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single particle analysis

Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Osnat Israelsohn-Azulay, Yigal Zidon, Tsadok Tsach
A shooting event involved several types of ammunition that were all shot from a single firearm. GSR analysis of samples taken from the suspect's hands, hair and from his clothes was carried out. Mixed compositions particles were found among other GSR particles, attributed to the weapon memory effect. SEM/EDX analysis of these particles highlighted a particle with defined domains containing distinct groups of elements. Some of these elements were absent in the primers mixtures of the ammunition used in the shooting event...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Amporn Suphatrakul, Thaneeya Duangchinda, Natapong Jupatanakul, Kanjanawadee Prasittisa, Suppachoke Onnome, Jutharat Pengon, Bunpote Siridechadilok
Reporter virus is a versatile tool to visualize and to analyze virus infections. However, for flaviviruses, it is difficult to maintain the inserted reporter genes on the viral genome, limiting its use in several studies that require homogeneous virus particles and several rounds of virus replication. Here, we showed that flanking inserted GFP genes on both sides with ribosome-skipping 2A sequences improved the stability and the consistency of their fluorescent signals for dengue-virus-serotype 2 (DENV2) reporter viruses...
2018: PloS One
Alexander L Luryi, David Wright, Juliana Lawrence, Seilesh Babu, Michael LaRouere, Dennis I Bojrab, Eric W Sargent, John Zappia, Christopher A Schutt
PURPOSE: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) involving the horizontal and superior semicircular canals is difficult to study due to variability in diagnosis. We aim to compare disease, treatment, and outcome characteristics between patients with BPPV of non-posterior semicircular canals (NP-BPPV) and BPPV involving the posterior canal only (P-BPPV) using the particle repositioning chair as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. METHODS: Retrospective review of patients diagnosed with and treated for BPPV at a high volume otology institution using the particle repositioning chair...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Mathias Reisbeck, Lukas Richter, Michael Johannes Helou, Stephan Arlinghaus, Birgit Anton, Ignas van Dommelen, Mario Nitzsche, Michael Baßler, Barbara Kappes, Oliver Friedrich, Oliver Hayden
Time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic sensing of rolling immunomagnetically-labeled cells offers great potential for single cell function analysis at the bedside in even optically opaque media, such as whole blood. However, due to the spatial resolution of the sensor and the low flow rate regime required to observe the behavior of rolling cells, the concentration range of such a workflow is limited. Potential clinical applications, such as testing of leukocyte function, require a cytometer which can cover a cell concentration range of several orders of magnitude...
March 12, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
A S Vikulina, N A Feoktistova, N G Balabushevich, A G Skirtach, D Volodkin
Porous vaterite CaCO3 crystals are nowadays extensively used as high-capacity bio-friendly sacrificial templates for the fabrication of such protein-containing nano- and micro-particles as capsules and beads. The first step in the protein encapsulation is performed through loading of the protein molecules into the crystals. Co-synthesis is one of the most useful and simple methods proven to effectively load crystals with proteins; however, the loading mechanism is still unknown. To understand the mechanism, in this study, we focus on the loading of a model protein catalase into the crystals by means of adsorption into pre-formed crystals (ADS) and co-synthesis (COS)...
March 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daniel J Ellenberger, Dave A Miller, Sandra U Kucera, Robert O Williams
Vemurafenib is a poorly soluble, low permeability drug that has a demonstrated need for a solubility-enhanced formulation. However, conventional approaches for amorphous solid dispersion production are challenging due to the physiochemical properties of the compound. A suitable and novel method for creating an amorphous solid dispersion, known as solvent-controlled coprecipitation, was developed to make a material known as microprecipitated bulk powder (MBP). However, this approach has limitations in its processing and formulation space...
