farine, I Felis, R Filgas, F Girard, G Giroux, J Hall, O Harris, E W Hoppe, M Jin, C B Krauss, M Laurin, I Lawson, A Leblanc, I Levine, W H Lippincott, F Mamedov, D Maurya, P Mitra, T Nania, R Neilson, A J Noble, S Olson, A Ortega, A Plante, R Podviyanuk, S Priya, A E Robinson, A Roeder, R Rucinski, O Scallon, S Seth, A Sonnenschein, N Starinski, I Štekl, F Tardif, E Vázquez-Jáuregui, J Wells, U Wichoski, Y Yan, V Zacek, J Zhang
New results are reported from the operation of the PICO-60 dark matter detector, a bubble chamber filled with 52 kg of C_{3}F_{8} located in the SNOLAB underground laboratory. As in previous PICO bubble chambers, PICO-60 C_{3}F_{8} exhibits excellent electron recoil and alpha decay rejection, and the observed multiple-scattering neutron rate indicates a single-scatter neutron background of less than one event per month. A blind analysis of an efficiency-corrected 1167-kg day exposure at a 3.3-keV thermodynamic threshold reveals no single-scattering nuclear recoil candidates, consistent with the predicted background...
June 23, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692859/an-experimental-study-addressing-the-use-of-geoforensic-analysis-for-the-exploitation-of-improvised-explosive-devices-ieds
#5
Beth Wilks, Ruth M Morgan, Neil L Rose
The use of geoforensic analysis in criminal investigations is continuing to develop, with the diversification of analytical techniques, many of which are semi-automated, facilitating prompt analysis of large sample sets at a relatively low cost. Whilst micro-scale geoforensic analysis has been shown to assist criminal investigations including homicide (Concheri et al., 2011 [1]), wildlife crime (Morgan et al., 2006 [2]), illicit drug distribution (Stanley, 1992 [3]), and burglary (Mildenhall, 2006 [4]), its application to the pressing international security threat posed by Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) is yet to be considered...
July 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692650/expression-purification-and-contaminant-detection-for-structural-studies-of-ralstonia-metallidurance-clc-protein-rm1
#6
Priyanka D Abeyrathne, Nikolaus Grigorieff
Single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a popular method for high-resolution study of the structural and functional properties of proteins. However, sufficient expression and purification of membrane proteins holds many challenges. We describe methods to overcome these obstacles using ClC-rm1, a prokaryotic chloride channel (ClC) family protein from Ralstonia metallidurans, overexpressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21(DE3) strain. Mass spectrometry and electron microscopy analyses of purified samples revealed multiple contaminants that can obfuscate results of subsequent high-resolution structural analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691762/comparison-of-fully-wettable-rplc-stationary-phases-for-lc-ms-based-cellular-metabolomics
#7
Le Si-Hung, Tim J Causon, Stephan Hann
Reversed-phase LC combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is one of the most popular methods for cellular metabolomics studies. Due to the difficulties in analysing a wide range of polarities encountered in the metabolome, 100%-wettable reversed-phase materials are frequently used to maximise metabolome coverage within a single analysis. Packed with silica-based sub-3 μm diameter particles, these columns allow high separation efficiency and offer a reasonable compromise for metabolome coverage within a single analysis...
July 10, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682373/fluorescent-mirna-analysis-enhanced-by-mesopore-effects-of-polydopamine-nanoquenchers
#8
Zhenqiang Wang, Jixi Zhang, Feng Chen, Kaiyong Cai
The combination of fluorophore-labelled single-strand DNA probes and nanomaterial quenchers has shown great potential in miRNA detection. The development of advanced detection systems by understanding and controlling the fluorescence quenching/recovery via nanoquenchers' microstructures and local morphologies is an attractive area warranting further investigations. Inspired by nanopore sequencing, we present a novel miRNA sensing strategy using fluorophore-labeled DNA as probes and a type of large-pore-sized mesoporous polydopamine nanoparticles (MPDA-L, 70 nm in diameter) as fluorescence quenchers...
