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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529679/new-era-of-electronic-brachytherapy
#1
EDITORIAL
Prabhakar Ramachandran
Traditional brachytherapy refers to the placement of radioactive sources on or inside the cancer tissues. Based on the type of sources, brachytherapy can be classified as radionuclide and electronic brachytherapy. Electronic brachytherapy uses miniaturized X-ray sources instead of radionuclides to deliver high doses of radiation. The advantages of electronic brachytherapy include low dose to organs at risk, reduced dose to treating staff, no leakage radiation in off state, less shielding, and no radioactive waste...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528915/sphingosine-metabolism-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#2
REVIEW
Mohammed Dany
Melanoma is by far the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis, response, and resistance to treatment has gained a lot of attention worldwide. Recently, the role of sphingolipid metabolism has been studied in cutaneous melanoma. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipid effector molecules involved in the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, cancer cell proliferation, death, senescence, and metastasis...
May 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528604/a-multicenter-clinical-study-of-expected-and-unexpected-side-reactions-during-and-after-skin-cancer-treatment-by-photodynamic-therapy
#3
Kate C Blanco, Natalia M Inada, Ana P Silva, Mirian D Stringasci, Hilde H Buzzá, Dora P Ramirez, Ana G Sálvio, Lilian T Moriyama, Cristina Kurachi, Vanderlei S Bagnato
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been widely used for oncologic indications, especially nonmelanoma skin cancer such as superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We present a multicenter clinical study conducted between 2012 and 2014 analyzing the adverse reactions during and after PDT with a standardized protocol in 866 lesions. A total of 728 patients with positive clinical and histopathological diagnosis for BCC with up to 2 cm diameter were treated. The procedure consisted of curettage and topical application of cream containing 20% methyl 5-aminolevulinate...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528167/cxcl1-inhibition-regulates-uvb-induced-skin-inflammation-and-tumorigenesis-in-xpa-deficient-mice
#4
Makoto Kunisada, Chieko Hosaka, Chihiro Takemori, Eiji Nakano, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) is a hereditary disease characterized by early onset of skin cancers and freckles-like pigmented maculae in the sun-exposed sites. Although etiology of predisposition to UV-induced skin tumors in XP-A is well investigated as a repair deficiency in UV-induced DNA damage, the mechanism of exaggerated sunburn in patients with XP-A and whether UV-induced inflammation relates to skin tumor-prone phenotype remains to be elucidated. Using gene profiling of XP-A model mice, Xpa-deficient mice, we found that expression of CXCL1 in the skin and blood levels of in Xpa-deficient mice increased significantly after UVB exposure at an even a limited area in comparison to those of wild-type mice...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526809/tumor-cell-specific-aim2-regulates-growth-and-invasion-of-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#5
Mehdi Farshchian, Liisa Nissinen, Elina Siljamäki, Pilvi Riihilä, Minna Piipponen, Atte Kivisaari, Markku Kallajoki, Reidar Grénman, Juha Peltonen, Sirkku Peltonen, Koen D Quint, Jan Nico Bouwes Bavinck, Veli-Matti Kähäri
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Inflammation is a typical feature in cSCC progression. Analysis of the expression of inflammasome components in cSCC cell lines and normal human epidermal keratinocytes revealed upregulation of the expression of AIM2 mRNA and protein in cSCC cells. Elevated levels of AIM2 mRNA were noted in cSCCs in vivo compared with normal skin. Strong and moderate tumor cell specific expression of AIM2 was detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in sporadic human cSCCs in vivo, whereas expression of AIM2 was moderate in cSCC in situ (cSCCIS) and low or absent in actinic keratosis (AK) and normal skin...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#6
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525579/modulation-of-cyclobutane-thymine-photodimer-formation-in-t11-tracts-in-rotationally-phased-nucleosome-core-particles-and-dna-minicircles
#7
Kesai Wang, John-Stephen A Taylor
Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are DNA photoproducts linked to skin cancer, whose mutagenicity depends in part on their frequency of formation and deamination. Nucleosomes modulate CPD formation, favoring outside facing sites and disfavoring inward facing sites. A similar pattern of CPD formation in protein-free DNA loops suggests that DNA bending causes the modulation in nucleosomes. To systematically study the cause and effect of nucleosome structure on CPD formation and deamination, we have developed a circular permutation synthesis strategy for positioning a target sequence at different superhelix locations (SHLs) across a nucleosome in which the DNA has been rotationally phased with respect to the histone octamer by TG motifs...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525403/genetic-diseases-associated-with-an-increased-risk-of-skin-cancer-development-in-childhood
