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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916303/high-throughput-flow-cytometry-for-drug-discovery-principles-applications-and-case-studies
#1
REVIEW
Mei Ding, Karin Kaspersson, David Murray, Catherine Bardelle
Flow cytometry is a technology providing multiparametric analysis of single cells or other suspension particles. High-throughput (HT) flow cytometry has become an attractive screening platform for drug discovery. In this review, we highlight the recent HT flow cytometry applications, and then focus on HT flow cytometry deployment at AstraZeneca (AZ). Practical considerations for successful HT flow cytometry assay development and screening are provided based on experience from four project case studies at AZ...
September 12, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916149/wavelet-based-tracking-of-bacteria-in-unreconstructed-off-axis-holograms
#2
Zach Marin, J Kent Wallace, Jay Nadeau, Andre Khalil
We propose an automated wavelet-based method of tracking particles in unreconstructed off-axis holograms to provide rough estimates of the presence of motion and particle trajectories in digital holographic microscopy (DHM) time series. The wavelet transform modulus maxima segmentation method is adapted and tailored to extract Airy-like diffraction disks, which represent bacteria, from DHM time series. In this exploratory analysis, the method shows potential for estimating bacterial tracks in low-particle-density time series, based on a preliminary analysis of both living and dead Serratia marcescens, and for rapidly providing a single-bit answer to whether a sample chamber contains living or dead microbes or is empty...
September 12, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915935/secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-the-application-in-the-analysis-of-atmospheric-particulate-matter
#3
REVIEW
Di Huang, Xin Hua, Guang-Li Xiu, Yong-Jie Zheng, Xiao-Ying Yu, Yi-Tao Long
Currently, considerable attention has been paid to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) investigation due to its importance in human health and global climate change. Surface characterization, single particle analysis and depth profiling of PM is important for a better understanding of its formation processes and predicting its impact on the environment and human being. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is a surface technique with high surface sensitivity, high spatial resolution chemical imaging and unique depth profiling capabilities...
October 9, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915236/modeling-antibiotic-treatment-in-hospitals-a-systematic-approach-shows-benefits-of-combination-therapy-over-cycling-mixing-and-mono-drug-therapies
#4
Burcu Tepekule, Hildegard Uecker, Isabel Derungs, Antoine Frenoy, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Multiple treatment strategies are available for empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitals, but neither clinical studies nor theoretical investigations have yielded a clear picture when which strategy is optimal and why. Extending earlier work of others and us, we present a mathematical model capturing treatment strategies using two drugs, i.e the multi-drug therapies referred to as cycling, mixing, and combination therapy, as well as monotherapy with either drug. We randomly sample a large parameter space to determine the conditions determining success or failure of these strategies...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913335/extracellular-vesicle-flow-cytometry-analysis-and-standardization
#5
REVIEW
Joshua A Welsh, Judith A Holloway, James S Wilkinson, Nicola A Englyst
The term extracellular vesicles (EVs) describes membranous vesicles derived from cells, ranging in diameter from 30 to 1,000 nm with the majority thought to be in the region of 100-150 nm. Due to their small diameter and complex and variable composition, conventional techniques have struggled to accurately count and phenotype EVs. Currently, EV characterization using high-resolution flow cytometry is the most promising method when compared to other currently available techniques, due to it being a high-throughput, single particle, multi-parameter analysis technique capable of analyzing a large range of particle diameters...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906521/inter-cluster-distance-dependence-of-electrical-properties-in-single-crystals-of-a-mixed-valence-polyoxometalate
#6
Ryo Tsunashima, Ippei Nakamura, Rika Oue, Seiya Koga, Hirofumi Oki, Shin-Ichiro Noro, Takayoshi Nakamura, Tomoyuki Akutagawa
The electrical conductivity of mixed-valence [MoMoO54(SO3)2](6-) tetraalkylammonium salts was investigated through dependence on the inter-cluster distance that is controlled by tetraethylammonium, tetrapropylammonium, and tetrabutylammonium cations. The crystallographic analysis of single crystals revealed that the inter-cluster distances are dependent on the chain length of the alkyl groups on the counter cations. In addition, the electrical conductivities of the single crystals were found to be dependent on both temperature and chain length...
September 14, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905253/co-transformation-mediated-stacking-of-blast-resistance-genes-pi54-and-pi54rh-in-rice-provides-broad-spectrum-resistance-against-magnaporthe-oryzae
#7
Mandeep Kumari, Amit Kumar Rai, B N Devanna, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Ritu Kapoor, H Rajashekara, G Prakash, Vinay Sharma, Tilak Raj Sharma
This is the first report of stacking two major blast resistance genes in blast susceptible rice variety using co-transformation method to widen the resistance spectrum against different isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae. Single resistance (R-) gene mediated approach for the management of rice blast disease has met with frequent breakdown in resistance response. Besides providing the durable resistance, gene pyramiding or stacking also imparts broad spectrum resistance against plant pathogens, including rice blast...
