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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350474/detachment-of-membrane-bound-virions-by-competitive-ligand-binding-induced-receptor-depletion
#1
Nagma Parveen, Stephan Block, Vladimir P Zhdanov, Gustaf E Rydell, Fredrik Höök
Multivalent receptor-mediated interactions between virions and a lipid membrane can be weakened using competitive non-pathogenic ligand binding. In particular, the subsequent binding of such ligands can induce detachment of bound virions, a phenomena of crucial relevance for the development of new antiviral drugs. Focusing on the simian virus 40 (SV40) and recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB), and using (monosialotetrahexosyl)ganglioside (GM1) as their common receptor in a supported lipid bilayer (SLB), we present the first detailed investigation of this phenomenon by employing the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy assisted 2D single particle tracking (SPT) techniques...
March 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344779/accuracy-of-the-detection-of-binding-events-using-3d-single-particle-tracking
#2
Sara Carozza, Jamie Culkin, John van Noort
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles can be used as markers to track the position of biomolecules, such as single proteins, inside living cells. The activity of a protein can sometimes be inferred from changes in the mobility of the attached particle. Mean Square Displacement analysis is the most common method to obtain mobility information from trajectories of tracked particles, such as the diffusion coefficient D. However, the precision of D sets a limit to discriminate changes in mobility caused by biological events from changes that reflect the stochasticity inherent to diffusion...
2017: BMC Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342788/analytical-ultracentrifugation-for-analysis-of-doxorubicin-loaded-liposomes
#3
Dora Mehn, Patrizia Iavicoli, Noelia Cabaleiro, Sven Even Borgos, Fanny Caputo, Otmar Geiss, Luigi Calzolai, François Rossi, Douglas Gilliland
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a powerful tool for the study of particle size distributions and interactions with high accuracy and resolution. In this work, we show how the analysis of sedimentation velocity data from the AUC can be used to characterize nanocarrier drug delivery systems used in nanomedicine. Nanocarrier size distribution and the ratio of free versus nanoparticle-encapsulated drug in a commercially available liposomal doxorubicin formulation are determined using interference and absorbance based AUC measurements and compared with results generated with conventional techniques...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342396/high-resolution-cryo-em-the-nuts-and-bolts
#4
REVIEW
Dominika Elmlund, Sarah N Le, Hans Elmlund
Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis now enables the determination of high-resolution structures of macromolecular assemblies that have resisted X-ray crystallography and other approaches. Successful high-resolution structure determination by cryo-EM always depends on the quality of the protein sample. While structural heterogeneity remains a key challenge for cryo-EM, it also represents a rare opportunity to study the intrinsic conformational flexibility of macromolecular assemblies...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341993/a-method-for-preparing-silver-nanoparticle-suspensions-in-bulk-for-ecotoxicity-testing-and-ecological-risk-assessment
#5
Jonathan D Martin, Lena Telgmann, Chris D Metcalfe
Methods are needed to prepare stable suspensions of engineered nanoparticles in aqueous matrixes for ecotoxicity testing and ecological risk assessments. We developed a novel method of preparing large volumes of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) in suspension using a commercially available rotor-stator dispersion mill. AgNP in powder form (PVP capped, 30-50 nm) was suspended in deionized water and natural lake water at 1 g/L and the addition of 0.025% (w/v) gum arabic (GA) increased stability over 2 weeks after preparation...
March 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340764/revisiting-the-fission-track-method-for-the-analysis-of-particles-in-safeguards-environmental-samples
#6
N Dzigal, E Chinea-Cano, S Walsh, A Limbeck
This paper details an improved approach to environmental particle analysis for safeguards by means of a combination of an upgraded version of the so-called fission track method with state-of-the-art microscope and microprobe techniques. Improvements to the fission track method comprise a novel sample assembly, the automation of several of its steps and the extensive use of correlative microscopy. This is followed by an automated isolation of particles-of-interest by means of laser micro-dissection (LMD) and their collection onto a harvester for transfer to other micro-analytical instruments for further analysis...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340334/advances-in-phase-plate-cryo-em-imaging-of-dna-and-nucleosomes
#7
Eugene Y D Chua, Sara Sandin
Contrast in electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is limited by the weak phase and radiation sensitive nature of biologic samples embedded in vitrified ice. We have recently shown that a new contrast enhancement technique utilizing the Volta phase plate can be combined with single particle analysis to determine the structure of a small chromatin complex, the nucleosome core particle, at near-atomic resolution. Here, we discuss advantages and limitations of the technique in terms of data collection, particle detection, and visualization of individual DNA molecules and higher-order chromatin structure...
