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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817631/a-computational-model-for-biosonar-echoes-from-foliage
#1
Chen Ming, Anupam Kumar Gupta, Ruijin Lu, Hongxiao Zhu, Rolf Müller
Since many bat species thrive in densely vegetated habitats, echoes from foliage are likely to be of prime importance to the animals' sensory ecology, be it as clutter that masks prey echoes or as sources of information about the environment. To better understand the characteristics of foliage echoes, a new model for the process that generates these signals has been developed. This model takes leaf size and orientation into account by representing the leaves as circular disks of varying diameter. The two added leaf parameters are of potential importance to the sensory ecology of bats, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816587/dna-methylation-independent-growth-restriction-and-altered-developmental-programming-in-a-mouse-model-of-preconception-male-alcohol-exposure
#2
Richard C Chang, William M Skiles, S Chronister Sarah, Haiqing Wang, Gabrielle I Sutton, Yudhishtar S Bedi, Matthew Snyder, Charles R Long, Michael C Golding
The preconception environment is a significant modifier of dysgenesis and the development of environmentally-induced disease. To date, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) have been exclusively associated with maternal exposures, yet emerging evidence suggests male-inherited alterations in the developmental program of sperm may be relevant to the growth-restriction phenotypes of this condition. Using a mouse model of voluntary consumption, we find chronic preconception male ethanol exposure associates with fetal growth restriction, decreased placental efficiency, abnormalities in cholesterol trafficking, sex-specific alterations in the genetic pathways regulating hepatic fibrosis, and disruptions in the regulation of imprinted genes...
August 17, 2017: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815745/recent-developments-in-open-tubular-capillary-electrochromatography-from-2016-2017
#3
REVIEW
Faustino M Tarongoy, Paul R Haddad, Joselito P Quirino
Interest in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) continues to thrive because of the inherent advantage of OT-CEC combining the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis and the high selectivity of high performance liquid chromatography. For the period 2016 to 2017, novel materials have been developed as first-time stationary phases for OT-CEC and are grouped in this review as polymer-based materials, frameworks, nanoparticles, graphene-based materials, and biomaterials. Coating and fabrication methods mostly rely on covalent coating strategies while non-covalent immobilisation strategies like electrostatic assembly are notably still being employed...
August 16, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#4
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812643/a-submarine-volcanic-eruption-leads-to-a-novel-microbial-habitat
#5
Roberto Danovaro, Miquel Canals, Michael Tangherlini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Galderic Lastras, David Amblas, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Jaime Frigola, Antoni M Calafat, Rut Pedrosa-Pàmies, Jesus Rivera, Xavier Rayo, Cinzia Corinaldesi
Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812460/myopathic-mtdna-depletion-syndrome-due-to-mutation-in-tk2-gene
#6
Elena Martín-Hernández, María Teresa García-Silva, Pilar Quijada-Fraile, María Elena Rodríguez-García, Henry Rivera, Aurelio Hernández-Laín, David Coca-Robinot, Joaquín Fernández-Toral, Joaquín Arenas, Miguel A Martín, Francisco Martínez-Azorín
Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify the disease gene(s) in a Spanish girl with failure to thrive, muscle weakness, mild facial weakness, elevated creatine kinase, deficiency of mitochondrial complex III and depletion of mtDNA. With whole-exome sequencing data, it was possible to get the whole mtDNA sequencing and discard any pathogenic variant in this genome. The analysis of whole exome uncovered a homozygous pathogenic mutation in thymidine kinase 2 gene ( TK2; NM_004614.4:c.323 C>T, p.T108M)...