September 13, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900238/limitations-of-qdot-labelling-compared-to-directly-conjugated-probes-for-single-particle-tracking-of-b-cell-receptor-mobility
#8
Libin Abraham, Henry Y Lu, Rebeca Cardim Falcão, Joshua Scurll, Timothy Jou, Brian Irwin, Reza Tafteh, Michael R Gold, Daniel Coombs
Single-particle tracking (SPT) is a powerful method for exploring single-molecule dynamics in living cells with nanoscale spatiotemporal resolution. Photostability and bright fluorescence make quantum dots (Qdots) a popular choice for SPT. However, their large size could potentially alter the mobility of the molecule of interest. To test this, we labelled B cell receptors on the surface of B-lymphocytes with monovalent Fab fragments of antibodies that were either linked to Qdots via streptavidin or directly conjugated to the small organic fluorophore Cy3...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895722/dielectric-sphere-clusters-as-a-model-to-understand-infrared-spectroscopic-imaging-data-recorded-from-complex-samples
#9
Ilia L Rasskazov, Nicolas Spegazzini, P Scott Carney, Rohit Bhargava
Understanding the infrared (IR) spectral response of materials as a function of their morphology is not only of fundamental importance but also of contemporary practical need in the analysis of biological and synthetic materials. While significant work has recently been reported in understanding the spectra of particles with well-defined geometries, we report here on samples that consist of collections of particles. First, we theoretically model the importance of multiple scattering effects and computationally predict the impact of local particles' environment on the recorded IR spectra...
September 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895398/nearly-blinking-free-high-purity-single-photon-emission-by-colloidal-inp-znse-quantum-dots
#10
Vigneshwaran Chandrasekaran, Mickaël D Tessier, Dorian Dupont, Pieter Geiregat, Zeger Hens, Edouard Brainis
Colloidal core/shell InP/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs), recently produced using an improved synthesis method, have a great potential in life-science applications as well as in integrated quantum photonics and quantum information processing as single-photon emitters. Single-particle spectroscopy of 10 nm QDs with 3.2 nm cores reveals strong photon antibunching attributed to fast (70 ps) Auger recombination of multiple excitons. The QDs exhibit very good photostability under strong optical excitation. We demonstrate that the antibunching is preserved when the QDs are excited above the saturation intensity of the fundamental-exciton transition...
September 14, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893480/production-of-highly-immunogenic-virus-like-particles-of-bovine-papillomavirus-type-6-in-silkworm-pupae
#11
Satoko Watanabe, Tetsuya Iizuka, Shinichi Hatama, Toru Kanno, Masaji Mase, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the causative agent of bovine teat papillomatosis, which can lead to severe economic losses in dairy cattle. Among the 14 identified BPV genotypes, BPV type 6 (BPV6) is the most frequently detected in teat papilloma lesions, and is therefore thought to play a major role in teat papillomatosis. To develop an effective vaccine against BPV6 infection, we produced virus-like particles of BPV6 (BPV6-VLP) in silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae and purified these by heparin affinity chromatography using a single column...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891250/guidelines-for-using-bsoft-for-high-resolution-reconstruction-and-validation-of-biomolecular-structures-from-electron-micrographs
#12
J Bernard Heymann
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) is becoming popular as a tool to solve biomolecular structures with the recent availability of direct electron detectors allowing automated acquisition of high resolution data. The Bsoft software package, developed over 20 years for analyzing electron micrographs, offers a full workflow for validated single particle analysis with extensive functionality, enabling customization for specific cases. With the increasing use of cryoEM and its automation, proper validation of the results is a bigger concern...
September 10, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887513/coherent-diffractive-imaging-of-single-helium-nanodroplets-with-a-high-harmonic-generation-source
#13
Daniela Rupp, Nils Monserud, Bruno Langbehn, Mario Sauppe, Julian Zimmermann, Yevheniy Ovcharenko, Thomas Möller, Fabio Frassetto, Luca Poletto, Andrea Trabattoni, Francesca Calegari, Mauro Nisoli, Katharina Sander, Christian Peltz, Marc J Vrakking, Thomas Fennel, Arnaud Rouzée
Coherent diffractive imaging of individual free nanoparticles has opened routes for the in situ analysis of their transient structural, optical, and electronic properties. So far, single-shot single-particle diffraction was assumed to be feasible only at extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers, restricting this research field to large-scale facilities. Here we demonstrate single-shot imaging of isolated helium nanodroplets using extreme ultraviolet pulses from a femtosecond-laser-driven high harmonic source...