February 7, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327667/genetic-and-functional-diversity-of-ubiquitous-dna-viruses-in-selected-chinese-agricultural-soils
#8
Li-Li Han, Dan-Ting Yu, Li-Mei Zhang, Ju-Pei Shen, Ji-Zheng He
Viral community structures in complex agricultural soils are largely unknown. Electron microscopy and viromic analyses were conducted on six typical Chinese agricultural soil samples. Tailed bacteriophages, spherical and filamentous viral particles were identified by the morphological analysis. Based on the metagenomic analysis, single-stranded DNA viruses represented the largest viral component in most of the soil habitats, while the double-stranded DNA viruses belonging to the Caudovirales order were predominanted in Jiangxi-maize soils...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322552/one-step-fabrication-of-a-microfluidic-device-with-an-integrated-membrane-and-embedded-reagents-by-multimaterial-3d-printing
#9
Feng Li, Petr Smejkal, Niall P Macdonald, Rosanne M Guijt, Michael C Breadmore
One of the largest impediments in the development of microfluidic-based smart sensing systems is the manufacturability of integrated, complex devices. Here, we propose multimaterial 3D printing for the fabrication of such devices in a single step. A microfluidic device containing an integrated porous membrane and embedded liquid reagents was made by 3D printing and applied for the analysis of nitrate from soil. The manufacture of the integrated, sealed device was realised as a single print within 30 min. The body of the device was printed in transparent acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and contained a 400 μm wide structure printed from a commercially available composite filament...
March 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317988/using-single-nanoparticle-tracking-obtained-by-nanophotonic-force-microscopy-to-simultaneously-characterize-nanoparticle-size-distribution-and-nanoparticle-surface-interactions
#10
Delyan R Hristov, Dong Ye, Joao Medeiros de Araújo, Colby Ashcroft, Brian DiPaolo, Robert Hart, Christopher Earhart, Hender Lopez, Kenneth A Dawson
Comprehensive characterization of nanomaterials for medical applications is a challenging and complex task due to the multitude of parameters which need to be taken into consideration in a broad range of conditions. Routine methods such as dynamic light scattering or nanoparticle tracking analysis provide some insight into the physicochemical properties of particle dispersions. For nanomedicine applications the information they supply can be of limited use. For this reason, there is a need for new methodologies and instruments that can provide additional data on nanoparticle properties such as their interactions with surfaces...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315692/role-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-and-fibroblast-function-in-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-induced-lung-fibrosis
#11
Jane Ma, Bridget Bishoff, R R Mercer, Mark Barger, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova
The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO2 induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO2-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 (0.15 to 7mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure...
March 16, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314154/streamlined-approach-to-mapping-the-magnetic-induction-of-skyrmionic-materials
#12
Jordan J Chess, Sergio A Montoya, Tyler R Harvey, Colin Ophus, Simon Couture, Vitaliy Lomakin, Eric E Fullerton, Benjamin J McMorran
Recently, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) has helped researchers advance the emerging field of magnetic skyrmions. These magnetic quasi-particles, composed of topologically non-trivial magnetization textures, have a large potential for application as information carriers in low-power memory and logic devices. LTEM is one of a very few techniques for direct, real-space imaging of magnetic features at the nanoscale. For Fresnel-contrast LTEM, the transport of intensity equation (TIE) is the tool of choice for quantitative reconstruction of the local magnetic induction through the sample thickness...
February 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303796/rapid-structural-analysis-of-nanomaterials-in-aqueous-solutions
#13
Sou Ryuzaki, Makusu Tsutsui, Yuhui He, Kazumichi Yokota, Akihide Arima, Takanori Morikawa, Masateru Taniguchi, Tomoji Kawai
Rapid structural analysis of nanoscale matter in a liquid environment represents innovative technologies that reveal the identities and functions of biologically important molecules. However, there is currently no method with high spatio-temporal resolution that can scan individual particles in solutions to gain structural information. Here we report the development of a nanopore platform realizing quantitative structural analysis for suspended nanomaterials in solutions with a high z-axis and xy-plane spatial resolution of 35...