March 14, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Georges Hattab, Veit Wiesmann, Anke Becker, Tamara Munzner, Tim W Nattkemper
Time-lapse imaging of cell colonies in microfluidic chambers provides time series of bioimages, i.e., biomovies. They show the behavior of cells over time under controlled conditions. One of the main remaining bottlenecks in this area of research is the analysis of experimental data and the extraction of cell growth characteristics, such as lineage information. The extraction of the cell line by human observers is time-consuming and error-prone. Previously proposed methods often fail because of their reliance on the accurate detection of a single cell, which is not possible for high density, high diversity of cell shapes and numbers, and high-resolution images with high noise...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yang Bai, Hannelore Bové, Tim S Nawrot, Benoit Nemery
BACKGROUND: Carbon load in airway macrophages (AM) has been proposed as an internal marker to assess long-term exposure to combustion-derived pollutant particles. However, it is not known how this biomarker is affected by changes in exposure. We studied the clearance kinetics of black carbon (BC) in AM, obtained by sputum induction, in a one-year panel study. METHODS: AM BC was measured 8 times with 6 weeks intervals in healthy young subjects: 15 long-term residents in Leuven, Belgium (BE, mean annual PM10 20-30 μg/m3 ) and 30 newcomers having arrived recently (< 3 weeks) in Leuven from highly polluted cities (mean annual PM10  > 50 μg/m3 ) in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, n = 15), or from low to moderately polluted cities in high-income countries (HIC, n = 15)...
March 14, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Anthony R Vega, Spencer A Freeman, Sergio Grinstein, Khuloud Jaqaman
Molecular interactions are often transient and might change within the window of observation, leading to changes in molecule movement. Therefore, accurate motion analysis often requires transient motion classification. Here we present an accurate and computationally efficient transient mobility analysis framework, termed "divide-and-conquer moment scaling spectrum" (DC-MSS). DC-MSS works in a multistep fashion: 1) it utilizes a local movement descriptor throughout a track to divide it into initial segments of putatively different motion classes; 2) it classifies these segments via moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis of molecule displacements; and 3) it uses the MSS analysis results to refine the track segmentation...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Megan Suzanne Claflin, Paul J Ziemann
Substantial amounts of gas- and particle-phase organic nitrates have been reported in field studies of atmospheric chemistry conducted around the world, and it has been proposed that a significant fraction of these may be formed from the nighttime reaction of monoterpenes with NO3 radicals. In the study presented here, β-pinene (a major global monoterpene emission) was reacted with NO3 radicals in an environmental chamber and the molecular and functional group composition of the resulting secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was determined using a variety of methods...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Silvia Serranti, Roberta Palmieri, Giuseppe Bonifazi, Andrés Cózar
An innovative approach, based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI), was developed in order to set up an efficient method to analyze marine microplastic litter. HSI was applied to samples collected by surface-trawling plankton nets from several parts of the world (i.e. Arctic, Mediterranean, South Atlantic and North Pacific). Reliable information on abundance, size, shape and polymer type for the whole ensemble of plastic particles in each sample was retrieved from single hyperspectral images. The simultaneous characterization of the polymeric composition of the plastic debris represents an important analytical advantage considering that this information, and even the validation of the plastic nature of the small debris, is a common flaw in the analysis of marine microplastic pollution...
March 5, 2018: Waste Management
Shuwei Song, Hong Zhao, Xiaonan Zheng, Hui Zhang, Yang Liu, Ying Wang, Baozhong Han
The role of a series of functionalized graphene additives in power cable insulation in suppressing the growth of electrical treeing and preventing the degradation of the polymer matrix has been investigated by density functional theory calculations. Bader charge analysis indicates that pristine, doped or defect graphene could effectively capture hot electrons to block their attack on cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) because of the π-π conjugated unsaturated structures. Further exploration of the electronic properties in the interfacial region between the additives and XLPE shows that N-doped single-vacancy graphene, graphene oxide and B-, N-, Si- or P-doped graphene oxide have relatively strong physical interaction with XLPE to restrict its mobility and rather weak chemical activity to prevent the cleavage of the C-H or C-C bond, suggesting that they are all potential candidates as effective additives...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Giovanna Scapin, Venkata P Dandey, Zhening Zhang, Winifred Prosise, Alan Hruza, Theresa Kelly, Todd Mayhood, Corey Strickland, Clinton S Potter, Bridget Carragher
The insulin receptor (IR) is a dimeric protein that plays a crucial role in controlling glucose homeostasis, regulating lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and modulating brain neurotransmitter levels1,2 . IR dysfunction has been associated with many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease1,2,4 . The primary sequence has been known since the 1980s5 , and is composed of an extracellular portion (ectodomain, ECD), a single transmembrane helix and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain...