July 6, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681291/time-resolved-monitoring-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-adsorbed-on-atmospheric-particles
#9
Gustavo Sousa, Denis Kiselev, Jérôme Kasparian, Christian George, José Ferreira, Philippe Favreau, Benoît Lazzarotto, Jean-Pierre Wolf
Real-time monitoring of individual particles from atmospheric aerosols was performed by means of a specifically developed single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS). The observed fluorescence was assigned to particles bearing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This assignment was supported by an intercomparison with classical speciation on filters followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. As compared with daily averaged data, our time-resolved approach provided information about the physicochemical dynamics of the particles...
July 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675816/expanding-the-boundaries-of-cryo-em-with-phase-plates
#10
REVIEW
Radostin Danev, Wolfgang Baumeister
Phase plates have long been considered as a means for improving the performance of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). But practical limitations, such as a short lifespan or cumbersome usage have prevented their widespread adoption. The recently developed Volta phase plate overcomes most of the practical issues and it is now commercially available. Results from both, electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) and single particle analysis (SPA), have demonstrated the benefits of using a phase plate. In CET phase plates have helped to visualize cellular ultrastructure in unprecedented detail...
July 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675620/site-specific-sers-assay-for-survivin-protein-dimer-from-ensemble-experiments-to-correlative-single-particle-imaging
#11
Jörg Wissler, Sandra Bäcker, Alessandro Feis, Shirley K Knauer, Sebastian Schlücker
An assay for Survivin, a small dimeric protein which functions as modulator of apoptosis and cell division and serves as a promising diagnostic biomarker for different types of cancer, is presented. The assay is based on switching on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) upon incubation of the Survivin protein dimer with Raman reporter-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNP). Site-specificity is achieved by complexation of nickel-chelated N-nitrilo-triacetic acid (Ni-NTA) anchors on the particle surface by multiple histidines (His6 -tag) attached to each C-terminus of the centrosymmetric protein dimer...
July 4, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675148/owl-inspired-leading-edge-serrations-play-a-crucial-role-in-aerodynamic-force-production-and-sound-suppression
#12
Chen Rao, Teruaki Ikeda, Toshiyuki Nakata, Hao Liu
Owls are widely known for silent flight, achieving remarkably low noise gliding and flapping flights owing to their unique wing morphologies, which are normally characterized by leading-edge serrations, trailing-edge fringes and velvet-like surfaces. How these morphological features affect aerodynamic force production and sound suppression or noise reduction, however, is still not well known. Here we address an integrated study of owl-inspired single feather wing models with and without leading-edge serrations by combining large-eddy simulations (LES) with particle-image velocimetry (PIV) and force measurements in a low-speed wind tunnel...
July 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673122/rejuvenating-effect-of-long-term-igf-i-gene-therapy-in-the-hypothalamus-of-aged-rats-with-dopaminergic-dysfunction
#13
Jose Ignacio Schwerdt, Micaela Lopez-Leon, Gloria Miriam Console, Oscar Alfedo Brown, Gustavo Ramon Morel, Eduardo Spinedi, Rodolfo Gustavo Goya
The aging female rat constitutes an interesting model of spontaneous and progressive age-related dopaminergic dysfunction as it allows assessing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule which is strongly induced in the central nervous system after different insults. We constructed a helper-dependent recombinant adenoviral vector (HDRAd-IGFI) harboring the gene for rat IGF-I. This was used it to implement long-term IGF-I gene therapy in the hypothalamus of aged female rats, which display hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction and as a consequence, chronic hyperprolactinemia...