September 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811770/clinical-and-laboratory-profile-of-children-with-cystic-fibrosis-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-pakistan
#7
Danish Abdul Aziz, Abdul Gaffar Billoo, Ahad Qureshi, Misha Khalid, Salman Kirmani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical presentation, diagnostic investigations and laboratory workup done in admitted children with cystic fibrosis at Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This is athree years retrospective study from January 2013 to December 2015 conducted at The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi Pakistan, enrolling admitted patient from birth to 15 years of either gender, diagnosed with CF on the basis of clinical features and positive sweat chloride test...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811077/the-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-a-fuel-to-pancreatic-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Uzma Shahab, Mohd Kaleem Ahmad, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Mohd Waseem, Binish Arif, Moinuddin, Saheem Ahmad
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) was first illustrated in the year 1992. RAGE is a single-transmembrane and multi-ligand component of the immunoglobulin protein super family. The engagement of RAGE turns out to an establishment of numerous intracellular signalling mechanisms resulting in the progression and perpetuation of many types of cancer including, the pancreatic cancer. The present review primarily focuses on the multi-ligand activation of RAGEs leading to the downstream signalling cascade activation...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808129/gene-duplication-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-improves-growth-on-adenosine
#9
Jean-Paul Toussaint, Anna Farrell-Sherman, Tamar Perla Feldman, Nicole E Smalley, Amy L Schaefer, E Peter Greenberg, Ajai A Dandekar
The laboratory strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PAO1, activates genes for catabolism of adenosine using quorum sensing (QS). However, this strain is not well-adapted for growth on adenosine, with doubling times greater than 40 h. We previously showed that when PAO1 is grown on adenosine and casein, variants emerge that grow rapidly on adenosine. To understand the mechanism by which this adaptation occurs, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five isolates evolved for rapid growth on adenosine. All five genomes had a gene duplication-amplification (GDA) event covering several genes, including the quorum-regulated nucleoside hydrolase, nuh, and an adenine deaminase encoded by PA0148...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807277/recovery-of-bovine-babesia-spp-after-long-term-cryostorage-and-comparison-of-bovine-donor-erythrocytes-and-serum
#10
Amer Alhaboubi, Lan He, Kimberly McCormack, Amber Gustafson, Patricia J Holman
Cultured Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina were recovered from liquid nitrogen storage nearly 30 years after they were cryopreserved. Four cattle were compared as donors of erythrocytes and serum for microaerophilous stationary phase (MASP) cultures for recovery of B. bigemina. Erythrocytes and serum from only one (#913) of the four animals supported growth of B. bigemina. Two B. bigemina (frozen in 1986 and 1987) and two B. bovis (both frozen in 1986) cryostocks were recovered from liquid nitrogen storage and all four recovered and thrived in #913 erythrocytes and serum...
August 30, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805402/middle-ground-approach-to-paradox-within-and-between-culture-examination-of-the-creative-benefits-of-paradoxical-frames
#11
Angela K-Y Leung, Shyhnan Liou, Ella Miron-Spektor, Brandon Koh, David Chan, Roni Eisenberg, Iris Schneider
Thriving in increasingly complex and ambiguous environments requires creativity and the capability to reconcile conflicting demands. Recent evidence with Western samples has suggested that paradoxical frames, or mental templates that encourage individuals to recognize and embrace contradictions, could produce creative benefits. We extended the timely, but understudied, topic by studying the nuances of for whom and why creative advantages of paradoxical frames emerge. We suggest that people endorsing a middle ground approach are less likely to scrutinize conflict and reconcile with integrative solutions, thus receiving less creative benefits of paradoxical frames...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805294/microplastics-alter-composition-of-fungal-communities-in-aquatic-ecosystems
#12
Marie Therese Kettner, Keilor Rojas-Jimenez, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Matthias Labrenz, Hans-Peter Grossart
Despite increasing concerns about microplastic (MP) pollution in aquatic ecosystems, there is insufficient knowledge on how MP affect fungal communities. In this study, we explored the diversity and community composition of fungi attached to polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) particles incubated in different aquatic systems in north-east Germany: the Baltic Sea, the River Warnow and a wastewater treatment plant. Based on next generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing, 347 different operational taxonomic units assigned to 81 fungal taxa were identified on PE and PS...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804983/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-profiles-of-psychological-thriving-resilience-and-loss-in-people-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Fuschia M Sirois, Jameson K Hirsch
OBJECTIVES: Despite the toll of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on adjustment, many patients are resilient to the challenges associated with living with IBD, and successfully cope with their illness and thrive. Yet there is little research on why some individuals with IBD enter a trajectory of growth, while others may struggle to adapt. The aim of this study was to investigate the adjustment-related factors that distinguished thriving, resilience, and loss in people with IBD across personal growth, life satisfaction, and relationship quality domains...