#8
Alexander L Fogel, Kavita Y Sarin, Joyce M C Teng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Childhood skin cancers are relatively rare and may indicate an underlying genetic disorder. The increasing elucidation of genetic pathways is changing the diagnosis and management of genetic skin cancer susceptibility syndromes. In this review, we provide an overview of genetic conditions that predispose to skin cancer development in childhood and signs that providers should assess when evaluating affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: In basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), the patched2 (PTCH2) and suppressor of fused (SUFU) genes have been implicated in disease pathogenesis...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525331/an-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-lymphocytic-infiltrations-in-canine-skin-cancers
#9
J A Madej, J P Madej, S Dzimira, M Nowak
Lymphocytic infiltrations located in the extracellular matrix often accompany canine skin cancer. They can be characterised as an inflammatory infiltration and/or a second tumour - lymphoma. The aim of this study was an immunohistochemical analysis of a lymphocytic infiltration which accompanies spontaneous skin cancer. Twenty basal cell carcinoma, 20 non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, 20 keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 8 sebaceous gland carcinoma samples which were accompanied by a lymphocytic infiltration and/or secondary lymphatic follicles were verified histopathologically...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524055/risk-factors-associated-with-relapse-of-eyelid-basal-cell-carcinoma-results-from-a-retrospective-study-of-142-patients
#10
Giusy Fatigato, Silvano Capitani, Daniela Milani, Silvia Grassilli, Ayman Am Alameen, Marco Candiani, Carlo Riberti, Marco Galasso, Maurizio Previati
Of skin cancers, 9% arise at the periocular level, constituting a significant threat due to the proximity to intracranial structures, such as the eyes, nerve endings and proximal tissues. Tumour recurrence can be frequent and represents a primary clinical challenge for the surgeon. To present a retrospective study on the treatment of eyelid tumours at a tertiary care centre in Italy over an eight-year period and, in particular, to underline the risk factors associated with tumour relapse. Among a cohort of 205 patients, a retrospective study was conducted on 142 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) patients with eyelid tumours treated with surgical excision...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524053/reduced-frequency-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-in-72-739-patients-with-psoriasis-a-retrospective-study
#11
Andrea Paradisi, Biagio Didona, Stefano Tabolli, Francesco Ricci, Luciano Sobrino, Annarita Panebianco, Damiano Abeni
Chronic inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, may pose an increased risk of cancer due to impaired immunosurveillance resulting from chronic inflammation and immunosuppressive medications. To compare the risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in a retrospective cohort of 72,739 psoriasis patients and 25,956 non-dermatological patients. A record linkage was performed for data on hospitalizations, and the occurrence of NMSC was compared by computing the relative risk (RR) and modelled using multiple logistic regression...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523887/parent-and-child-characteristics-associated-with-child-sunburn-and-sun-protection-among-u-s-hispanics
#12
Ashley K Day, Jerod L Stapleton, Ana M Natale-Pereira, James S Goydos, Elliot J Coups
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Skin cancer incidence has been increasing in U.S. Hispanics over several decades and the postdiagnosis outcomes are worse for Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites. Parents are influential in children's health preventive behaviors, but little is known about parental factors associated with children's skin cancer-related behaviors in the U.S. Hispanic population. The present study examined parental and child correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors (sunburns, sunbathing, sun-protective clothing use, and sunscreen use) of children of Hispanic parents...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522111/incidence-and-trends-of-basal-cell-carcinoma-and-cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-population-based-study-in-olmsted-county-minnesota-2000-to-2010
#13
John G Muzic, Adam R Schmitt, Adam C Wright, Dema T Alniemi, Adeel S Zubair, Jeannette M Olazagasti Lourido, Ivette M Sosa Seda, Amy L Weaver, Christian L Baum
OBJECTIVE: To determine population-based incidence estimates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of a population-based cohort diagnosed with nonmelanoma skin cancer between January 2, 2000, and December 31, 2010. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates were calculated and compared with estimates from previous periods. RESULTS: The age-adjusted BCC incidence (cases per 100,000 person-years) was 360...