July 3, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668120/single-particle-electron-microscopy-analysis-of-dna-repair-complexes
#14
Marta Sawicka, Ricardo Aramayo, Rafael Ayala, Robert Glyde, Xiaodong Zhang
DNA repair complexes play crucial roles in maintaining genome integrity, which is essential for the survival of an organism. The understanding of their modes of action is often obscure due to limited structural knowledge. Structural characterizations of these complexes are often challenging due to a poor protein production yield, a conformational flexibility, and a relatively high molecular mass. Single-particle electron microscopy (EM) has been successfully applied to study some of these complexes as it requires low amount of samples, is not limited by the high molecular mass of a protein or a complex, and can separate heterogeneous assemblies...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667626/structural-analysis-of-protein-complexes-by-cryo-electron-microscopy
#15
Tiago R D Costa, Athanasios Ignatiou, Elena V Orlova
Structural studies of biocomplexes using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is now a well-established technique in structural biology and has become competitive with X-ray crystallography. The latest advances in EM enable us to determine structures of protein complexes at 3-5 Å resolution for an extremely broad range of sizes from ~200 kDa up to hundreds of megadaltons (Bartesaghi et al., Science 348(6239):1147-1151, 2051; Bai et al., Nature 525(7568):212-217, 2015; Vinothkumar et al., Nature 515(7525):80-84, 2014; Grigorieff and Harrison, Curr Opin Struct Biol 21(2):265-273, 2011)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667111/aerobiology-experimental-considerations-observations-and-future-tools
#16
Allen E Haddrell, Richard J Thomas
Understanding airborne survival and decay of microorganisms is important for a range of public health and biodefence applications including epidemiological and risk analysis modelling. Techniques for experimental aerosol generation, retention in aerosol phase and sampling require careful consideration and understanding so that they are representative of the conditions the bioaerosol would experience in the environment. This review explores current understanding of atmospheric transport in relation to advances and limitations of aerosol generation, maintenance in the aerosol phase and sampling techniques...
June 30, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664878/three-dimensional-reconstruction-for-coherent-diffraction-patterns-obtained-by-xfel
#17
Miki Nakano, Osamu Miyashita, Slavica Jonic, Changyong Song, Daewoong Nam, Yasumasa Joti, Florence Tama
The three-dimensional (3D) structural analysis of single particles using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) is a new structural biology technique that enables observations of molecules that are difficult to crystallize, such as flexible biomolecular complexes and living tissue in the state close to physiological conditions. In order to restore the 3D structure from the diffraction patterns obtained by the XFEL, computational algorithms are necessary as the orientation of the incident beam with respect to the sample needs to be estimated...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664147/mineralisation-of-atmospheric-aerosol-particles-and-further-analysis-of-trace-elements-by-inductively-coupled-plasma-optical-emission-spectrometry
#18
Aurélie Dufour, Christophe Migon
Several protocols using different treatments (various mixtures of acids at different temperatures for mineralisation) or using several analysis instrumentations were tested with the aim to define the method allowing the analysis of some groups of elements. This study proposes a protocol of sample treatment and analysis permitting in a single batch the determination of 16 elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) with different chemical features such as volatile or refractory trace elements...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663924/simulation-and-analysis-of-light-scattering-by-multilamellar-bodies-present-in-the-human-eye
#19
Emilia M Méndez-Aguilar, Ismael Kelly-Pérez, L R Berriel-Valdos, José A Delgado-Atencio
A modified computational model of the human eye was used to obtain and compare different probability density functions, radial profiles of light pattern distributions, and images of the point spread function formed in the human retina under the presence of different kinds of particles inside crystalline lenses suffering from cataracts. Specifically, this work uses simple particles without shells and multilamellar bodies (MLBs) with shells. The emergence of such particles alters the formation of images on the retina...
June 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658211/electron-cryo-microscopy-structure-of-the-mechanotransduction-channel-nompc
#20
Peng Jin, David Bulkley, Yanmeng Guo, Wei Zhang, Zhenhao Guo, Walter Huynh, Shenping Wu, Shan Meltzer, Tong Cheng, Lily Yeh Jan, Yuh-Nung Jan, Yifan Cheng
Mechanosensory transduction for senses such as proprioception, touch, balance, acceleration, hearing and pain relies on mechanotransduction channels, which convert mechanical stimuli into electrical signals in specialized sensory cells. How force gates mechanotransduction channels is a central question in the field, for which there are two major models. One is the membrane-tension model: force applied to the membrane generates a change in membrane tension that is sufficient to gate the channel, as in the bacterial MscL channel and certain eukaryotic potassium channels...
June 26, 2017: Nature
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