September 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886416/long-term-exposure-to-particulate-matter-no2-and-the-oxidative-potential-of-particulates-and-diabetes-prevalence-in-a-large-national-health-survey
#14
Maciej Strak, Nicole Janssen, Rob Beelen, Oliver Schmitz, Ilonca Vaartjes, Derek Karssenberg, Carolien van den Brink, Michiel L Bots, Martin Dijst, Bert Brunekreef, Gerard Hoek
BACKGROUND: The evidence from observational epidemiological studies of a link between long-term air pollution exposure and diabetes prevalence and incidence is currently mixed. Some studies found the strongest associations of diabetes with fine particles, other studies with nitrogen dioxide and some studies found no associations. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate associations between long-term exposure to multiple air pollutants and diabetes prevalence in a large national survey in the Netherlands...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886048/a-single-source-photon-source-model-of-a-linear-accelerator-for-monte-carlo-dose-calculation
#15
Obioma Nwankwo, Gerhard Glatting, Frederik Wenz, Jens Fleckenstein
PURPOSE: To introduce a new method of deriving a virtual source model (VSM) of a linear accelerator photon beam from a phase space file (PSF) for Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A PSF of a 6 MV photon beam was generated by simulating the interactions of primary electrons with the relevant geometries of a Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) and recording the particles that reach a plane 16 cm downstream the electron source...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884571/clickable-multifunctional-dumbbell-particles-for-in-situ-multiplex-single-cell-cytokine-detection
#16
Peng Zhao, Justin George, Bin Li, Nooshin Amini, Janet Paluh, Jun Wang
We report a novel strategy for fabrication of multifunctional dumbbell particles (DPs) through click chemistry for monitoring single-cell cytokine releasing. Two different types of DPs were prepared on a large scale through covalent bioorthogonal reaction between methyltetrazine and trans-cyclooctene on a microchip under a magnetic field. After collection of the DPs, the two sides of each particle were further functionalized with different antibodies for cell capturing and cytokine detection, respectively. These DPs labeled with different fluorescent dyes have been used for multiplex detection and analysis of cytokines secreted by single live cells...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882898/switch-i-dependent-allosteric-signaling-in-a-g-protein-chaperone-b12-enzyme-complex
#17
Gregory C Campanello, Michael Lofgren, Adam L Yokom, Daniel R Southworth, Ruma Banerjee
G-proteins regulate various processes ranging from DNA replication and protein synthesis to cytoskeletal dynamics and cofactor assimilation, and serve as models for uncovering strategies deployed for allosteric signal transduction. MeaB is a multifunctional G-protein chaperone, which gates loading of the active 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin cofactor onto methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) and precludes loading of inactive cofactor forms. MeaB also safeguards MCM, which uses radical chemistry, against inactivation and rescues MCM inactivated during catalytic turnover by using the GTP-binding energy to offload inactive cofactor...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877398/spectral-identification-in-the-attogram-regime-through-laser-induced-emission-of-single-optically-trapped-nanoparticles-in-air
#18
Pablo Purohit, Francisco J Fortes, Javier Laserna
Current trends in nanoengineering are bringing along new structures of diverse chemical compositions that need to be meticulously defined in order to ensure their correct operation. Few methods can provide the sensitivity required to carry out measurements on individual nano objects without tedious sample pre-treatment or data analysis. In the present study, we introduce a pathway for the elemental identification of single nanoparticles (NPs) that avoids suspension in liquid media by means of optical trapping and laser-induced plasma spectroscopy...
September 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877030/radiation-mitigating-properties-of-intranasally-administered-kl4-surfactant-in-a-murine-model-of-radiation-induced-lung-damage
#19
Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Ralph A Pietrofesa, Evguenia Arguiri, Constantinos Koumenis, Robert Segal
The threat of exposure to ionizing radiation from a nuclear reactor accident or deliberate terrorist actions is a significant public health concern. The lung is particularly susceptible to radiation-induced injury from external sources or inhalation of radioactive particles from radioactive fallout. Radiation-induced lung disease can manifest with an acute radiation pneumonitis and/or delayed effects leading to pulmonary fibrosis. As prior warning of radiation exposure is unlikely, medical countermeasures (MCMs) to mitigate radiation-induced lung disease that can be given in mass-casualty situations many hours or days postirradiation are needed to prevent both early and late lung damage...
September 6, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876916/molecular-routes-to-group-iv-magnesium-and-calcium-nanocrystalline-ceramics
#20
Rafał Petrus, Anna Drąg-Jarząbek, Józef Utko, Dominik Bykowski, Tadeusz Lis, Piotr Sobota
The effect of alkaline-earth-metal alkoxides on the protonolysis of Cp2M'Cl2 (M' = Ti, Zr, Hf; Cp = cyclopentadiene) was investigated. This approach enabled the design of compounds with well-defined molecular structures to generate high-purity binary metal oxides. Single-source molecular precursors with structures of [M2M'2(μ3-OEt)2(μ-OEt)4(OEt)6(EtOH)4] with M = Mg and M' = Ti (1), Zr (2), and Hf (3), [Ca6Ti4(μ6-O)2(μ4-O)2(μ3-OEt)12(OEt)12(EtOH)6Cl4] (4), and [M2M'2(μ4-O)(μ-OEt)5(OEt)4(EtOH)4Cl]n with M = Ca and M' = Zr (5) and Hf (6) were prepared via elimination of the cyclopentadienyl ring from Cp2M'Cl2 as CpH in the presence of M(OEt)2 and ethanol (EtOH) as a source of protons...
September 6, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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