February 28, 2018: Nature
Yuxi Liu, Shane Gonen, Tamir Gonen, Todd O Yeates
Current single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) techniques can produce images of large protein assemblies and macromolecular complexes at atomic level detail without the need for crystal growth. However, proteins of smaller size, typical of those found throughout the cell, are not presently amenable to detailed structural elucidation by cryo-EM. Here we use protein design to create a modular, symmetrical scaffolding system to make protein molecules of typical size suitable for cryo-EM. Using a rigid continuous alpha helical linker, we connect a small 17-kDa protein (DARPin) to a protein subunit that was designed to self-assemble into a cage with cubic symmetry...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Murat Alp, Francis A Cucinotta
Exposure to heavy-ion radiation during cancer treatment or space travel may cause cognitive detriments that have been associated with changes in neuron morphology and plasticity. Observations in mice of reduced neuronal dendritic complexity have revealed a dependence on radiation quality and absorbed dose, suggesting that microscopic energy deposition plays an important role. In this work we used morphological data for mouse dentate granular cell layer (GCL) neurons and a stochastic model of particle track structure and microscopic energy deposition (ED) to develop a predictive model of high-charge and energy (HZE) particle-induced morphological changes to the complex structures of dendritic arbors...
March 2018: Radiation Research
Meiyu Gai, Maxim A Kurochkin, Danyang Li, Boris N Khlebtsov, Luo Dong, Nadja Tarakina, Robin Poston, David J Gould, Johannes Frueh, Gleb B Sukhorukov
Controlled drug delivery and gene expression is required for a large variety of applications including cancer therapy, wound healing, cell migration, cell modification, cell-analysis, reproductive and regenerative medicine. Controlled delivery of precise amounts of drugs to a single cell is especially interesting for cell and tissue engineering as well as therapeutics and has until now required the application of micro-pipettes, precisely placed dispersed drug delivery vehicles, or injections close to or into the cell...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Xiaoxiao Wei, Yuzhi Wang, Jing Chen, Panli Xu, Yigang Zhou
A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) method based on 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid (IL) modified magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, hydroxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) nanocomposites (Fe3 O4 -MWCNTs-OH@ZIF-67@IL) were proposed and applied to extract α-chymotrypsin. The magnetic materials were synthesized successfully and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and zeta potentials...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Yuan Yang, Li Luo, Hai-Pu Li, Qiang Wang, Zhao-Guang Yang, Zhi-Peng Qu, Ru Ding
Developing quantification and characterization methodology for metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their ionic component in complex matrix are crucial for the evaluation of their environmental behavior and health risks to humans. In this study, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography combined ICP-MS was established for the characterization of MNPs in complex matrix. The ionic component could be separated from NPs with the optimized parameters of aqueous mobile phase. Good linear relationship between average diameter and retention time of NPs was obtained using HPLC-ICP-MS and the size smaller than 40 nm could be determined with this method, the detected results were in accordance with TEM results...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Ziqiu Tong, Gayathri Rajeev, Keying Guo, Angela Ivask, Scott McCormick, Enzo Lombi, Craig Priest, Nicolas H Voelcker
With the advances in nanotechnology, particles with various size, shape, surface chemistry and composition can be easily produced. Nano- and microparticles have been extensively explored in many industrial and clinical applications. Ensuring that the particles themselves are not possessing any toxic effects to the biological system is of paramount importance. This paper describes a proof of concept method in which a microfluidic system is used in conjunction with a cell microarray technique aiming to streamline the analysis of particle-cell interaction in a high throughput manner...
March 2, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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