August 14, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802275/response-of-methylocystis-sp-strain-sc2-to-salt-stress-physiology-global-transcriptome-and-amino-acid-profiles
#14
Dongfei Han, Hannes Link, Werner Liesack
Soil microorganisms have to rapidly respond to salt-induced osmotic stress. Type II methanotrophs of the genus Methylocystis are widely distributed in upland soils, but are known to have a low salt tolerance. Here, we tested the ability of Methylocystis sp. strain SC2 to adapt to increased salinity. When exposed to 0.75% NaCl, methane oxidation was completely inhibited for 2.25 h and fully recovered within 6 h. Growth was inhibited for 23.5 h and then fully recovered. Its transcriptome was profiled after 0 min (control), 45 min (early response) and 14 h (late response) of stress exposure...
August 11, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797972/recent-applications-of-plga-based-nanostructures-in-drug-delivery
#15
REVIEW
Maria Mir, Naveed Ahmed, Asim Ur Rehman
Over the years, issues associated with non-biodegradable polymers have paved the way for biodegradable polymers in the domain of pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is considered one of the most thrivingly synthesized biodegradable polymers. To formulate polymeric nanostructures, PLGA has attained noteworthy attention due to its controllable properties, complete biodegradability and biocompatibility, well defined formulation techniques and easy processing. This review focuses on fabrication techniques of PLGA based nanostructures and their advanced biomedical applications covering drug delivery and in-vivo imaging...
July 28, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797308/coeliac-disease-in-infants-antibodies-to-deamidated-gliadin-peptide-come-first
#16
Michele Arigliani, Francesca Rech Morassutti, Martina Fabris, Paola Melli, Elio Tonutti, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: The onset of coeliac disease (CD) in the first year of life is uncommon and the diagnosis can be challenging due to the suboptimal sensitivity of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTG) at this age and the many other possible causes of malabsorption in infants. Antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides (anti-DGPs), especially IgG, may appear earlier than IgA anti-tTG in very young children with CD. CASE PRESENTATION: We report here on an 8-month-old child who was evaluated for failure to thrive, constipation and developmental delay...
August 10, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794250/validating-and-comparing-stroke-prognosis-scales
#17
Terence J Quinn, Sarjit Singh, Kennedy R Lees, Philip M Bath, Phyo K Myint
OBJECTIVE: To compare the prognostic accuracy of various acute stroke prognostic scales using a large, independent, clinical trials dataset. METHODS: We directly compared 8 stroke prognostic scales, chosen based on focused literature review (Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne [ASTRAL]; iSCORE; iSCORE-revised; preadmission comorbidities, level of consciousness, age, and neurologic deficit [PLAN]; stroke subtype, Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project, age, and prestroke modified Rankin Scale [mRS] [SOAR]; modified SOAR; Stroke Prognosis Instrument 2 [SPI2]; and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events [THRIVE]) using individual patient-level data from a clinical trials archive (Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive [VISTA])...
August 9, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794200/the-problem-with-pseudoscience-pseudoscience-is-not-the-antithesis-of-professional-science-but-thrives-in-science-s-shadow
#18
Michael D Gordin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793878/genome-based-exploration-of-the-specialized-metabolic-capacities-of-the-genus-rhodococcus
#19
Ana Ceniceros, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Mirjan Petrusma, Marnix H Medema
BACKGROUND: Bacteria of the genus Rhodococcus are well known for their ability to degrade a large range of organic compounds. Some rhodococci are free-living, saprophytic bacteria; others are animal and plant pathogens. Recently, several studies have shown that their genomes encode putative pathways for the synthesis of a large number of specialized metabolites that are likely to be involved in microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions. To systematically explore the specialized metabolic potential of this genus, we here performed a comprehensive analysis of the biosynthetic coding capacity across publicly available rhododoccal genomes, and compared these with those of several Mycobacterium strains as well as that of their mutual close relative Amycolicicoccus subflavus...
August 9, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#20
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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