May 10, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521479/association-between-non-melanoma-and-melanoma-skin-cancer-rates-vitamin-d-and-latitude
#14
Miguel Rivas, Elisa Rojas, Gloria M Calaf, Marcela Barberán, Claudio Liberman, Marcelo De Paula Correa
Vitamin D synthesis takes place in the skin due to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation. Several studies have shown the association between low sun exposure, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and a lack of vitamin D synthesis. Since such synthesis in the body depends on the exposure of the skin to solar UVB radiation (290-320 nm), experimental measurements of this type of solar radiation are important. Tarapaca University in Arica, Chile, established a solar UV radiation laboratory in 2006 and since then this laboratory has performed systematic experimental solar UVB measurements using a calibrated biometer instrument...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516492/telemedicine-in-dermatology-findings-and-experiences-worldwide-a-systematic-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
L Eissing, A Trettel, M Augustin
Telemedicine has become an important element of health care in many countries and profited from the technological progress of the last two decades. Due to the visual character of the dermatological specialty, teledermatology in particular participated in that development and is becoming a major tool in dermatological consultation. The objective of this article was to identify the use of teledermatology across the world based on published original articles. A systematic literature search of the Medline and Embase databases for eligible publications (predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria) and a cross-validation search were conducted...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516256/-skin-diseases-associated-with-environmental-factors
#16
REVIEW
Vera Mahler
BACKGROUND: Multiple environmental exposures may derange the regulatory and repair mechanisms of the skin and lead to dermatological disease. OBJECTIVES: Provide an overview of non-allergic skin diseases associated with environmental factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of current scientific evidence for associations of non-allergic skin diseases with environmental exposures: irritation, chemicals, infection, UV-radiation, temperature. RESULTS: Predisposition (constitution e...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516187/-the-aged-scalp-a-dermato-oncological-focus-point
#17
REVIEW
N Wroblewski, K Wylon, C Ulrich
Non-melanoma skin cancer and its precursor lesions are common diagnoses in dermatological practice, due to rising incidence and prevalence. Diagnosis is often clinical with subsequent histological confirmation. First-choice treatment for invasive carcinomas is complete surgical excision. Other therapeutic options, such as radiation or systemic therapies, should only be considered when excision is impossible. Mostly located on parts of the scalp that are poorly visible and accessible, particularly for elderly patients, these lesions are a challenge for physicians and patients alike...
May 17, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515993/triage-amalgamated-dermoscopic-algorithm-tada-for-skin-cancer-screening
#18
Tova Rogers, Maria Marino, Stephen W Dusza, Shirin Bajaj, Michael A Marchetti, Ashfaq Marghoob
IMPORTANCE: Dermoscopic triage algorithms have been shown to improve beginners' abilities for identifying pigmented skin lesions requiring biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the Triage Amalgamated Dermoscopic Algorithm (TADA) for pigmented and nonpigmented skin cancers. Secondarily, to compare TADAs performance to those of existing triage algorithms for the identification of pigmented skin cancers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational, reader study that took place at a beginner and intermediate level dermoscopy course...
April 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515986/use-of-and-intentions-to-use-dermoscopy-among-physicians-in-the-united-states
#19
Jeffrey B Morris, Sara V Alfonso, Nilda Hernandez, M Isabel Fernández
BACKGROUND: Dermatologists routinely use dermoscopy to improve diagnostic accuracy of skin cancers. Much less is known about its use among other physicians who routinely examine the skin, such as family physicians, internists and plastic surgeons. OBJECTIVES: To document the use of dermoscopy in a sample of US physicians and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with ever having used a dermascope and having some intentions to incorporate dermoscopy into clinical practice during the next 12 months...
April 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515985/epidemiological-trends-in-skin-cancer
#20
Zoe Apalla, Aimilios Lallas, Elena Sotiriou, Elizabeth Lazaridou, Demetrios Ioannides
Skin cancer, including melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), represents the most common type of malignancy in the white population. The incidence rate of melanoma is increasing worldwide, while the associated mortality remains stable, or is slightly decreasing. On the other hand, the incidence for NMSC varies widely, with the highest rates reported in Australia. In the current review, we highlight recent global trends in epidemiology of skin cancer. We discuss controversial issues raised in current epidemiological data, we analyze the most important risk factors associated with the development of melanoma and NMSC and the impact of skin cancer on health care services...
April 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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