April 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299935/effect-of-structural-heterogeneity-in-chemical-composition-on-online-single-particle-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-sea-spray-aerosol-particles
#14
Camille M Sultana, Douglas B Collins, Kimberly A Prather
Knowledge of the surface composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) is critical for understanding and predicting climate-relevant impacts. Offline microscopy and spectroscopy studies have shown that dry supermicron SSA tend to be spatially heterogeneous particles with sodium- and chloride-rich cores surrounded by organic enriched surface layers containing minor inorganic seawater components such as magnesium and calcium. At the same time, single-particle mass spectrometry reveals several different mass spectral ion patterns, suggesting that there may be a number of chemically distinct particle types...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297963/enhanced-settling-of-nonheavy-inertial-particles-in-homogeneous-isotropic-turbulence-the-role-of-the-pressure-gradient-and-the-basset-history-force
#15
M A T van Hinsberg, H J H Clercx, F Toschi
The Stokes drag force and the gravity force are usually sufficient to describe the behavior of sub-Kolmogorov-size (or pointlike) heavy particles in turbulence, in particular when the particle-to-fluid density ratio ρ_{p}/ρ_{f}≳10^{3} (with ρ_{p} and ρ_{f} the particle and fluid density, respectively). This is, in general, not the case for smaller particle-to-fluid density ratios, in particular not for ρ_{p}/ρ_{f}≲10^{2}. In that case the pressure gradient force, added mass effects, and the Basset history force also play important roles...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291324/nanosalina-a-tale-of-saline-loving-algae-from-the-lake-s-agony-to-cancer-therapy
#16
Fatemeh Ostadhossein, Santosh K Misra, Aaron Schwartz-Duval, Brajendra K Sharma, Dipanjan Pan
The nanoparticles (NPs) that contain the therapeutic agent within themselves without further modifications can be coined as 'self-therapeutic' NPs. The development of these agents especially when derived from natural resources can lead to a paradigm shift in the field of cancer nanotechnology as they can immensely facilitate the complex chemistry procedures and the follow up biological complications. Herein, we demonstrate that inherently therapeutic NPs 'integrating' β-carotene can be synthesized from Dunaliella Salina microalgae in a single step without complicated chemistry...
March 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279765/chitosan-zinc-oxide-polyvinylpyrrolidone-cs-zno-pvp-nanocomposite-for-better-thermal-and-antibacterial-activity
#17
M Karpuraranjith, S Thambidurai
A new biopolymer based ZnO-PVP nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by single step in situ precipitation method using chitosan as biosurfactant, zinc chloride as a source material, PVP as stabilizing agent and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agent. The chemical bonding and crystalline behaviors of chitosan, zinc oxide and PVP were confirmed by FT-IR and XRD analysis. The biopolymer connected ZnO particles intercalated PVP matrix was layer and rod like structure appeared in nanometer range confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM analysis...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275731/air-pollution-aerosol-interactions-produce-more-bioavailable-iron-for-ocean-ecosystems
#18
Weijun Li, Liang Xu, Xiaohuan Liu, Jianchao Zhang, Yangting Lin, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Daizhou Zhang, Jianmin Chen, Wenxing Wang, Roy M Harrison, Xiaoye Zhang, Longyi Shao, Pingqing Fu, Athanasios Nenes, Zongbo Shi
It has long been hypothesized that acids formed from anthropogenic pollutants and natural emissions dissolve iron (Fe) in airborne particles, enhancing the supply of bioavailable Fe to the oceans. However, field observations have yet to provide indisputable evidence to confirm this hypothesis. Single-particle chemical analysis for hundreds of individual atmospheric particles collected over the East China Sea shows that Fe-rich particles from coal combustion and steel industries were coated with thick layers of sulfate after 1 to 2 days of atmospheric residence...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274636/enhancing-enterovirus-a71-vaccine-production-yield-by-microcarrier-profusion-bioreactor-culture
#19
Chia-Chyi Liu, Suh-Chin Wu, Shang-Rung Wu, Hsiao-Yu Lin, Meng-Shin Guo, Alan Yung-Chih Hu, Yen-Hung Chow, Jen-Ron Chiang, Dar-Bin Shieh, Pele Chong
Hand, foot and mouth diseases (HFMD) are mainly caused by Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infections. Clinical trials in Asia conducted with formalin-inactivated EV-A71 vaccine candidates produced from serum-free Vero cell culture using either roller bottle or cell factory technology, are found to be safe and highly efficacious. To increase vaccine yields and reduce the production costs, the bioprocess improvement for EV-A71 vaccine manufacturing is currently being investigated. The parameters that could affect and enhance the production yields of EV-A71 virus growth in the microcarrier bioreactor were investigated...
March 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273170/molecular-analysis-confirms-the-long-distance-transport-of-juniperus-ashei-pollen
#20
Rashmi Prava Mohanty, Mark Alan Buchheim, James Anderson, Estelle Levetin
Although considered rare, airborne pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin under a confluence of favorable conditions. Temporally anomalous records of Cupressacean pollen collected from January air samples in London, Ontario, Canada have been cited as a new case of long-distance transport. Data on pollination season implicated Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar), with populations in central Texas and south central Oklahoma, as the nearest source of the Cupressacean pollen in the Canadian air samples...
2017: PloS One
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